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Advising California Common Interest Communities

The lead architects of the Davis-Stirling Act and its 2014 overhaul, Curtis C. Sproul and Katharine N. Rosenberry, and association advocate Mary M. Howell, help you advise homeowners and associations, handle any dispute, and understand all of the relevant laws.

The lead architects of the Davis-Stirling Act and its 2014 overhaul, Curtis C. Sproul and Katharine N. Rosenberry, and association advocate Mary M. Howell, help you advise homeowners and associations, handle any dispute, and understand all of the relevant laws.

  • Covers the 2014 Davis-Stirling Common Interest Development Act in detail, with current citations and substantive analysis
  • Includes updated Bylaws, CCRs, Assessment Policy, Pre-lien Notices, and other essential forms
  • Dozens of practice tips and expert advice for handling all matters relating to HOA governance and liability
  • Board and member meetings, conflicts of interest, voting, inspection rights, disclosures, discipline, ethical issues
  • Developer transition, construction defects, dispute resolution, and litigation involving HOA
  • Enforcing assessment obligations, covenants, and HOA rules
OnLAW RE94530

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Print RE30530

2d edition, 2 looseleaf volumes, updated February 2021

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Add Forms CD to Print RE20536
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The lead architects of the Davis-Stirling Act and its 2014 overhaul, Curtis C. Sproul and Katharine N. Rosenberry, and association advocate Mary M. Howell, help you advise homeowners and associations, handle any dispute, and understand all of the relevant laws.

  • Covers the 2014 Davis-Stirling Common Interest Development Act in detail, with current citations and substantive analysis
  • Includes updated Bylaws, CCRs, Assessment Policy, Pre-lien Notices, and other essential forms
  • Dozens of practice tips and expert advice for handling all matters relating to HOA governance and liability
  • Board and member meetings, conflicts of interest, voting, inspection rights, disclosures, discipline, ethical issues
  • Developer transition, construction defects, dispute resolution, and litigation involving HOA
  • Enforcing assessment obligations, covenants, and HOA rules

1

Statutory and Regulatory Framework

  • I.  INTRODUCTION TO COMMON INTEREST DEVELOPMENTS
    • A.  Scope of Book and Chapter  1.1
    • B.  Management by Association  1.2
  • II.  CALIFORNIA STATUTORY PROVISIONS CONCERNING COMMON INTEREST DEVELOPMENTS
    • A.  Historical Development  1.3
    • B.  Davis-Stirling Common Interest Development Act
      • 1.  Purposes and Scope of Act  1.4
      • 2.  Limitations on Application of Act  1.5
      • 3.  Act No Longer Applies to Commercial and Industrial Developments  1.5A
    • C.  Nonprofit Corporation Law  1.6
    • D.  Other Statutory Limitations  1.7
  • III.  DEFINITIONS OF COMMONLY USED TERMS
    • A.  Types of Common Interest Developments (CIDs)  1.8
      • 1.  Condominiums
        • a.  Condominium Project  1.9
        • b.  Condominium Plan  1.10
      • 2.  Planned Development  1.11
      • 3.  Stock Cooperative  1.12
      • 4.  Community Apartment Project  1.13
    • B.  Property Interests in CIDs
      • 1.  Separate Interest  1.14
      • 2.  Common Area  1.15
      • 3.  Exclusive Use Common Area  1.16
    • C.  Governing Documents of CIDs  1.17
      • 1.  Declaration; Unlawful Restrictions  1.18
      • 2.  Bylaws  1.19
      • 3.  Articles of Incorporation  1.20
      • 4.  Association Rules  1.21
  • IV.  REGULATION BY GOVERNMENTAL AGENCIES
    • A.  Department of Real Estate (DRE)  1.22
    • B.  Local Government  1.23
    • C.  Government Lenders; Secondary Mortgage Market  1.24
    • D.  HUD Fair Housing Requirements  1.25
    • E.  Table: Statutory Requirements Imposed on CIDs and Their Managers  1.26

2

Community Association Governance (Directors and Members)

  • I.  ASSOCIATION ORGANIZATION; POTENTIAL CONFLICTS; ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
    • A.  Organization of Association  2.1
      • 1.  Statement Required to be Filed With the Secretary of State  2.2
      • 2.  Statement Filed by All Associations [Deleted]  2.3
    • B.  Potential Conflict Between Developer and Residents  2.4
    • C.  Ethical Considerations in Representing Owners Associations
      • 1.  Attorney-Client Relationship
        • a.  Identifying the Client (Cal Rules of Prof Cond 1.13)  2.5
        • b.  Creation of Attorney-Client Relationship  2.6
      • 2.  Conflicts of Interest Relating to Association Attorneys  2.7
      • 3.  Elements of Informed Consent and Waiver of Conflicts  2.8
      • 4.  Typical Conflict Situations
        • a.  Representing the Developer and the Association  2.9
        • b.  Representing HOA and Management Company  2.10
        • c.  Representing Master and Sub-associations  2.11
        • d.  Other Conflict Scenarios  2.12
      • 5.  Waivable and Nonwaivable Conflicts  2.13
      • 6.  In Propria Persona Parties  2.14
  • II.  BOARD OF DIRECTORS
    • A.  Transition From Developer Control  2.15
    • B.  Size and Composition of Board  2.16
    • C.  Directors’ Eligibility Requirements
      • 1.  General Considerations  2.16A
      • 2.  Statutory Requirements  2.17
      • 3.  Directors’ Code of Conduct  2.17A
      • 4.  Davis-Stirling Prohibitions on Conflicts of Interest  2.17B
    • D.  Directors’ Terms of Service
      • 1.  Term Limits  2.18
      • 2.  Concurrent or Staggered Terms  2.19
    • E.  Election of Directors
      • 1.  Department of Real Estate (DRE) Regulations  2.20
      • 2.  Statutory Nomination and Election Procedures
        • a.  Equal Access Rules and Other Requirements for Elections  2.21
          • (1)  Voter List and Candidate Registration List  2.21A
          • (2)  Timelines to Comply With Davis-Stirling Act Election Rules  2.21B
          • (3)  Elections by Acclamation  2.21C
        • b.  Form: Resolution Adopting Election Procedures  2.22
        • c.  Aligning Governing Documents With New Election Procedures  2.23
        • d.  Elections and Other Votes; Exemptions  2.24
        • e.  Minimum Quorum Requirements and Cumulative Voting  2.25
        • f.  Inspector(s) of Election
          • (1)  Qualifications  2.26
          • (2)  Duties and Powers; Counting of Votes; Distribution of Results Report  2.27
        • g.  Double-Envelope Secret Ballot  2.28
          • (1)  Form: Secret Ballot  2.29
          • (2)  Form: Outer Envelope for Use With Secret Ballot Election  2.30
        • h.  Proxy Rules  2.31
        • i.  Retention of Ballots During and After Election  2.32
      • 3.  Violations of Davis-Stirling Act; Remedies; Attorney Fees; Statutes of Limitations  2.33
    • F.  Removal of Directors
      • 1.  Vote for Removal  2.34
      • 2.  Rules When Cumulative Voting Is in Effect  2.35
      • 3.  Recall Elections  2.36
      • 4.  Status of Recalled Directors  2.37
    • G.  Meetings of Board of Directors
      • 1.  DRE Regulations Governing Meetings  2.38
      • 2.  Statutory Provisions  2.39
      • 3.  Common Interest Development Open Meeting Act  2.40
        • a.  Members’ Right to Speak at Open Board Meetings  2.41
        • b.  Notice Requirements  2.42
        • c.  Prohibition on Taking Action Outside a Board Meeting  2.43
        • d.  Actions Generally Limited to Agendized Items  2.44
        • e.  Minutes of Board Meetings  2.45
        • f.  Emergency Meetings  2.46
        • g.  Executive Session Meetings
          • (1)  When Authorized  2.47
          • (2)  Privileged Attorney-Client Communications  2.48
        • h.  Consequences of Violating Open Meeting Act  2.49
  • III.  COMMUNITY ASSOCIATION MEMBERSHIP
    • A.  Relationship of Membership to Ownership  2.50
      • 1.  Co-Owners: Defining Membership and Voting Rights  2.51
        • a.  Corporations Code Default Voting Rule  2.52
        • b.  Voting by Joint Action of Co-Owners  2.53
        • c.  Single Voting Membership  2.54
      • 2.  Status of Nonowner Spouses  2.55
    • B.  Membership Meetings
      • 1.  Regular Meetings  2.56
        • a.  Elimination of Regular Meetings  2.57
        • b.  Failure to Hold a Required Regular Meeting  2.58
        • c.  Joint Neighborhood Associations  2.59
        • d.  Procedure for Regular Meetings  2.60
      • 2.  Special Meetings  2.61
      • 3.  Quorum Requirements  2.62
        • a.  Lack of Quorum; Descending Quorum  2.63
        • b.  Impact of Written Ballots  2.64
      • 4.  Adjournment  2.65
      • 5.  Notice Requirements  2.66
        • a.  Special Notice Requirements for Certain Significant Actions  2.67
        • b.  Effect of Defective Call or Notice  2.68
      • 6.  Persons Entitled to Attend Membership Meetings  2.69
    • C.  Membership Voting Rights
      • 1.  DRE Regulations  2.70
        • a.  During and After Developer Control  2.71
        • b.  Actions Requiring Member Approval  2.72
      • 2.  Statutory Requirements  2.73
        • a.  Approval by Majority of All Members  2.74
        • b.  Approval by Members at Meeting  2.75
        • c.  Approval by Authorized Number of Members  2.76
        • d.  Approval by Majority of Quorum of Members  2.77
        • e.  Approval by the Voting Power  2.78
      • 3.  Modification of Statutory Voting Rules  2.79
      • 4.  Voter Eligibility Requirements  2.80
      • 5.  Cumulative Voting  2.81
        • a.  Amending Bylaws to Eliminate Cumulative Voting  2.82
        • b.  Veiled Cumulative Voting; Class Voting  2.83
      • 6.  Voting by Proxy  2.84
        • a.  Full Proxy Voting: Arguments Pro and Con  2.85
        • b.  Rules Governing Proxies  2.86
          • (1)  Term of Effectiveness  2.87
          • (2)  Votable Matters for Revocable Proxies  2.88
          • (3)  Identifying the Proxy Holder  2.89
          • (4)  Dating Proxy  2.90
        • c.  Elimination of Proxy Rights  2.91
        • d.  Limited Proxies  2.92
      • 7.  Voting by Written Ballot
        • a.  Governing Rules  2.93
          • (1)  Right to Vote by Written Ballot; Election of Directors; Cumulative Voting  2.94
          • (2)  Withheld Ballots  2.95
          • (3)  Distribution of Ballots  2.96
          • (4)  Content of Ballots  2.97
          • (5)  Vote to Be Cast as Directed on Ballot (for 100+ Member Associations)  2.98
          • (6)  Solicitation Materials to Accompany Ballot  2.99
          • (7)  Delivery of Ballot Solicitation  2.100
          • (8)  Vote on Ballot Binding  2.101
          • (9)  Required Number of Votes; Descending Quorum  2.102
          • (10)  Appointment of Inspectors of Election  2.103
          • (11)  Member’s Right to Petition Court for Written Ballot  2.104
        • b.  Unresolved Issues
          • (1)  Confidentiality  2.105
          • (2)  Solicitations and Voting at Membership Meetings  2.106
          • (3)  Members’ Rights to Demand Written Ballot Solicitations  2.107
      • 8.  Remedy for Insufficient Numbers of Votes  2.108
  • IV.  INSPECTION RIGHTS
    • A.  Members’ Right of Inspection
      • 1.  Balancing Corporations Code and Civil Code Provisions  2.109
      • 2.  Membership Lists: Opting Out; Alternative Means  2.110
      • 3.  Association’s Required Records; Cost of Producing  2.111
      • 4.  Time Periods for Maintaining Records and Responding to Inspection Demands  2.112
      • 5.  Location of Inspection; Copying and Mailing Costs  2.113
      • 6.  Excluding or Redacting Information; Disclosure of Employee Compensation  2.114
      • 7.  Limitations on Inspection Rights Under Corporations Code; Attorney-Client Privilege  2.115
      • 8.  Reasonable Purpose; Improper Uses; Attorney Fees  2.116
    • B.  Directors’ Rights of Inspection
      • 1.  Scope of Rights  2.117
      • 2.  Alternative Methods of Responding to Request for Membership List  2.118
    • C.  Lender’s Rights of Inspection  2.119
    • D.  Statutory Protections Against Abuse of Inspection Rights  2.120
      • 1.  Improper Access by “Authorized Number” of Members  2.121
      • 2.  Limited Access to Membership List to Protect Constitutional Rights  2.122
      • 3.  Enforcement of Demand by Authorized Number of Members  2.123
      • 4.  Remedies Available to All Members  2.124
      • 5.  Return of Profits From Improper Use of Membership Lists  2.125
      • 6.  Association’s Right to Seek Injunctive Relief and Damages  2.126
      • 7.  Criminal and Civil Sanctions for Improper Recordkeeping  2.127
      • 8.  Attorney Fees  2.128
  • V.  DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  Association’s Obligations in Connection With Transfers of Separate Interests
      • 1.  Seller’s Disclosure Obligations to Prospective Purchasers  2.129
      • 2.  Form: Charges for Documents Provided as Required by CC §4525 (Form Prescribed in CC §4528)  2.130
      • 3.  Association’s Obligations to Assist Seller; Fees  2.131
        • a.  Limitations on Transfer Fees Paid to Community Service Organizations (CSOs)  2.132
        • b.  Transfer Fee Disclosure Obligations  2.133
      • 4.  Violations of Disclosure Obligations  2.134
    • B.  Required Disclosures to Association Members
      • 1.  Annual Budget Report (CC §5300)  2.135
      • 2.  Annual Policy Statement (CC §5310)  2.136
      • 3.  Annual Disclosure of Dispute Resolution Procedures  2.137
      • 4.  Annual Disclosure of Association Architectural Approval Authority  2.138
      • 5.  Disclosures Concerning Insurance
        • a.  Summary of Insurance Coverage  2.139
        • b.  Form: Summary of Insurance Coverage  2.140
        • c.  Notices of Lapsed, Canceled, or Nonrenewed Policies or Changes to Policies  2.141
        • d.  Applicability of Insurance Disclosure Requirements to All Community Associations  2.142
      • 6.  Disclosures Regarding Potential Construction Defect Litigation  2.143
      • 7.  Voting Reports  2.144
      • 8.  Disclosures Regarding Community Service Organizations (CSOs)  2.145
      • 9.  Required Disclosures Regarding Pesticide Applications  2.145A
    • C.  Disclosure of Airport in Vicinity of Development  2.146
  • VI.  DISTRIBUTION OF INSURANCE PROCEEDS  2.147
  • VII.  COMMUNITY ASSOCIATION COMMITTEES
    • A.  Department of Real Estate (DRE) Regulations  2.148
    • B.  Statutory Rules  2.149
  • VIII.  OPERATING RULES
    • A.  Procedural Requirements for Adoption and Amendment  2.150
    • B.  Case Law on Association Rulemaking  2.151
  • IX.  PROVIDING DOCUMENTS AND NOTICES TO MEMBERS
    • A.  Permissible Means of Delivery  2.152
    • B.  Form: Consent to Receipt of Association Notices and Documents Electronically  2.153
    • C.  Members Must Annually Provide Contact Information to Association  2.154

