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California Basic Practice Handbook

Rapidly identify frequently encountered issues in a wide array of practice areas; avoid traps that otherwise might be overlooked in evaluating a case; and decide whether a client’s issue is one you can realistically handle. Especially useful for newly admitted practitioners and those transitioning to new practice areas.

 

Rapidly identify frequently encountered issues in a wide array of practice areas; avoid traps that otherwise might be overlooked in evaluating a case; and decide whether a client’s issue is one you can realistically handle. Especially useful for newly admitted practitioners and those transitioning to new practice areas. Includes chapters on:

  • Personal injury
  • Discovery and general pretrial procedure in civil actions
  • Employment and workers’ compensation cases
  • Sale of residence and landlord-tenant issues
  • Personal bankruptcy and debt collection
  • Basic estate planning and administration
  • Uncontested divorces and basic criminal practice
OnLAW MI94270

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$ 495.00
Print MI34270

2 looseleaf volumes, updated November 2020

 

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Rapidly identify frequently encountered issues in a wide array of practice areas; avoid traps that otherwise might be overlooked in evaluating a case; and decide whether a client’s issue is one you can realistically handle. Especially useful for newly admitted practitioners and those transitioning to new practice areas. Includes chapters on:

  • Personal injury
  • Discovery and general pretrial procedure in civil actions
  • Employment and workers’ compensation cases
  • Sale of residence and landlord-tenant issues
  • Personal bankruptcy and debt collection
  • Basic estate planning and administration
  • Uncontested divorces and basic criminal practice

1

Opening a Law Practice and Ethically Representing Clients

Lawrence E. Leone, CFLS

  • I.  OPENING A LAW PRACTICE
    • A.  Initial Considerations in Deciding to Open Law Practice
      • 1.  Personal Attributes Needed to Open Own Practice  1.1
      • 2.  Financial Planning in Advance of Opening Practice  1.2
      • 3.  Developing Practice Area Proficiency; Finding Mentors
        • a.  Practice Area Proficiency  1.3
        • b.  Finding Mentors
          • (1)  Former Law Firm Colleagues  1.4
          • (2)  Professional Organizations  1.5
          • (3)  Law School Alumni Associations  1.6
    • B.  Business Operations of Law Practice
      • 1.  Choosing Form of Enterprise for Law Practice
        • a.  Importance of Form of Enterprise  1.7
        • b.  Sole Proprietorship  1.8
        • c.  Limited Liability Partnership  1.9
        • d.  Limited Liability Company Contrasted  1.10
        • e.  Professional Corporation  1.11
        • f.  Related Business Registration and Tax Matters
          • (1)  Registering With City and Obtaining Business License  1.12
          • (2)  Summary of Tax-Related Matters
            • (a)  Importance of Consulting With Tax Advisor  1.13
            • (b)  Income Tax and FICA Withholding  1.14
            • (c)  No Income Tax Withholding for Independent Contractors  1.15
            • (d)  Federal and State Unemployment Tax Deposits  1.16
            • (e)  Formation Fees and Minimum Taxes; Annual Returns  1.17
            • (f)  Estimated Tax Payments  1.18
            • (g)  Payroll Tax  1.19
      • 2.  Type of Office Set-Up
        • a.  Physical Office Spaces
          • (1)  Commercial Office Spaces
            • (a)  Single Office Spaces for Sole Practitioners  1.20
            • (b)  Shared Office and Virtual Suites  1.21
          • (2)  Home Offices  1.22
        • b.  Online “Virtual Law Firm” Compared  1.23
      • 3.  Establishing Bank Accounts and Accounting, Timekeeping, and Calendaring Methods
        • a.  Bank Accounts  1.24
        • b.  Accounting, Timekeeping, and Calendaring Methods
          • (1)  Accounting Methods  1.25
          • (2)  Timekeeping Methods  1.26
          • (3)  Calendaring Methods  1.27
      • 4.  Purchasing Insurance
        • a.  Importance of Adequate Insurance Coverage  1.28
        • b.  Property and Liability Insurance
          • (1)  General Property and Liability Insurance  1.29
          • (2)  Professional Liability (Malpractice) Insurance  1.30
        • c.  Personal Health and Life Insurance  1.31
      • 5.  Office Staffing
        • a.  Deciding to Hire Staff  1.32
        • b.  Special Hiring and Related Considerations
          • (1)  Guarding Against Discrimination in Hiring  1.33
          • (2)  Confirmation of Lawful Immigration Status  1.34
          • (3)  Injury and Illness Prevention  1.35
        • c.  Workers’ Compensation Insurance  1.36
        • d.  Unemployment and Disability Insurance  1.37
        • e.  Employee Benefits
          • (1)  Ability to Offer Benefits  1.38
          • (2)  Communicating About Benefits to Employees  1.39
        • f.  Terminating an Employee  1.40
    • C.  Special Aspects of Law Firm Management and Operations
      • 1.  Acquiring Clients Through Marketing and Other Methods
        • a.  Marketing
          • (1)  Overall Ethical Considerations  1.41
          • (2)  Determining Target Market  1.42
          • (3)  Traditional Marketing Tools
            • (a)  Announcements Sent by Mail  1.43
            • (b)  Writing, Speaking, and Networking  1.44
          • (4)  Internet Marketing  1.45
        • b.  Other Client Sources
          • (1)  Referral Panels Maintained by Local Bar Associations  1.46