3

Taxation of Community Associations

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER; OVERVIEW OF FEDERAL AND STATE TAX TREATMENT  3.1
  • II.  TAX TREATMENT OF ASSOCIATIONS UNDER IRC §528  3.2
    • A.  Which Associations Qualify for §528 Treatment?  3.3
      • 1.  “Primarily a Residential Development” Test  3.4
      • 2.  Organization and Operations Test  3.5
      • 3.  Gross Income Test
        • a.  Exempt Function Income  3.6
          • (1)  Developer’s Settlement Payments  3.7
          • (2)  Qualified Amenity User Fees  3.8
        • b.  Income Not Qualified as Exempt Function Income  3.9
        • c.  Revenues Excluded From Gross Income  3.10
      • 4.  90 Percent Expenditure Test  3.11
      • 5.  “Absence of Private Inurement” Test  3.12
    • B.  Definition of Association Property  3.13
      • 1.  Property Privately Owned by Association Members  3.14
      • 2.  Government Owned Property Used for Residents’ Benefit  3.15
    • C.  Election to Be Treated as §528 Homeowners Association  3.16
    • D.  Computing Association’s Tax Under IRC §528  3.17
  • III.  CONSIDERATIONS IN CHOOSING IRC §528 ELECTION  3.18
  • IV.  TAXATION OF ASSOCIATIONS THAT DO NOT ELECT IRC §528 TREATMENT  3.19
    • A.  Unincorporated Associations  3.20
    • B.  Taxation as Social Welfare Organization  3.21
    • C.  Taxation as Social Club  3.22
    • D.  Taxation as Housing Cooperative
      • 1.  In General  3.23
      • 2.  Qualified Patronage Dividends  3.24
        • a.  Tests for Patronage Dividends  3.25
        • b.  Criteria for Qualified Written Notice of Allocation  3.26
    • E.  Taxation as Mutual Water Company  3.26A
    • F.  Permitted Exclusions From Gross Income
      • 1.  Contributions to Capital  3.27
      • 2.  Certain Excess Assessments; Rev Rul 70–604  3.28
      • 3.  Form: Resolution Approving Rollover of Excess Income to Next Year Under Rev Rul 70–604  3.28A
    • G.  Allowable Deductions From Gross Income (IRC §277)  3.29
    • H.  Rate of Taxation for Nonexempt Associations  3.30
  • V.  CALIFORNIA STATE TAX TREATMENT OF COMMUNITY ASSOCIATIONS
    • A.  Recognized Requirements for Exemption as Community Association
      • 1.  Categories of Associations  3.31
      • 2.  Criteria Required  3.32
    • B.  Compare Federal and State Law  3.33
    • C.  Application to Franchise Tax Board for Exemption  3.34
  • VI.  REAL PROPERTY TAX EXEMPTIONS FOR LEASEHOLD CONDOMINIUMS  3.35
  • VII.  OTHER TAX CONSIDERATIONS  3.36
    • A.  Other Potential Taxes  3.37
    • B.  Administrative Tax Issues  3.38
    • C.  Tax Credits  3.39