          • (2)  Contract Work for Other Attorneys  1.47
          • (3)  Involvement in Professional Organizations and Public Service  1.48
      • 2.  Establishing Standard Fee Arrangements  1.49
      • 3.  Establishing Client Screening and Conflict Avoidance Procedures
        • a.  Client Screening in General  1.50
        • b.  Conflict of Interest Avoidance  1.51
      • 4.  Technological Proficiency
        • a.  Duties of Confidentiality and Competence in Regards to Technology  1.51A
        • b.  Cybersecurity  1.51B
        • c.  Duty to Competently Conduct E-Discovery and Preserve ESI  1.51C
      • 5.  Emergency Planning  1.52
  • II.  SELECTED ETHICAL ISSUES IN REPRESENTING CLIENTS
    • A.  Entering Into Fee Agreements With Clients
      • 1.  No Illegal or Unconscionable Fees  1.53
      • 2.  General Need for Written Agreement  1.54
      • 3.  Contingent Fee Agreements  1.55
      • 4.  Treatment of Retainer Fees  1.56
      • 5.  Payment of Attorney Fees by Someone Other Than Client  1.57
      • 6.  Limited Scope Representation Permissible  1.58
    • B.  Avoiding Conflicting Interests
      • 1.  Affirmative Duty to Avoid Conflicting Interests
        • a.  Conflicting Interests Summarized  1.59
        • b.  Adverse Legal, Business, Financial, Professional, or Personal Interests
          • (1)  Relationship With Client  1.60
          • (2)  Relationship With Party, Witness, or Another Party’s Attorney  1.61
          • (3)  Relationship With Another Party’s Attorney [Deleted]  1.62
        • c.  Special Considerations in Criminal Cases
          • (1)  Codefendants
            • (a)  Conflicts of Interest; Multiple Representation  1.63
            • (b)  Procedure When Retained Counsel Is Involved  1.64
            • (c)  Procedure When Appointed Counsel Is Involved  1.65
          • (2)  Concurrent and Former Clients (Not Codefendants) in Same Proceeding  1.66
          • (3)  Conflicts Confronting Prosecutor
            • (a)  Recusal  1.67
            • (b)  Prosecutor May Not Also Defend  1.68
            • (c)  City Attorneys  1.69
          • (4)  Conflicts That May Disqualify Defense Attorney’s Firm  1.70
      • 2.  Attorney Withdrawal and Disqualification as Result of Conflict
        • a.  Withdrawal  1.71
        • b.  Disqualification  1.72
      • 3.  Representation With Informed Written Consent Despite Conflict  1.73
    • C.  Duty to Provide Effective Representation
      • 1.  Necessary Learning and Skill to Take Case  1.74
      • 2.  Proper Supervision of Others Working on Case  1.75
      • 3.  Ineffective Assistance of Counsel  1.76
    • D.  Duty to Keep Client Informed About Case  1.77
    • E.  Duty to Communicate Terms of an Offer  1.78
    • F.  Duty to Keep Client’s Confidences and Secrets  1.79
    • G.  Concluding Attorney-Client Relationship
      • 1.  Withdrawal From Representation
        • a.  Withdrawal During Representation
          • (1)  Withdrawal by Mutual Agreement  1.80
          • (2)  Mandatory and Permissive Withdrawal; Court Approval
            • (a)  Mandatory Withdrawal  1.81
            • (b)  Permissive Withdrawal  1.82
            • (c)  Need for Court Approval to Withdraw  1.83
        • b.  Withdrawal at Conclusion of Representation  1.84
      • 2.  Release of Files to Clients  1.85
      • 3.  Termination of Representation on Attorney’s Death, Incapacity, or Suspension  1.86
    • H.  Mandatory Fee Arbitration When Dispute Over Fees  1.87
  • III.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: General Letter Agreement for Representation on Hourly Basis  1.88
    • B.  Form: Agreement for Representation Based on Contingent Fee  1.89

2

Alternative Dispute Resolution

Hon. Jeremy D. Fogel

  • I.  UNDERSTANDING AND USING ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION (ADR)
    • A.  Purpose, History, and Benefits of ADR  2.1
    • B.  Choosing Appropriate ADR Process  2.2
    • C.  Timing for Effective Use of ADR  2.3
  • II.  TYPES OF ADR
    • A.  Mediation
      • 1.  Description  2.4
      • 2.  Confidentiality
        • a.  Importance of Confidentiality to Mediation  2.5
        • b.  Statutory Provisions and Related Case Law  2.6
        • c.  Applicability of Confidentiality Provisions  2.7
        • d.  Other Sources of Confidentiality  2.8
      • 3.  Mediators’ Ethical Obligations  2.9
      • 4.  Types of Mediation
        • a.  Theoretical Models  2.10
        • b.  Mediator Styles  2.11
        • c.  Voluntary and Mandatory Mediation Distinguished  2.12
      • 5.  Advantages and Disadvantages of Mediation  2.13
      • 6.  Preparing for and Participating in Mediation
        • a.  Choosing Mediator  2.14
        • b.  Preparing for Mediation Session  2.15
      • 7.  Stages of Mediation Process
        • a.  Opening Session  2.16
        • b.  Information Exchange  2.17
        • c.  Identifying, Framing, and Organizing Issues  2.18
        • d.  Identifying and Negotiating Solutions  2.19
        • e.  Joint Session Versus Caucus  2.20
      • 8.  Mediation Agreements  2.21
    • B.  Collaborative Law
      • 1.  Description  2.22
      • 2.  Agreement Not to Litigate  2.23
      • 3.  Advantages and Disadvantages of Collaborative Law  2.24
      • 4.  Cases Suitable for Collaborative Law  2.25
    • C.  Early Neutral Evaluation (ENE)
      • 1.  Description  2.26
      • 2.  Advantages and Disadvantages of ENE  2.27
      • 3.  Typical ENE Procedures  2.28
    • D.  Nonbinding Judicial Arbitration
      • 1.  Description; Governing Law  2.29
      • 2.  Advantages and Disadvantages of Judicial Arbitration  2.30
      • 3.  Actions Subject to and Exempt From Judicial Arbitration
        • a.  Actions Subject to Judicial Arbitration  2.31
        • b.  Actions Exempt From Judicial Arbitration  2.32
      • 4.  Preparing for Judicial Arbitration
        • a.  Discovery  2.33
        • b.  Using Documentary Evidence  2.34
      • 5.  Setting Case for Arbitration  2.35
      • 6.  Selection of Arbitrator and Ethical Rules  2.36
      • 7.  Conduct of Arbitration Hearing  2.37
      • 8.  Issuance of Arbitrator’s Award  2.38
      • 9.  Arbitration Award Not Automatically Binding  2.39
      • 10.  Trial After Arbitration
        • a.  Request for Trial  2.40
        • b.  Potential Liability for Less Favorable Outcome After Court Trial  2.41
        • c.  Discovery Issues  2.42
        • d.  Conduct of Trial; Evidence  2.43
    • E.  Contractual Arbitration
      • 1.  Description; Governing Law  2.44
      • 2.  Advantages and Disadvantages of Contractual Arbitration
        • a.  Advantages of Contractual Arbitration  2.45
        • b.  Disadvantages of Contractual Arbitration  2.46
      • 3.  Ethics in Arbitration  2.47
      • 4.  Contractual Arbitration Clauses
        • a.  Specifying Issues to Be Arbitrated  2.48
        • b.  Selection or Appointment of Arbitrator  2.49
        • c.  Other Issues Addressed in Arbitration Agreements  2.50
      • 5.  Consideration of Agreement’s Enforceability in Seeking Arbitration
        • a.  Valid Arbitration Agreement Required to Compel Arbitration  2.51
        • b.  Plaintiff’s Burden to Show Agreement to Arbitrate  2.52
        • c.  Unconscionability as Defense to Enforcement  2.53
        • d.  Scrutiny of Agreements to Arbitrate Unwaivable Public Rights  2.54
      • 6.  Preparing for Contractual Arbitration
        • a.  Demand  2.55
        • b.  Procedure to Compel Arbitration; Order  2.56
        • c.  Selecting Arbitrator  2.57
        • d.  Discovery  2.58
        • e.  Witness and Document Lists  2.59
      • 7.  Arbitration Hearing
        • a.  Parties’ Rights Summarized  2.60
        • b.  Preliminary Hearing  2.61
        • c.  Arbitrator’s Authority  2.62
        • d.  Evidence and Testimony  2.63
        • e.  Briefs, Arguments, Exhibits, and Transcripts  2.64
      • 8.  Arbitration Awards and Remedies
        • a.  Form and Content of Award; Service  2.65
        • b.  Finality of Award  2.66
        • c.  Confirmation, Correction, or Vacation of Award  2.67
        • d.  Appeal From Award  2.68
        • e.  Enforcing Arbitration Award  2.69
  • III.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Sample Agreement to Mediate Existing Dispute  2.70
    • B.  Form: Stipulation to Submit to Judicial Arbitration  2.71
    • C.  Form: Sample Contractual Provision to Resolve Disputes by Arbitration  2.72