4

Liability of Association and Directors

  • I.  CHARACTERIZATION OF ASSOCIATION  4.1
    • A.  As Corporation  4.2
    • B.  As Business  4.3
    • C.  As Landlord  4.4
    • D.  As Quasi-Governmental Entity  4.5
      • 1.  Grounds for Challenging Characterization as Quasi-Governmental Entity  4.6
      • 2.  Constitutional Issues; State Action  4.7
    • E.  As Employer  4.8
  • II.  LIABILITY BASED ON CORPORATE PRINCIPLES  4.9
    • A.  Association’s Scope of Authority  4.10
      • 1.  Statutory Limitations on Association’s Authority  4.11
      • 2.  Limitations on Association’s Authority in Governing Documents  4.12
    • B.  Directors’ Duty of Ordinary Care
      • 1.  Statutory Basis  4.13
      • 2.  Business Judgment Rule
        • a.  Directors’ Liability for Actions Taken on Behalf of Corporation  4.14
        • b.  Doctrine of Judicial Deference  4.15
      • 3.  Directors’ Duty of Loyalty; Avoiding Conflicts of Interest  4.16
    • C.  Directors’ Additional Duties  4.17
      • 1.  Know and Obey Laws and Governing Documents Affecting Authority  4.18
      • 2.  Consult and Rely on Experts  4.19
      • 3.  Maintain Adequate Insurance  4.20
      • 4.  Urge Inattentive or Unethical Director to Resign  4.21
      • 5.  Seek Termination of Employee or Vendor Engaging in Inappropriate Conduct  4.22
  • III.  TORT STANDARD OF LIABILITY  4.23
    • A.  Negligence; Avoiding Liability  4.24
      • 1.  Maintenance Obligations
        • a.  Maintain Common Areas  4.25
        • b.  Seek Expert Advice  4.26
      • 2.  Security Obligations
        • a.  Routinely Review Existing Security System  4.27
        • b.  Carefully Consider Discontinuing Security Services  4.28
        • c.  Consider Caveats in Undertaking Security Assessment  4.29
        • d.  Issue Warnings to Members  4.30
        • e.  Investigate Security Employees  4.31
        • f.  Establish Security Service Weapons Policy  4.32
    • B.  Intentional Torts
      • 1.  Legal Standard  4.33
      • 2.  Defamation; Avoiding Liability  4.34
      • 3.  Conversion; Avoiding Liability  4.35
  • IV.  LIABILITY BASED ON QUASI-GOVERNMENTAL STANDARDS
    • A.  Architectural Issues  4.36
    • B.  Constitutional Issues; Free Speech  4.37
    • C.  Potential Defenses Based on Government Model  4.38
      • 1.  Presumption of Legislative Regularity  4.39
      • 2.  Consent  4.40
      • 3.  Estoppel  4.41
      • 4.  Governmental Immunity  4.42
    • D.  Due Process: Preventing Liability Under Governmental Standard
      • 1.  Notice and Hearing  4.43
      • 2.  Suspension of Voting and Common Area Rights  4.44

5

Assessment Obligations and Association Finances

  • I.  ASSOCIATIONS’ ASSESSMENT AUTHORITY
    • A.  Historical Development of Assessment Authority and Regulation  5.1
    • B.  Statutory Authority and Restrictions
      • 1.  Provisions of CC §5600  5.2
        • a.  Statutory Obligation to Levy Assessments  5.3
        • b.  Limits on Board’s Authority to Levy Regular Assessments  5.4
        • c.  Limits on Special Assessments  5.5
        • d.  Membership Approval of Increased Assessments  5.6
        • e.  Board Authority to Impose Assessments to Respond to an Emergency  5.7
        • f.  Delinquent Assessments  5.8
        • g.  Limited Exemption From Execution by Judgment Creditor  5.9
        • h.  Notice of Increased Assessments  5.10
      • 2.  Treatment of Penalties
        • a.  Limitations During Period of Developer Control  5.11
        • b.  Limitations Following Period of Developer Control  5.12
      • 3.  Permissible Uses of Assessments; Use for Political Measures  5.13
      • 4.  Impairment-of-Contract Issue  5.14
    • C.  Department of Real Estate Regulations Relating to Assessment Authority  5.15
    • D.  User Fees
      • 1.  Source of Income  5.16
      • 2.  Distinction Between User Fees and Special Assessments  5.17
  • II.  COLLECTING ASSESSMENTS  5.18
    • A.  State Fair Debt Collection Practices Act  5.19
    • B.  Federal Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (FDCPA)  5.20
      • 1.  Principal Requirements of FDCPA  5.21
      • 2.  Cases Applying FDCPA to Homeowners Associations  5.22
      • 3.  Cases Holding That FDCPA Does Not Apply to Homeowners Associations  5.23
      • 4.  Form: FDCPA Notice  5.24
    • C.  Promoting Voluntary Compliance With Assessments
      • 1.  Billing Procedures
        • a.  Sending Statements to Owners  5.25
        • b.  Recording Statements to Owners  5.26
      • 2.  Written Delinquency Policy
        • a.  Statutory Requirements  5.27
        • b.  Contents  5.28
          • (1)  Application of Payments Received on Account of Assessment Obligations  5.29
          • (2)  Publication of List of Liened Properties  5.30
        • c.  Form: Association Assessment Collection Policy  5.31
        • d.  Form: Notice—Assessments and Foreclosure (CC §5730)  5.32
      • 3.  Diligent Pursuit of Delinquency Policy Required  5.33
    • D.  Table: Chronology of Sample Assessment Collection Procedure  5.34
    • E.  Enforcing Assessments
      • 1.  Collection Costs, Late Charges, and Interest  5.35
      • 2.  Assessment Liens
        • a.  Authority to Impose Assessment Liens  5.36
        • b.  Pre-Lien Notice (CC §5660)  5.37
        • c.  Form: Pre-Lien Notice Letter  5.38
        • d.  Owner’s Options After Receiving Pre-Lien Notice  5.39
        • e.  Right of Association to Record Notice of Delinquent Assessment  5.40
        • f.  Form: Notice of Delinquent Assessment  5.41
        • g.  Form: Release of Assessment Lien  5.42
        • h.  No Enforcement Action Allowed for 30 Days After Recordation of Notice of Delinquent Assessment  5.43
        • i.  Right to Pay Disputed Amounts Under Protest  5.44
        • j.  Priority of Assessment Liens  5.45
        • k.  Consequences of Failing to Follow Statutorily Mandated Notice and Other Pre-Foreclosure Procedures  5.46
      • 3.  Association’s Collection Remedies  5.47
        • a.  Collecting Assessments in Small Claims or Other Civil Collection Actions
          • (1)  Authority to Pursue Small Claims Actions  5.48
          • (2)  Small Claims Court Procedures and Limitations  5.49
          • (3)  One-Action Rule Does Not Bar Recovery  5.50
          • (4)  Enforcement of Civil Judgment  5.51
        • b.  Judicial Foreclosure  5.52
        • c.  Nonjudicial Foreclosure
          • (1)  Statutory Basis  5.53
          • (2)  Advantages and Disadvantages
            • (a)  Likely to Induce Voluntary Payment  5.54
            • (b)  Marketability Problems  5.55
            • (c)  Association as Purchaser at Sale  5.56
            • (d)  Owner’s Right of Redemption  5.57
          • (3)  Procedure
            • (a)  Notice of Default  5.58
            • (b)  Notice of Sale  5.59
            • (c)  Trustee Sale  5.60
      • 4.  Effect of Bankruptcy on Assessment Collection Efforts
        • a.  Association Has Not Recorded Lien for Delinquent Assessments  5.61
        • b.  Association Has Recorded Lien for Delinquent Assessments  5.62
        • c.  Special Rule for Certain Assessments Incurred After Bankruptcy Filing  5.63
  • III.  REQUIRED FINANCIAL DISCLOSURES  5.64
    • A.  Annual Budget Report (Financial Statement)
      • 1.  Section 5300 Requirements  5.65
      • 2.  AICPA Budget Recommendations  5.66
      • 3.  Meaning of “Pro Forma”  5.67
    • B.  Review of Financial Statement  5.68
    • C.  Annual Statement of Association Collection Policy  5.69
    • D.  Monthly Financial Reviews  5.70
    • E.  Replacement Reserve Accounts  5.71
      • 1.  Directors’ Fiduciary Duty  5.72
      • 2.  Methods of Funding Reserves
        • a.  Regular Funding  5.73
        • b.  Special Assessments  5.74
        • c.  Borrowing Funds  5.75
      • 3.  Reserve Studies  5.76
        • a.  Need for Independent Studies  5.77
        • b.  When Reserve Studies Are Required  5.78
        • c.  Required Components of Reserve Studies  5.79
        • d.  Directors’ Duty to Ascertain Reserve Account Requirements  5.80
        • e.  Directors’ Duty to Review Reserve Studies  5.81
        • f.  Directors’ Duty to Inspect  5.82
        • g.  Unresolved Issues  5.83
      • 4.  Controls on Withdrawals From Reserve Accounts  5.84