3

Preparing, Filing, and Serving Complaints and Answers

R. Camille King

Rae Lovko

  • I.  INITIAL CONSIDERATIONS IN PLANNING TO BRING COMPLAINT
    • A.  Nature and Function of Pleading  3.1
    • B.  Complying With Statutes of Limitations  3.2
    • C.  Prerequisites to Initiation of Action  3.3
    • D.  Determining Jurisdiction and Venue
      • 1.  Jurisdiction
        • a.  Jurisdiction as Threshold Issue  3.4
        • b.  Subject Matter Jurisdiction  3.5
        • c.  Personal Jurisdiction  3.6
        • d.  In Rem and Quasi In Rem Jurisdiction  3.7
      • 2.  Venue
        • a.  Governing Law  3.8
        • b.  Nature of Action: Transitory, Local, or Mixed  3.9
        • c.  Venue Selection Provisions in Contracts Void  3.10
        • d.  Rules for Government Entities  3.11
        • e.  Rules for Corporations, Associations, and Partnerships  3.12
          • (1)  Contract Actions  3.12A
          • (2)  Tort Actions  3.12B
      • 3.  Determining and Naming Parties
        • a.  Plaintiff Must Be Real Party in Interest; Exceptions  3.13
        • b.  Defendant  3.14
        • c.  Parties Must Have Legal Capacity to Sue or Be Sued  3.15
        • d.  Joinder of Parties
          • (1)  Ascertaining Need for Joinder  3.16
          • (2)  Compulsory Joinder  3.17
          • (3)  Permissive Joinder  3.18
        • e.  Naming Corporations, Associations, and Other Entities as Parties  3.19
        • f.  Naming Persons and Entities Whose True Names Are Unknown  3.20
  • II.  PREPARING COMPLAINT
    • A.  Attorney-Drafted Versus Judicial Council Forms  3.21
    • B.  Format Requirements for Attorney-Drafted Complaints  3.22
    • C.  Drafting Specific Elements of Complaint
      • 1.  Caption  3.23
      • 2.  Introductory Clause  3.24
      • 3.  Allegations in Body of Complaint
        • a.  General Guidelines on Form and Means of Presentation  3.25
        • b.  Stating Separate Causes of Action Not Required  3.26
        • c.  Joinder of Causes of Action Permitted; Splitting Causes of Action Prohibited
          • (1)  Joinder of Causes of Action Permitted  3.27
          • (2)  Splitting Causes of Action Prohibited  3.28
        • d.  Factual Statement of Allegations
          • (1)  Use of Ordinary and Concise Language  3.29
          • (2)  No Need to Plead Facts Anticipating Defenses  3.30
          • (3)  Facts Alleged on Information and Belief  3.31
          • (4)  Incorporation of Facts by Reference  3.32
      • 4.  Demand for Judgment and Related Remedies Issues
        • a.  Demand for Judgment  3.33
        • b.  Considerations in Selecting Legal and Equitable Remedies for Complaint  3.34
        • c.  Inconsistent Remedies Disallowed  3.35
        • d.  Statement of Damages in Personal Injury and Wrongful Death Actions  3.36
        • e.  Reservation of Right to Punitive Damages  3.37
        • f.  Effect of Demand in Complaint on Judgment in Case
          • (1)  Default Cases  3.38
          • (2)  Contested Cases  3.39
      • 5.  Signature  3.40
      • 6.  Verification
        • a.  Nature and Purpose of Verification  3.41
        • b.  When Required  3.42
        • c.  Persons Who May Verify Complaint  3.43
    • D.  Inclusion of Case Cover Sheet With Complaint  3.44
  • III.  FILING AND SERVING COMPLAINT
    • A.  Filing Complaint and Issuance of Summons
      • 1.  Filing Complaint With Court Clerk  3.45
      • 2.  Payment or Waiver of Filing Fees
        • a.  Fee Amount Set by Statute  3.46
        • b.  Fee Waivers  3.47
        • c.  Fee Payments (Checks) Returned for Insufficient Funds  3.48
      • 3.  Preparation and Issuance of Summons
        • a.  Preparation of Summons  3.49
        • b.  Issuance of Summons  3.50
    • B.  Serving Summons and Complaint
      • 1.  Persons Who May Serve and Defendants Subject to Service of Summons and Complaint
        • a.  Persons Who May Serve Summons and Complaint  3.51
        • b.  Defendants Who Are Subject to Receipt of Service of Summons and Complaint  3.52
          • (1)  Corporations  3.52A
          • (2)  Joint Stock Companies, Associations, and Partnerships  3.52B
          • (3)  Public Entities  3.52C