6

Commonly Encountered Restrictions

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  6.1
  • II.  ARCHITECTURAL AND AESTHETIC RESTRICTIONS  6.2
    • A.  Association’s Authority  6.3
    • B.  Standards for Architectural Decisions  6.4
      • 1.  Subjective Aesthetic Criteria Upheld  6.5
      • 2.  Criteria Required for Enforcement of Covenants  6.6
      • 3.  Conflict of Interest  6.7
      • 4.  Variances  6.8
      • 5.  Precedent Established by Prior Approvals  6.9
      • 6.  Use of Experts and Consultants  6.10
    • C.  Drafting Architectural Rules  6.11
      • 1.  Form: Architectural Control Rules  6.12
      • 2.  Form: Application for Architectural Approval of Improvement or Modification (Condominium)  6.13
      • 3.  Form: Application for Architectural Approval of Improvement or Modification (Planned Unit Development)  6.14
    • D.  Sign Restrictions  6.15
    • E.  Regulation of Aerials, Antennas, and Satellite Dishes
      • 1.  Regulations Governing  6.16
      • 2.  Permissible Restrictions
        • a.  Safety; Protection of Historical Sites  6.17
        • b.  Central Systems  6.18
        • c.  Location  6.19
        • d.  Aesthetic Restrictions  6.20
        • e.  Petition to Determine Permissibility of Restrictions  6.21
        • f.  Prior Processes Invalid  6.22
      • 3.  Applicability of Regulations to Common Areas
        • a.  Owners’ Installation of Antennas  6.23
        • b.  Association’s Right to Contract for Installation of Antennas  6.24
      • 4.  Tenants’ Right to Install Antenna  6.25
    • F.  Special Considerations Regarding Improvements Having Potential for Future Maintenance Problems  6.26
      • 1.  Need for Recordable Indemnification Agreement  6.27
      • 2.  Form: Hold Harmless and Indemnity Agreement Regarding Improvement of Separate Interest  6.28
    • G.  Special Considerations Regarding Interior Modifications  6.29
    • H.  Enforcement and Appeal Procedures for Internal Architectural Review  6.30
    • I.  Remedies for Violations  6.31
  • III.  USE RESTRICTIONS
    • A.  Residential Use
      • 1.  Declaration Defines Residential Use  6.32
      • 2.  Courts Define Residential Use  6.33
      • 3.  Statutes Limit Restrictions on Residential Use  6.34
    • B.  Single-Family Use  6.35
      • 1.  Residential Care Facilities  6.36
      • 2.  Family Day Care Homes
        • a.  Restrictions Prohibiting Family Day Care Homes Are Void  6.37
        • b.  Permissible Regulation of Day Care Home  6.38
        • c.  Insurance Requirements  6.39
    • C.  Nuisances  6.40
    • D.  Accessory Dwelling Units (ADUs) and Junior Accessory Dwelling Units (JADUs)  6.41
  • IV.  SALE AND LEASE RESTRICTIONS  6.42
    • A.  Restrictions on Sale  6.43
      • 1.  Unreasonable Restrictions on Transfer of Separate Interest; Transfer Fees  6.44
      • 2.  Unreasonable Restraint on Alienation—CC §711  6.45
      • 3.  Reasonable Restraints Unreasonably Enforced  6.46
      • 4.  Rule Against Perpetuities  6.47
      • 5.  Additional Statutory Restrictions on Sale and/or Occupancy  6.48
    • B.  Restrictions on Leasing  6.49
      • 1.  Total Prohibition on Leasing and Unreasonable Restraints on Alienation  6.50
      • 2.  Partial Restrictions on Leasing  6.51
        • a.  Type of Restrictions
          • (1)  User Fees and Increased Assessments  6.52
          • (2)  Duration of Lease Term  6.53
        • b.  Federal Standards and Guidelines  6.54
      • 3.  Restrictions on Rights of Tenants  6.55
    • C.  Sale and Lease Restrictions Interpreted as Rights of First Refusal  6.56
    • D.  Restriction Violations by Tenants; Eviction Strategies  6.57
    • E.  Review of Governing Documents  6.58
  • V.  OCCUPANCY RESTRICTIONS
    • A.  Occupancy Restricted to Small Group  6.59
    • B.  Occupancy Restrictions Based on Density  6.60
      • 1.  Occupancy Restrictions May Violate Equal Protection Guarantees  6.61
      • 2.  Valid Occupancy Restrictions  6.62
      • 3.  Analogy to Governmental Occupancy Standards  6.63
        • a.  State Occupancy Standards  6.64
        • b.  Federal Occupancy Standards  6.65
        • c.  Local Occupancy Standards  6.66
  • VI.  VEHICLE RESTRICTIONS
    • A.  Introduction to Traffic and Parking Regulation  6.67
    • B.  Traffic Regulation
      • 1.  Statutory Scheme  6.68
      • 2.  Procedures for Adopting Vehicle Code Provisions  6.69
      • 3.  Enforcement of Vehicle Code Provisions  6.70
        • a.  Government Enforcement of Vehicle Code Provisions  6.71
        • b.  Enforcing Vehicle Code Violations as Trespasses  6.72
        • c.  Fines  6.73
        • d.  Enforcement of Association’s Internal Traffic Rules  6.74
    • C.  Parking Regulation
      • 1.  Importing State or Local Parking Restrictions  6.75
      • 2.  Internal Parking Restrictions; Enforcement  6.76
      • 3.  Towing Improperly Parked Vehicles  6.77
      • 4.  Parking Rules and Reasonable Accommodations  6.78
  • VII.  EASEMENTS AND LICENSES
    • A.  Dealing With Owner Requests for Easements and Licensing Agreements  6.79
    • B.  Form: Revocable License to Use Storage Unit (Condominium)  6.80

7

Internal Enforcement of Governing Documents; Dispute Resolution

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER
    • A.  Purpose of Covenants  7.1
    • B.  Association’s Authority; Limitations on Enforcement Power  7.2
  • II.  INTERNAL ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES  7.3
    • A.  Elements of Reasonable Internal Enforcement Procedure  7.4
      • 1.  Complaint  7.5
      • 2.  Investigation  7.6
      • 3.  Notice of Possible Disciplinary Action and Offer of Hearing  7.7
      • 4.  Conduct of Hearing; Due Process Concerns  7.8
        • a.  Discovery; Right to Cross-Examine Adverse Witnesses?  7.9
        • b.  Right to Counsel  7.10
        • c.  Challenging Board Member for Cause  7.11
        • d.  Explaining Rules and Procedures  7.12
        • e.  Decision  7.13
      • 5.  Notice of Decision  7.14
      • 6.  Appeal  7.15
    • B.  Adherence to Internal Enforcement Procedure  7.16
    • C.  Prohibition Against Arbitrary or “Selective” Internal Enforcement  7.17
    • D.  Types of Discipline: Fines, Towing, Suspension of Member’s Rights; Association’s Right of Entry  7.18
      • 1.  Fines and Other Monetary Penalties  7.19
        • a.  Considerations in Drafting Schedule of Fines and Monetary Penalties  7.20
        • b.  Form: Enforcement Policy and Schedule of Fines for Violations of Homeowners Association Rules  7.21
      • 2.  Towing  7.22
      • 3.  Suspension of Rights
        • a.  Suspension of Right to Use Recreational Facilities  7.23
        • b.  Suspension of Membership Rights and Privileges  7.24
      • 4.  Association’s Right of Entry  7.25
  • III.  INTERNAL DISPUTE RESOLUTION (IDR); “MEET AND CONFER”  7.26
  • IV.  ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION (ADR)  7.27
    • A.  Mediation
      • 1.  Sources and Types of Mediators  7.28
      • 2.  Checklist: Criteria for Selecting Mediator  7.29
      • 3.  Mediation Process; Costs  7.30
      • 4.  Confidentiality of Mediation  7.31
      • 5.  Enforcement of Agreement Reached Through Mediation  7.32
    • B.  Arbitration  7.33
      • 1.  Procedure for Enforcement of Binding Arbitration Award  7.34
      • 2.  Limitations on Judicial Review of Binding Arbitration Awards  7.35
      • 3.  Arbitrator’s Powers and Limitations  7.36
      • 4.  Waiver of Right to Arbitrate  7.37
    • C.  Dispute Resolution Provisions in Governing Documents  7.38
    • D.  Statutory Obligation to Offer ADR Before Enforcement Action
      • 1.  Requirement to Offer ADR Before Commencing Litigation  7.39
      • 2.  Offering and Conducting ADR; Request for Resolution  7.40
      • 3.  Requirement to File ADR Compliance Certificate  7.41