          • (4)  Minors or Other Incompetent Persons  3.52D
          • (5)  Prisoners  3.52E
        • c.  Manner of Service Within California
          • (1)  Service Methods Summarized  3.53
          • (2)  Personal Service  3.54
          • (3)  Substituted Service  3.55
          • (4)  Mail Service With Notice and Acknowledgment of Receipt  3.56
          • (5)  Service by Publication  3.57
        • d.  Service Outside California  3.58
        • e.  Service Outside United States  3.59
        • f.  Time Limits for Service; Application for Court Order Extending Time for Service  3.60
      • 2.  Effect of Failure to Make Proper Service  3.61
      • 3.  Proof of Service
        • a.  Content  3.62
        • b.  Filing Proof of Service
          • (1)  What Constitutes “Filing”  3.63
          • (2)  Time for Filing Proof of Service in Relation to Dismissal Statutes  3.64
  • IV.  AMENDED COMPLAINTS AND AMENDMENTS TO COMPLAINTS
    • A.  Distinguishing Amended Complaints From Amendments to Complaints and Supplemental Complaints  3.65
    • B.  Reasons to Amend Complaint and Limitations on Amendment
      • 1.  Reasons to Amend  3.66
      • 2.  Limitations on Amendment  3.67
    • C.  Use and Format of Amended Complaints
      • 1.  Use of Amended Complaint  3.68
      • 2.  Format  3.69
    • D.  Use and Format of Amendment to Complaint
      • 1.  Use of Amendment to Complaint  3.70
      • 2.  Format of Amendment to Complaint  3.71
    • E.  Amendment Procedure
      • 1.  Amendment Without Court Permission  3.72
      • 2.  Amendment by Stipulation  3.73
      • 3.  Amendment to Correct Mistake or Add or Delete Name of Party  3.74
      • 4.  Amendment to Substitute True Name for Fictitious Name  3.75
    • F.  Filing Amended Complaint or Amendment to Complaint After Demurrer Sustained  3.76
    • G.  Other Means of Amendment
      • 1.  Oral Motion to Amend; Motions at Trial  3.77
      • 2.  Noticed Motion for Leave to Amend  3.78
    • H.  When Additional Summons Is Required After Amendment of Complaint  3.79
  • V.  ANSWERS
    • A.  Governing Law  3.80
    • B.  Purpose of Filing Answer  3.81
    • C.  Effect of Failure to File  3.82
    • D.  Preparing Answer: Components
      • 1.  Caption  3.83
      • 2.  Introductory Paragraphs  3.84
      • 3.  Body of Answer
        • a.  Required Elements Summarized  3.85
        • b.  Incorporation by Reference  3.86
        • c.  Denials
          • (1)  General Denials  3.87
          • (2)  Specific Denials  3.88
          • (3)  Denials on Information and Belief or Lack of Information or Belief
            • (a)  When to Use  3.89
            • (b)  Sample Language  3.90
          • (4)  Effect of Failure to Deny Material Allegations  3.91
        • d.  Defenses
          • (1)  Description and Use  3.92
          • (2)  Effect of Pleading and Not Pleading Defenses
            • (a)  Affirmative Defenses Deemed Automatically Denied by Plaintiff  3.93
            • (b)  Defenses Waived if Not Plead  3.94
          • (3)  Pleading Inconsistent Defenses  3.95
        • e.  Effect of Inadvertent Affirmative Admissions  3.96
        • f.  Prayer or Demand for Relief  3.97
        • g.  Date; Subscription  3.98
        • h.  Verification of Answer
          • (1)  When Required  3.99
          • (2)  Who May Verify Answer
            • (a)  Party or Attorney May Verify  3.100
            • (b)  Verification by Corporate Defendant or Public Entity
              • (i)  Corporate Defendant  3.101
              • (ii)  Public Entity  3.102
  • VI.  FILING AND SERVING ANSWER
    • A.  Filing Answer
      • 1.  Original of Answer Filed With Court  3.103
      • 2.  Time to File Answer
        • a.  General 30-Day Rule  3.104
        • b.  Filing After Ruling on Demurrer  3.105
        • c.  Filing Answer After Other Challenges to Complaint  3.106
        • d.  Extending Time by Stipulation or Court Order  3.107
      • 3.  Danger of Default  3.107A
    • B.  Serving Answer  3.108
  • VII.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Sample Verified Complaint  3.109
    • B.  Form: Sample Verified Answer  3.110