8

Unlawful Discrimination

  • I.  OVERVIEW OF FAIR HOUSING LAWS  8.1
  • II.  REMOVAL OF DISCRIMINATORY COVENANTS  8.2
  • III.  FAMILIAL STATUS AND AGE  8.3
    • A.  Fair Housing Amendments Act of 1988 (FHAA)
      • 1.  Overview of FHAA  8.4
        • a.  Preemption  8.5
        • b.  Covered Transactions  8.6
        • c.  Exemptions From FHAA Coverage  8.7
        • d.  Associations Covered by FHAA  8.8
      • 2.  Familial Status Discrimination
        • a.  Definition of Familial Status  8.9
        • b.  Extended Families Protected  8.10
        • c.  Occupancy Standards  8.11
        • d.  Separate Areas for Adults and Children; “Child Protective” Policies  8.12
        • e.  Housing for Older Persons Exemption  8.13
          • (1)  Housing Constructed Under Federal or State Programs  8.14
          • (2)  Housing for Persons Age 62 and Over  8.15
          • (3)  Housing for People Age 55 and Older and Intended for Occupancy by Seniors (“55+” Housing)  8.16
        • f.  Requirements for Older Persons Housing Exemption
          • (1)  Residency Versus Ownership  8.17
          • (2)  80 Percent Requirement  8.18
          • (3)  Intent Requirement  8.19
          • (4)  Verification of Age of Occupants  8.20
        • g.  Defenses to Claim of Familial Status Discrimination Under FHAA  8.21
        • h.  Conversion to Senior Housing; Mobilehome Communities  8.22
    • B.  California Fair Employment and Housing Act (FEHA)  8.23
      • 1.  Familial Status Discrimination  8.24
      • 2.  Exemptions, Including Those Relating to Familial Status Discrimination  8.25
      • 3.  Applicability of FHAA Decisions to FEHA Claims  8.26
    • C.  Unruh Civil Rights Act  8.27
      • 1.  Age Versus Familial Status Discrimination  8.28
      • 2.  Exemption for Mobilehome Housing  8.29
      • 3.  Exemption for Senior Housing  8.30
        • a.  Age 62 and Older  8.31
        • b.  Age 55 and Older  8.32
          • (1)  55+ Housing: Residency Requirements
            • (a)  Qualified Residents and Guests  8.33
            • (b)  Qualified Permanent Resident  8.34
            • (c)  Permitted Health Care Resident  8.35
          • (2)  55+ Housing: Design Requirements—All Counties Except Riverside
            • (a)  Housing Constructed Before February 2, 1982  8.36
            • (b)  Housing Constructed Between February 2, 1982, and December 31, 2000  8.37
            • (c)  Housing Constructed After December 31, 2000  8.38
          • (3)  55+ Housing: Design Requirements—Riverside County  8.39
        • c.  Governing Documents  8.40
  • IV.  MARITAL STATUS  8.41
  • V.  RELIGION  8.42
  • VI.  DISABILITY: OVERVIEW OF LAWS  8.43
    • A.  Fair Housing Amendments Act of 1988 (FHAA)  8.44
      • 1.  Definition of “Handicap” Under FHAA  8.45
      • 2.  Exemptions From Coverage  8.46
      • 3.  Conduct That Does Not Violate FHAA  8.47
      • 4.  Conduct That Potentially Violates FHAA
        • a.  Discrimination in Sale or Rental  8.48
          • (1)  Discouragement; Exaggeration of Nonsuitability of Project  8.49
          • (2)  Inquiry Into Disability  8.50
          • (3)  Advertising Regarding Disabilities  8.51
          • (4)  Restriction of Certain Areas to People With Disabilities  8.52
        • b.  Failure to Grant Reasonable Accommodations or Modifications  8.53
          • (1)  Determining Necessity and Reasonableness of Requested Accommodation  8.54
          • (2)  Processing Requests for Accommodation  8.55
          • (3)  Modification of Existing Dwellings and Common Areas  8.56
          • (4)  Design Standards for New Construction  8.57
    • B.  Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990  8.58
    • C.  Fair Employment and Housing Act  8.59
    • D.  Unruh Civil Rights Act  8.60
    • E.  Davis-Stirling Common Interest Development Act  8.61
  • VII.  HARASSMENT  8.61A
  • VIII.  LIABILITY FOR RETALIATION  8.62
  • IX.  ELEMENTS OF ACTION; PROCEDURE AND REMEDIES  8.63
    • A.  Fair Housing Amendments Act of 1988  8.64
      • 1.  “Aggrieved Person”; Standing  8.65
      • 2.  Administrative Complaint Filed With HUD  8.66
      • 3.  Referral by HUD to Substantially Equivalent State Agency  8.67
      • 4.  HUD Administrative Procedures
        • a.  Submitting Complaint to HUD  8.68
        • b.  Investigation by HUD; Conciliation  8.69
        • c.  Issuance of Charge by HUD  8.70
        • d.  HUD Administrative Hearing; Penalties  8.71
        • e.  Final Decision  8.72
        • f.  Enforcement of Order  8.73
        • g.  Alternative Civil Action After HUD Issues Charge  8.74
        • h.  Alternative Civil Action Without First Filing Complaint With HUD  8.75
    • B.  Fair Employment and Housing Act  8.76
    • C.  Unruh Civil Rights Act
      • 1.  Civil Action
        • a.  Standing to Sue  8.77
        • b.  Pattern or Practice Suits  8.78
        • c.  Remedies  8.79
        • d.  Penalties for Violation  8.80
        • e.  Statute of Limitations  8.81
        • f.  Choice of Proper Court  8.82
        • g.  Effect of Release  8.83
      • 2.  Filing Complaint With California Department of Fair Employment and Housing  8.84
  • X.  TABLE: COMPARISON OF FEDERAL AND STATE FAIR HOUSING LAWS  8.85

9

Amending the Governing Documents

  • I.  SCOPE OF INITIAL GOVERNING DOCUMENTS  9.1
  • II.  AMENDMENTS TO DEVELOPER-ORIENTED PROVISIONS
    • A.  Modification of Provisions Mandated or Permitted by Department of Real Estate (DRE)  9.2
    • B.  Management Amendments  9.3
    • C.  Elimination of Charitable Dedication Clause  9.4
    • D.  Changed Circumstances  9.5
    • E.  Changes in Applicable Law  9.6
  • III.  METHODS FOR AMENDING GOVERNING DOCUMENTS
    • A.  Amending the Declaration  9.7
    • B.  Amending Articles and Bylaws  9.8
  • IV.  CONFLICTS AMONG DOCUMENTS  9.9
  • V.  AMENDMENT RULES APPLICABLE TO ALL GOVERNING DOCUMENTS
    • A.  Approval by DRE  9.10
    • B.  Compliance With DRE Regulations  9.11
    • C.  Irrevocability of Owner/Member Approvals  9.12
  • VI.  AMENDMENT UNDER CC §§4230 AND 4235
    • A.  History of CC §4230  9.13
    • B.  Scope of CC §4230  9.14
    • C.  Amendment Under CC §4235  9.14A
  • VII.  AMENDMENT UNDER EXPRESS AUTHORIZATION IN GOVERNING DOCUMENTS
    • A.  Amendment of the Declaration  9.15
      • 1.  Solicitation of Votes  9.16
      • 2.  Voting Concerns
        • a.  Multiple Owners  9.17
        • b.  Votes Based on Lots Versus Owners  9.18
      • 3.  Amendment Under CC §4270(a)  9.19
      • 4.  Required Approvals
        • a.  Approval of Lienholders  9.20
        • b.  Approval by Local Government Entities  9.21
        • c.  Approval by the Declarant  9.21A
        • d.  Approval by Neighboring Landowners  9.21B
    • B.  Amendment of Articles of Incorporation  9.22
      • 1.  Amendment Procedures  9.23
      • 2.  Two-Class Voting Structures  9.24
    • C.  Amendment of Bylaws  9.25
    • D.  Amendment of Operating Rules  9.25A
    • E.  Effective Member Solicitation Techniques
      • 1.  Advantages of Effective Solicitation  9.26
      • 2.  Checklist: Effective Solicitation  9.27
  • VIII.  DOCUMENTS LACKING AMENDMENT PROVISIONS  9.28
  • IX.  AMENDMENT TO EXTEND EFFECTIVE DATE OF COVENANTS IN GOVERNING DECLARATION  9.29
  • X.  COURT-ORDERED AMENDMENTS
    • A.  Amending Declaration Under CC §4275  9.30
      • 1.  Remaining Statutory Interpretation Issues Concerning CC §4275
        • a.  Number of Members Voting Exceeds Prescribed Supermajority  9.31
        • b.  Scope of Court’s Jurisdiction  9.32
        • c.  Attorney Fees  9.33
      • 2.  Required Court Filings  9.34
      • 3.  Form: Petition to Reduce Voting Percentage Under CC §4275  9.35
      • 4.  Setting Matter for Hearing  9.36
      • 5.  Form: Ex Parte Application for Order Setting Hearing  9.37
      • 6.  Form: Order Setting Hearing and Notice  9.38
      • 7.  Requirements for Granting Petition Under CC §4275  9.39
      • 8.  Other Permitted Orders Under CC §4275  9.40
      • 9.  Form: Order Granting Petition to Reduce Voting Percentage  9.41
      • 10.  Effective Date of Court-Ordered Amendments  9.42
      • 11.  Requirement of Member Notification by Individual Delivery   9.43
    • B.  Amending Articles and Bylaws Under Corp C §7515
      • 1.  Court Orders Under Corp C §7515  9.44
      • 2.  Form: Petition to Reduce Voting Percentage Under Corp C §7515  9.45
      • 3.  Form: Order Granting Petition Under Corp C §7515  9.46
  • XI.  VALIDITY OF LEGISLATIVE AMENDMENTS
    • A.  Background  9.47
    • B.  Test for Determining Constitutionality  9.48

10

Issues Associated With Developer Transition

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  10.1
  • II.  UNIQUE STATUS OF COMMUNITY ASSOCIATIONS  10.2
  • III.  TRANSITION FROM DEVELOPER CONTROL
    • A.  When Does Developer Transition Occur?  10.3
      • 1.  Transition Under Department of Real Estate (DRE) Regulations  10.4
        • a.  Voluntary Relinquishment  10.5
        • b.  Nonsimultaneous Transition  10.6
      • 2.  Transition Under Builder’s Right to Repair Law  10.7
    • B.  Steps for Association to Take During and After Transition
      • 1.  Conduct Due Diligence Audit  10.8
        • a.  Appoint Transition Team  10.9
        • b.  Meet With Developer’s Project Representatives  10.10
        • c.  Checklist: Documents Board Should Request  10.11
        • d.  Establish Office  10.12
        • e.  Join Trade Associations  10.13
      • 2.  Ascertain Extent of Developer’s Compliance With Corporate Law  10.14
      • 3.  Evaluate Association’s Financial Condition and the Adequacy of Reserves  10.15
        • a.  Effect of DRE Budget Requirements
          • (1)  Estimated Costs of Common Area Maintenance and Repair; Capital Reserves  10.16
          • (2)  Effect of Budget Modifications  10.17
          • (3)  Effect of Phased Development Budgets  10.18
        • b.  Effect of Developer Subsidy Agreements  10.19
      • 4.  Evaluate Need for Professional Management  10.20
        • a.  Factors to Consider in Evaluating Need for Professional Management  10.21
        • b.  Managing Agent’s Statutorily Required Written Statement  10.22
        • c.  Certified Common Interest Development Manager  10.23
        • d.  Ongoing Board Responsibilities  10.24
      • 5.  Evaluate Condition and Adequacy of Association-Maintained Facilities  10.25
  • IV.  POTENTIAL CLAIMS AT DEVELOPER TRANSITION
    • A.  Construction of Inadequate or Undersized Facilities  10.26
    • B.  Developer Retention of Facilities  10.27
    • C.  Construction Defects: Association’s Obligation to Undertake Repairs
      • 1.  When Declaration Defines Duty  10.28
      • 2.  When Declaration Fails to Clearly Define Duty  10.29
    • D.  Other Common Developer Transition Issues  10.30
  • V.  DEVELOPER FAILURE; SUCCESSOR DEVELOPERS  10.31
    • A.  Foreclosure by Lender  10.32
    • B.  Insolvency Proceedings  10.33
    • C.  Successor Developers  10.34

11

Construction Defects

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  11.1
  • II.  PRELITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS  11.2
    • A.  Litigation Involving Homes and Common Improvements Sold Before January 1, 2003  11.3
    • B.  Litigation Involving Homes and Common Improvements Sold On or After January 1, 2003  11.4
    • C.  Compensatory Damages  11.5
    • D.  Potential Defendants  11.6
  • III.  COMMONLY ASSERTED CAUSES OF ACTION  11.7
    • A.  Strict Liability  11.8
      • 1.  Application to Mass-Produced Homes  11.9
      • 2.  Application to Site Conditions  11.10
      • 3.  Limitations on Application of Strict Liability
        • a.  Nature of Defendant  11.11
          • (1)  Subcontractors  11.12
          • (2)  Landlord  11.13
        • b.  Nature of Plaintiff  11.14
    • B.  Negligence and Professional Negligence  11.15
    • C.  Breach of Implied Warranty  11.16
    • D.  Breach of Express Warranty  11.17
    • E.  Breach of Fiduciary Duty  11.18
    • F.  Fraud  11.19
    • G.  Negligent Misrepresentation  11.20
    • H.  Breach of Statutory Standards of Construction  11.21
  • IV.  STATUTES OF LIMITATIONS  11.22
    • A.  Checklist: Statutes of Limitations for Construction Defect Claims Not Subject to Builder’s Right to Repair Law  11.23
    • B.  When Limitations Periods Commence  11.24
    • C.  Construction Defects: CCP §§337.1, 337.15  11.25
      • 1.  Patent Deficiencies  11.26
      • 2.  Latent Deficiencies  11.27
      • 3.  Property Insurance Coverage for Latent Defects  11.28
      • 4.  When Action Is Covered by Both Statute of Limitations and Statute of Repose  11.29
      • 5.  Cross-Complaint for Indemnity  11.30
        • a.  Against Subcontractors  11.31
        • b.  Against Directors  11.32
      • 6.  Substantial Completion  11.33
    • D.  Tolling Statute of Limitations During Developer Control  11.34
      • 1.  Developer’s Remedial Work; Concealment  11.35
      • 2.  Association Under Developer’s Control  11.36
      • 3.  Developer as Fiduciary  11.37
      • 4.  Tolling Agreements  11.38
      • 5.  Tolling by Statutory Dispute Resolution Procedures  11.39
  • V.  STANDING TO SUE
    • A.  Establishing Standing  11.40
    • B.  Standing of Community Associations
      • 1.  Class Actions Under CCP §382  11.41
      • 2.  Standing Under CC §5980
        • a.  Enactment of Former CCP §374  11.42
        • b.  Enactment of CC §5980  11.43
    • C.  Standing of Owners of Separate Interests  11.44
    • D.  Standing of Third Party Claimants  11.45
  • VI.  PROCEDURAL PREREQUISITES TO FILING CONSTRUCTION DEFECT ACTION  11.46
    • A.  Calderon Process: Prelitigation Notice and Meeting Requirements (Applicable Before January 1, 2003)  11.47
      • 1.  Notice of Commencement of Legal Proceeding  11.48
        • a.  Manner of Service  11.49
        • b.  Service Tolls Statutes of Limitations  11.50
      • 2.  Rights and Obligations of Respondent and Association After Service of Notice
        • a.  Respondent’s Right to Meet and Confer With Association  11.51
        • b.  Respondent’s Obligation to Provide Access to Plans and Specifications  11.52
        • c.  Association’s Obligation to Provide Access to Files  11.53
        • d.  Respondent’s Obligation to Notify Other Potentially Responsible Parties  11.54
      • 3.  Rights and Obligations of Parties Who Receive Respondent’s Notice
        • a.  Right to Statement of Insurance  11.55
        • b.  Right to Claim Status as Peripheral Party  11.56
        • c.  Right to Seek Exclusion From Proceedings  11.57
      • 4.  Selection of Dispute Resolution Facilitator
        • a.  Meeting to Select Facilitator  11.58
        • b.  Facilitator’s Disclosure of Potential Conflicts  11.59
      • 5.  Facilitated Case Management Meeting  11.60
        • a.  Case Management Statement  11.61
        • b.  Additional Provisions for Invasive Testing  11.62
      • 6.  Allocation of ADR and Facilitator Costs and Expenses  11.63
      • 7.  Respondent’s Right to Request Meeting With Association to Present Settlement Offer  11.64
        • a.  Association’s Obligation to Notify Members of Settlement  11.65
        • b.  Membership Meeting if Settlement Offer Is Rejected  11.66
      • 8.  Court’s Authority to Resolve Issues  11.67
      • 9.  Limitation on Use of ADR Documentation in Subsequent Litigation  11.68
    • B.  Builder’s Right to Repair Law: Prelitigation Notice and Meeting Requirements (Applicable On or After January 1, 2003)
      • 1.  Overview of Builder’s Right to Repair Law  11.69
      • 2.  Organization of Builder’s Right to Repair Law  11.70
      • 3.  Defined Terms  11.71
      • 4.  Actionable Defects (“Functionality Standards”)  11.72
        • a.  Subsequently Discovered Claims  11.73
        • b.  Statutes of Limitations Vary With Building Component Involved  11.74
      • 5.  Obligations of Builders and Homeowners
        • a.  Builder’s “Fit and Finish” Warranties  11.75
        • b.  Builder’s Enhanced Protection Agreement  11.76
        • c.  Owner’s Maintenance Obligations  11.77
      • 6.  Prelitigation Procedures  11.78
        • a.  Owner’s Notice of Claim  11.79
        • b.  Document Sharing  11.80
        • c.  Builder’s Acknowledgment of Claim  11.81
        • d.  Builder’s Right to Opt Out of Statutory Prelitigation Process  11.82
        • e.  Builder’s Initial Inspection Rights  11.83
        • f.  Builder’s Notice to Subcontractors and Other Potentially Responsible Parties  11.84
        • g.  Builder’s Offer to Repair  11.85
        • h.  Owner’s Response to Builder’s Offer to Repair  11.86
        • i.  Builder’s Repair Deadlines  11.87
        • j.  Prohibition on Builder’s Release or Waiver  11.88
        • k.  Owner’s Obligation to Mediate After Repairs Made  11.89
        • l.  Builder’s Right to Make Cash Settlement Offer  11.90
        • m.  Builder-Drafted Preconditions or Limitations on Association’s Pursuit of Claim  11.90A
      • 7.  Procedural Rules for Litigation  11.91
        • a.  Statutes of Limitations  11.92
          • (1)  Table: Functionality Standards Subject to Statutes of Limitations Less Than 10 Years From Close of Escrow (COE)  11.93
          • (2)  Tolling of Statutes of Limitations  11.94
        • b.  Owner’s Burden of Proof  11.95
        • c.  Actions Excluded From Coverage  11.96
        • d.  Recoverable Damages in Covered Actions  11.97
        • e.  Applicability to Successors in Interest to Original Homebuyer  11.98
        • f.  Affirmative Defenses That May Be Available to Builder  11.99
  • VII.  ARBITRATION AND JUDICIAL REFERENCE  11.100
  • VIII.  CONSTRUCTION DEFECT SETTLEMENTS  11.101
    • A.  Association’s Obligation to Disclose Settlement to Members  11.102
    • B.  Benefits of Detailed Written Settlement Agreement  11.103
  • IX.  DOCUMENT CHANGES TO CONSIDER IN LIGHT OF BUILDER’S RIGHT TO REPAIR LAW
    • A.  Checklist: Purchase and Sale Documents  11.104
    • B.  Recommended Changes in Declaration  11.105
    • C.  Recommended Changes in Warranty Agreements and Customer Service Agreements  11.106
    • D.  Subcontractor Agreements  11.107