4

Pretrial Discovery: A Step-by-Step Approach

Teresa A. McQueen

R. Camille King

Rae Lovko

  • I.  DEVELOP DISCOVERY PLAN
    • A.  Key Components of Developing a Discovery Plan
      • 1.  Purpose of a Discovery Plan  4.1
      • 2.  Legal Issues  4.2
      • 3.  Factual Issues  4.3
    • B.  Identify Types of Potential Evidence
      • 1.  Testimony  4.4
      • 2.  Documentary Evidence  4.5
      • 3.  Physical Evidence  4.6
  • II.  INFORMAL DISCOVERY
    • A.  Nature of Informal Discovery  4.7
    • B.  Interviews and Inspections  4.8
    • C.  Public Information
      • 1.  General Research  4.9
      • 2.  Judicial Notice  4.10
      • 3.  Public Records Requests
        • a.  California Public Records Act  4.11
        • b.  Freedom of Information Act  4.12
  • III.  FORMAL DISCOVERY
    • A.  Discovery Under the Civil Discovery Act  4.13
    • B.  Methods of Discovery Approved by the Civil Discovery Act  4.14
    • C.  Sequence and Timing of Discovery Under the Civil Discovery Act
      • 1.  Sequence  4.14A
      • 2.  Timing  4.14B
    • D.  Propounding Specific Discovery Methods
      • 1.  Depositions
        • a.  Description  4.15
        • b.  Oral Deposition  4.15A
        • c.  Written Deposition  4.15B
        • d.  Jurisdiction to Compel Attendance at Deposition  4.16
          • (1)  Deposition of Party and Nonparty Witnesses Inside California  4.16A
          • (2)  Nonparty Witnesses Outside California  4.16B
        • e.  One-Deposition Rule  4.17
        • f.  Time Considerations for Service and Scheduling of Depositions
          • (1)  Service  4.18
          • (2)   Scheduling  4.18A
        • g.  Contents of a Deposition Notice  4.18B
        • h.  Time to Complete Taking Depositions [Deleted]  4.19
        • i.  Deposition Location
          • (1)  If Deponent Within California  4.20
          • (2)  If Deponent Outside California  4.21
        • j.  Deposition by Telephone, Video Conference, or Other Electronic Means  4.22
        • k.  Fees for Attending Depositions
          • (1)  Nonparty Deponents in General  4.23
          • (2)  Nonparty Government Employee Deponents  4.24
        • l.  Special Considerations in Taking Depositions of Experts  4.25
      • 2.  Deposition Subpoena for Records
        • a.  Subpoena for Personal Records  4.26
        • b.   Nonparty Business Records  4.26A
      • 3.  Interrogatories
        • a.  Description  4.27
        • b.   Limitations  4.27A
        • c.  Judicial Council Form Interrogatories  4.28
        • d.  Specially Prepared Interrogatories  4.29
        • e.  Supplemental Interrogatories  4.29A
        • f.  Timing, Service, and Format
          • (1)  Timing  4.30
          • (2)  Service and Other Requirements  4.31
          • (3)  Format  4.32
      • 4.  Demand for Inspection of Documents, Things, and Places
        • a.  Description  4.33
          • (1)   Limitations  4.33A
          • (2)  Supplemental Demand for Inspection  4.33B
        • b.  Timing, Service, and Format
          • (1)  Timing  4.33C
          • (2)  Service  4.33D
          • (3)  Format  4.34
          • (4)   Drafting Considerations  4.34A
        • c.  Service and Timing of Production or Inspection [Deleted]  4.35
      • 5.  Demand for Physical and Mental Examinations
        • a.  Description  4.36
        • b.  Condition in Controversy Determines Right to Demand Examination  4.37
        • c.  Limitations on Scope of Examination; Stipulations  4.38
        • d.  Timing, Location, Service, and Format
          • (1)  Timing, Location, and Service of Demand for Physical Examination  4.38A
          • (2)  Format  4.38B
      • 6.  Requests for Admission
        • a.  Description  4.39
        • b.  Limitations  4.39A