12

Litigation Involving the Association

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  12.1
  • II.  PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS
    • A.  Preserving Evidence for Possible Litigation or Arbitration  12.2
    • B.  Checklist: Steps to Take When Claim Is Made  12.3
    • C.  Preserving Confidentiality Regarding Legal Matters  12.3A
  • III.  ENFORCEMENT OF GOVERNING DOCUMENTS  12.4
    • A.  Enforcement of Covenants in Non-Common Interest Developments  12.5
      • 1.  Benefit of Covenant Must Run With Land  12.6
      • 2.  Burden of Covenant Must Run With Land  12.7
      • 3.  Writing Requirement  12.8
      • 4.  Binding Successor Requirement  12.9
      • 5.  “Touch and Concern” Requirement  12.10
      • 6.  Recordation Requirement  12.11
      • 7.  Enforcement as Equitable Servitude  12.12
    • B.  Enforcement of Governing Documents in Common Interest Developments  12.13
      • 1.  Standing to Enforce Covenants
        • a.  Association  12.14
        • b.  Owners  12.15
      • 2.  Standing Issues in Other Areas of Association Operation
        • a.  Construction Defect Litigation  12.16
        • b.  Special Proceedings  12.17
        • c.  Alleged Wrongdoing by Management Company  12.18
      • 3.  Statutory Limitations on Association’s Right to Enforce Its Governing Documents  12.19
      • 4.  Injunctive Relief  12.20
      • 5.  Declaratory Relief  12.21
      • 6.  Damages for Breach of Governing Documents  12.22
    • C.  Defenses to Enforcement Actions
      • 1.  Unreasonableness  12.23
        • a.  Elements of Unreasonable Restriction; Nahrstedt Tests  12.24
        • b.  No Statutory Presumption of Reasonableness for Association Rules  12.25
      • 2.  Unreasonable Restraint on Alienation  12.26
      • 3.  Bad Faith; Selective Enforcement  12.27
      • 4.  Lapse of Time  12.28
        • a.  Laches  12.29
        • b.  Statute of Limitations  12.30
      • 5.  Estoppel  12.31
      • 6.  Waiver  12.32
      • 7.  Changed Circumstances
        • a.  When Covenant May Become Unenforceable  12.33
        • b.  When Covenant Remains Enforceable  12.34
        • c.  Balancing Test  12.35
        • d.  Reinterpretation of Covenant  12.36
      • 8.  Unclean Hands  12.37
      • 9.  Balancing of Equities  12.38
    • D.  Attorney Fees and Costs  12.39
      • 1.  Actions to Enforce Governing Documents  12.40
      • 2.  Prevailing Party  12.41
      • 3.  Proper Amount of Fees  12.42
      • 4.  Award of Fees Not Based on CC §5975 or §1717  12.43
        • a.  Under Common Law Theories  12.44
        • b.  Under “Private Attorney General” Theory (CCP §1021.5)  12.45
        • c.  By Agreement of Parties (CCP §1021)  12.46
        • d.  Under Other Statutes  12.47
      • 5.  Procedure for Obtaining Award of Fees  12.48
  • IV.  DEFENDING ASSOCIATION AND ITS DIRECTORS, OFFICERS, MEMBERS, AND MANAGERS  12.49
    • A.  Causes of Action Typically Asserted Against Association and Related Entities
      • 1.  Negligence  12.50
        • a.  Premises Liability  12.51
        • b.  Security  12.52
        • c.  Dogs; Wild Animals  12.53
        • d.  Failure to Maintain  12.54
        • e.  Failure to Disclose  12.55
      • 2.  Defamation  12.56
      • 3.  Breach of Fiduciary Duty  12.57
        • a.  Conflicts of Interest  12.58
        • b.  Failure or Refusal to Institute Litigation  12.59
      • 4.  Breach of Contract  12.60
      • 5.  Breaches of Duties Imposed by Statute  12.61
      • 6.  Actions Challenging Validity of CC&Rs  12.62
      • 7.  Derivative Actions  12.63
      • 8.  Unfair Business Practices  12.64
      • 9.  Complaint to Attorney General  12.65
    • B.  Responsive Motions
      • 1.  Anti-SLAPP Motion  12.66
      • 2.  Motion to Strike or Dismiss Under Other Statutes  12.67
    • C.  Affirmative Defenses
      • 1.  Business Judgment Rule  12.68
      • 2.  Judicial Deference Doctrine  12.69
      • 3.  Statutes of Limitations
        • a.  For Negligence  12.70
        • b.  For Breach of Fiduciary Duty  12.71
        • c.  For Statutory Violations  12.72
        • d.  For Challenge to Validity of Amendments to CC&Rs  12.73
      • 4.  Exculpatory Clauses  12.74
      • 5.  Statutory Immunity Provisions  12.75
      • 6.  Recreational Use Exception (CC §846)  12.76
    • D.  Right to Indemnification  12.77
    • E.  Insurance Issues Arising From Litigation Involving Association  12.78
      • 1.  Types of Insurance
        • a.  General Liability Insurance (CGL)  12.79
        • b.  Directors and Officers Insurance (D&O)  12.80
      • 2.  Choice of Counsel  12.81
  • V.  PROTECTING DIRECTORS, VOLUNTEERS, AND MANAGERS FROM THREATS OF VIOLENCE  12.82
  • VI.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Complaint for Injunctive Relief and Damages  12.83
    • B.  Form: Memorandum of Points and Authorities in Support of Preliminary Injunction and Temporary Restraining Order  12.84
    • C.  Form: Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Compliance Certificate  12.85

ADVISING CALIFORNIA COMMON INTEREST COMMUNITIES

(2d Edition)

February 2021

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

File Name

Book Section

Title

CH02

Chapter 2

Community Association Governance (Directors and Members)

02-022

§2.22

Resolution Adopting Election Procedures

02-029

§2.29

Secret Ballot

02-030

§2.30

Outer Envelope for Use With Secret Ballot Election

02-140

§2.140

Summary of Insurance Coverage

02-153

§2.153

Consent to Receipt of Association Notices and Documents Electronically

CH03

Chapter 3

Taxation of Community Associations

03-028A

§3.28A

Resolution Approving Rollover of Excess Income to Next Year Under Rev Rul 70–604

CH05

Chapter 5

Assessment Obligations and Association Finances

05-024

§5.24

FDCPA Notice

05-031

§5.31

Association Assessment Collection Policy

05-032

§5.32

Notice—Assessments and Foreclosure (CC §5730)

05-038

§5.38

Pre-Lien Notice Letter

05-041

§5.41

Notice of Delinquent Assessment

05-042

§5.42

Release of Assessment Lien

CH06

Chapter 6

Commonly Encountered Restrictions

06-012

§6.12

Architectural Control Rules

06-013

§6.13

Application for Architectural Approval of Improvement or Modification (Condominium)

06-014

§6.14

Application for Architectural Approval of Improvement or Modification (Planned Unit Development)

06-028

§6.28

Hold Harmless and Indemnity Agreement Regarding Improvement of Separate Interest

06-080

§6.80

Revocable License to Use Storage Unit (Condominium)

CH07

Chapter 7

Internal Enforcement of Governing Documents; Dispute Resolution

07-021

§7.21

Enforcement Policy and Schedule of Fines for Violations of Homeowners Association Rules

07-029

§7.29

Checklist: Criteria for Selecting Mediator

CH09

Chapter 9

Amending the Governing Documents

09-027

§9.27

Checklist: Effective Solicitation

09-035

§9.35

Petition to Reduce Voting Percentage Under CC §4275

09-037

§9.37

Ex Parte Application for Order Setting Hearing

09-038

§9.38

Order Setting Hearing and Notice

09-041

§9.41

Order Granting Petition to Reduce Voting Percentage

09-045

§9.45

Petition to Reduce Voting Percentage Under Corp C §7515

09-046

§9.46

Order Granting Petition Under Corp C §7515

CH10

Chapter 10

Issues Associated With Developer Transition

10-011

§10.11

Checklist: Documents Board Should Request

CH11

Chapter 11

Construction Defects

11-023

§11.23

Checklist: Statutes of Limitations for Construction Defect Claims Not Subject to Builder’s Right to Repair Law

11-104

§11.104

Checklist: Purchase and Sale Documents

CH12

Chapter 12

Litigation Involving the Association

12-003

§12.3

Checklist: Steps to Take When Claim Is Made

12-083

§12.83

Complaint for Injunctive Relief and Damages

12-084

§12.84

Memorandum of Points and Authorities in Support of Preliminary Injunction and Temporary Restraining Order

12-085

§12.85

Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Compliance Certificate

APP

Appendixes

APPENDIXES

APP-A

APP-A

Restated Articles of Incorporation

APP-B

APP-B

Restated Bylaws

APP-C

APP-C

First Restated Declaration of Covenants, Conditions, and Restrictions

APP-D

APP-D

Code of Ethics and Conflict-of-Interest Policy

APP-E

APP-E

Sample Procedure for Responding to Requests for Reasonable Accommodation

APP-F

APP-F

Sample Resolution Adopting Code of Conduct and Ethics for Association Directors[Name of Association] Board of Directors Code of Conduct and Ethics

 

Selected Developments

February 2021 Update

NOTE: This update includes all of the extensive revisions that were included in the July 2020 special interim supplement, which covered the sweeping statutory changes resulting from SB 323 (Stats 2019, ch 848) and SB 754 (Stats 2019, ch 858), effective January 1, 2020. See chapter 2, which was thoroughly updated. Further and subsequent updates reflecting statutory and case law developments that came down in the first 10 months of 2020 are also included in this update.

REMINDER: Effective July 1, 2018, the California Bureau of Real Estate (BRE or CalBRE) was eliminated and reinstated as the Department of Real Estate (DRE). See Bus & P C §10004, as added by Stats 2017, ch 828, §6. All references to CalBRE in this book have been updated accordingly.

REMINDER: On May 10, 2018, the California State Supreme Court approved new and amended Rules of Professional Conduct that became effective on November 1, 2018. The contents of this book have been updated to incorporate the new rules. Visit the State Bar website (http:www.calbar.ca.gov/) to see the previous and current rules.

In Coley v Eskaton (2020) 51 CA5th 943, the court held that developer-affiliated majority directors could be individually liable for decisions allocating costs of operation, which benefited the developer to the detriment of the other owners, in contravention of the governing documents. See §§2.9, 12.58.

In chapter 2, §2.9 has been expanded to address common scenarios in which developer involvement, if not control of the association, can continue for extended periods of time.

Effective January 1, 2020, CC §5100 was amended to provide that persons cannot be nominated for election to the board of directors if they are not members of the association at the time of their nomination. See §§2.17, 9.3.

Effective January 1, 2020, CC §6150 was amended to revise the disclosure requirements regarding potential constructive defect litigation. See §2.143.

In case you missed the last few years’ updates, note that new sections have been added to chapter 3 on important tax matters that associations commonly encounter other than direct income tax, including other potential taxes (e.g., transient occupancy tax and sales and use taxes), administrative tax issues, handling rental income, and tax credits. See §§3.36–3.39.

Under Treas Reg §301.7701–3(c)(1), as amended in 2020, a domestic eligible entity that elects to be classified as an association (1) consents to be treated as a dual resident corporation for purposes of Treas Reg §1503(d) for any taxable year for which it is classified as an association, and (2) the condition set forth in Treas Reg §1.1503(d)–1(c)(1) is satisfied. For details, see §3.20.

A new section has been added to chapter 3 on the taxation of mutual water companies. See §3.26A.

In Sands v Walnut Gardens Condominium Ass’n (2019) 35 CA5th 174, plaintiff homeowners sued their association for its complete failure to maintain common area pipes that leaked into their unit. The trial court granted nonsuit on the basis of judicial deference under Lamden, but the appellate court reversed, holding that a jury could find that complete failure to maintain, as evidenced by trial testimony, constituted a breach of the association’s duty under the CC&Rs to maintain common areas. See §§4.25, 12.54.

In Obduskey v McCarthy & Holthus, LLP (2019) 586 US ___, 139 S Ct 1029, the United States Supreme Court ruled that a law firm that is merely engaged in representing a homeowner association in nonjudicial foreclosure proceedings to collect delinquent assessments is not a “debt collector” under the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, except for the limited purpose of enforcing security interests under 15 USC §1692f(6). See §5.20.

In Eisen v Tavangarian (2019) 36 CA5th 626, the court reviewed CC&R provisions prohibiting erection of a “structure” that impaired view, and allowed an addition to a residence that impaired the plaintiff homeowner’s view, reasoning that the CC&R provision in question was intended to regulate only nonresidential structures. For detailed discussion of this decision, contrasting it with the contrary holding in Zabrucky v McAdams (2005) 129 CA4th 618, see §6.11.

Effective January 1, 2021, CC §§4740 and 4741 substantially limit the validity and enforceability of rental restrictions in common interest developments. See §§6.49–6.53, 6.58, 6.64.

Also effective January 1, 2021, under new CC §4751, a covenant that either “effectively prohibits” or “unreasonably restricts” the construction or use of an accessory dwelling unit (ADU) or junior accessory dwelling unit (JADU) is void and unenforceable. Reasonable restrictions on ADUs and JADUs are excepted from this ban. See §6.41 for details.

In California Union Square L.P. v Saks & Co. LLC (2020) 50 CA5th 340, an arbitrator was held to have exceeded his statutory power by inspecting a property mentioned only briefly in a party’s closing brief, and thereafter relying on that inspection in reaching a rent determination. See §7.36.

In AIDS Healthcare Found. v City of Los Angeles (2020) 50 CA5th 672, the court held that the city’s approval of high-rise dwellings that allegedly had negative impact on nearby affordable housing was not actionable, despite an allegation that the city had also acted to restrict the availability of affordable housing. See §8.63.

For discussion of federal rules under the Americans with Disabilities Act regarding “service animals” and “emotional support animals,” see §8.54.

The maximum civil penalties for a violation of the Fair Housing Amendments Act of 1988 (FHAA) have increased. See §8.71.

In Orchard Estate Homes, Inc. v Orchard Homeowner Alliance (2019) CA5th 471, the court ruled that in a petition filed under CC §4275, the association was not required to allege or show that the failure to obtain the approval percentage for amending the CC&Rs (as stated in the declaration) was the result of voter apathy. NOTE: The California Supreme Court had granted review of Orchard Estate Homes in June 2019, but in September 2020, the court dismissed its review as moot. See §9.40.

REMINDER: In a long-awaited decision, McMillin Albany LLC v Superior Court (2018) 4 C5th 241, the California Supreme Court resolved the split among the appellate courts on the question of whether the Builder’s Right to Repair Law (CC §§895–945.5) is the exclusive remedy for residential construction defects in homes sold after 2002. The court ruled that the Right to Repair Law is the mandatory, exclusive process for all residential construction defect claims for homes sold after 2002, even when claims arise from actual damages; homeowners can no longer avoid the law’s requirements and prelitigation procedures by alleging only common law claims. See discussion in §§11.4, 11.21, 11.72.

In Hensel Phelps Constr. Co. v Superior Court (2020) 44 CA5th 595, the court held that the 10-year statute of limitations for a consumer’s claim established by CC §941(a) is measured from substantial completion of construction, which is normally a question of fact; substantial completion cannot be predetermined by contract between the developer and general contractor. See §§11.74, 11.92.

Effective January 1, 2020, under CC §5986, all developer-drafted preconditions under the Right to Repair Law or limitations on the board’s authority to commence and pursue any claim for construction defects included in a common interest development’s CC&Rs are “unenforceable, null, and void.” See discussion in §11.90A.

About the Second Edition Authors

CURTIS C. SPROUL is a partner in Sproul Trost LLP of Roseville. He earned his B.A. degree in 1970 from the University of California, Berkeley, and his J.D. degree in 1973 from the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law. Mr. Sproul served on the task force appointed by the legislature to draft the original Davis-Stirling Common Interest Development Act and was later appointed by the State Senate Committee on Housing and Land Use as a member of a new task force to reevaluate the Davis-Stirling Act and to propose further amendments to improve the law. He also served on a special committee of the State Bar to revise and expand the California Nonprofit Corporation Law, which led to the adoption of the present Nonprofit Corporation Law in 1980. He has also chaired and served on the State Bar Business Law Section and other subcommittees of the State Bar. Mr. Sproul specializes in representing homeowners associations, common interest developers, and nonprofit organizations of all kinds. Formerly a partner in the Sacramento office of Weintraub Genshlea Chediak Sproul, Mr. Sproul coauthored the original version of this book (Advising California Condominium and Homeowners Associations) as well as the 2003 edition of this title, and he has served as lead update author ever since. He is a coauthor of CEB’s Advising California Nonprofit Corporations and has published numerous articles and spoken frequently on the subject of nonprofit corporations and common interest developments.

MARY M. HOWELL is a shareholder in the San Diego office of Epsten Grinnell & Howell, APC. She received her B.A. degree from the University of California, San Diego, in 1972 and her J.D. degree in 1976 from the University of San Diego School of Law. Ms. Howell’s practice is limited to the representation of homeowner associations. Clients include associations and developments in San Diego, Riverside, and Orange counties. In addition to counseling associations on interpretation and enforcement of governing documents, her case work on behalf of associations encompasses litigation of declaration enforcement cases, appellate representation, defense of community associations in breach of fiduciary obligation matters and wrongful termination cases, and actions for declaratory relief. She has served as an expert witness in numerous cases concerning common interest developments, including Lamden v La Jolla Shores Clubdominium Homeowners Ass’n (1999) 21 C4th 249. Ms. Howell has served as adjunct professor of law at Thomas Jefferson School of Law and has authored texts for attorneys on federal and state law relating to senior communities and numerous articles and handbooks for homeowner associations. In 2000, she was recognized by Senator Ray Haynes, Riverside County Supervisor Jim Venable, and senior and community organizations for her work in the field of senior housing legislation. She is a frequent lecturer at the Community Associations Institute’s national Community Association Law Seminar.

KATHARINE N. ROSENBERRY is a Professor Emeritus at California Western School of Law, San Diego (now retired; her term of service was 1977–2007). She earned her B.A. degree in 1965 from Northwestern University, her M.Ed. degree in 1967 from the University of Illinois, and her J.D. degree in 1975 from the University of San Diego School of Law. Professor Rosenberry served as Senior Consultant to the California Assembly Select Committee on Common Interest Developments, which was instrumental in drafting the Davis-Stirling Common Interest Development Act. She coauthored the original version of this book (Advising California Condominium and Homeowners Associations) as well as the 2003 edition of this title, and she was one of the update authors from 1992–2002. Many chapters in this second edition incorporate or adapt substantial portions of chapters originally written by her. Professor Rosenberry is a member of the American Law Institute and was a member of the Consultative Group that proposed the Restatement (Third) of Property (Servitudes). She has also served as a consultant to the Lord Chancellor’s Office and the Department of Environment, Transport and the Regions in England and Wales regarding the introduction of community association law in those countries. Professor Rosenberry is a member of the American College of Community Association Lawyers and a former member of the Executive Committee of the Real Property Section of the State Bar. She has also been a member of the American College of Real Estate Lawyers.

About the 2021 Update Authors

MARY M. HOWELL (chapters 4, 6, 7, 8, and 12) is a shareholder in the San Diego office of Epsten Grinnell & Howell, APC. See her biography in the About the Second Edition Authors section of this book.

GARY PORTER (chapter 3) is the partner in charge of the homeowners association (HOA) division of Hinricher & Cousino LLP, Certified Public Accountants, in Thousand Oaks. The firm’s practice is limited to providing audit, review, and tax services to all forms of common interest developments. Mr. Porter is a nationally recognized expert as the creator and coauthor of the books used as technical guidance by virtually every CPA firm that works within the HOA industry. He is also coauthor of the American Institute of CPAs course “Providing Services to Common Interest Realty Associations.” The author of more than 250 technical articles, Mr. Porter has been a frequent speaker at industry events on accounting, tax, and reserve study topics, and a featured speaker on HOA industry technical topics for 32 state CPA society organizations. He has provided consulting services to more than 500 CPA firms that have requested assistance on specialized issues relating to HOAs. Mr. Porter was a founding member in 1979 of the Channel Islands Chapter of the Community Associations Institute (CAI). (CAI is the industry trade organization of the HOA industry—a nonprofit organization with nearly 40,000 members.) He was the editor of CAI’s financial newsletter for 15 years and has served on a number of committees, the national board of trustees, and as CAI national president in 1998–1999. Mr. Porter is the author of CAI’s public policy on taxation and served as the industry’s representative to the national office of the Internal Revenue Service. He has also been involved in the timeshare industry since 1989 and has been a member of the American Resort Development Association (ARDA) and other resort industry organizations. He has worked with timeshare and other fractional ownership resorts, including private residence clubs and condo hotel associations.

ANNE RAUCH (chapter 11) is a shareholder in the San Diego office of Epsten Grinnell & Howell, APC, where she is the co-chair of the firm’s Construction Defect Practice Group. She graduated magna cum laude from California State University, San Diego, with a degree in psychology in 1992, received her J.D. degree from the University of San Diego School of Law, and has practiced law in California since 1996. Ms. Rauch practices in the areas of general civil litigation focusing primarily on design and construction disputes, and litigation involving real estate transactions and property rights.

CURTIS C. SPROUL (chapters 1, 2, 5, 9, and 10) is a partner in Sproul Trost LLP of Roseville. See his biography in the About the Second Edition Authors section of this book.

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Products specifications
PRACTICE AREA Real Property
PRACTICE AREA Public Law
PRODUCT GROUP Publication