        • c.  Specially Prepared Requests for Admissions  4.40
        • d.  Using Judicial Council Forms  4.41
        • e.  Timing, Service, and Other Requirements
          • (1)  Timing  4.41A
          • (2)  Service and Other Requirements  4.41B
        • f.  Format  4.42
        • g.  First Opportunity to Serve [Deleted]  4.43
        • h.  Application to Serve Requests Early [Deleted]  4.44
        • i.  Deadline to Serve [Deleted]  4.45
        • j.  Methods of Service [Deleted]  4.46
        • k.  Requesting Party’s Right to Recover Cost of Proof [Deleted]  4.47
      • 7.  Demand for Exchange of Expert Trial Witness Information
        • a.  Description  4.48
        • b.  Timing  4.48A
        • c.  Procedures  4.49
        • d.  Date and Place of Exchange  4.50
        • e.  Format of Written Exchange  4.51
        • f.  Format of Expert Witness Declaration  4.52
        • g.  Motion to Augment and Amend Expert Witness Information  4.53
        • h.  Withdrawal of Expert Designation  4.54
    • E.  Other Discovery Procedures
      • 1.  Request for Statement of Damages  4.55
      • 2.  Demand for Bill of Particulars  4.56
    • F.  Using Injunction to Prevent Destruction of Evidence  4.57
  • IV.  RESPOND TO SPECIFIC DISCOVERY REQUESTS
    • A.  Interrogatories
      • 1.  Duty to Respond  4.58
        • a.  Answering the Interrogatory  4.58A
        • b.  Exercising the Option to Produce Writings  4.58B
        • c.  Objecting to the Interrogatory  4.58C
        • d.  Signature and Verification of Response
          • (1)  By Party  4.58D
          • (2)  By Attorney  4.58E
      • 2.  Time to Complete Response; Failure to Timely Respond
        • a.  Time to Respond  4.59
        • b.  Service of Response  4.59A
        • c.  Effect of Failure to Make Timely Response  4.60
      • 3.  Format and Content of Response
        • a.  Initial Responses; Related Papers  4.61
        • b.  Further, Supplemental, and Amended Responses  4.61A
        • c.  Signature and Verification of Response
          • (1)  By Party [Deleted]  4.62
          • (2)  By Party’s Attorney [Deleted]  4.63
    • B.  Demand for Inspection
      • 1.  Duty to Respond  4.63A
        • a.  Statement of Compliance  4.63B
        • b.  Statement of Inability to Comply  4.63C
        • c.  Objecting to the Demand  4.63D
      • 2.  Signature and Verification  4.63E
      • 3.  Time to Respond  4.63F
        • a.  Service of Response  4.63G
        • b.  Effect of Failure to Make Timely Response; Failure to Produce Items for Inspection, Copying, Testing, or Sampling  4.63H
      • 4.  Format of Response  4.64
      • 5.  Form of Production; Inadvertent Disclosures
        • a.  Production of Documents  4.64A
        • b.  Inadvertent Disclosure  4.64B
      • 6.  Seeking Protective Order  4.65
      • 7.  Further, Supplemental, and Amended Responses  4.65A
    • C.  Requests for Admission
      • 1.  Duty to Respond  4.66
      • 2.  Objecting to the Request for Admission  4.66A
      • 3.  Signature and Verification of Response  4.66B
      • 4.  Time to Respond  4.67
        • a.  Service of Response  4.67A
        • b.  Effect of Failure to Make Timely Response  4.67B
      • 5.  Format of Response  4.67C
      • 6.  Further, Withdrawn, and Amended Responses  4.67D
      • 7.  Motion for Protective Order  4.68
      • 8.  Motion to Withdraw or Amend Admission [Deleted]  4.69
    • D.  Demand for Exchange of Expert Witness Information
      • 1.  Objecting to Untimely Demand  4.70
      • 2.  Motion for Protective Order  4.71
    • E.  Demand for Physical and Mental Examinations
      • 1.  Potential Responses  4.72
      • 2.  Time to Respond; Waiver  4.73
  • V.  MOTIONS TO COMPEL RESPONSES OR FURTHER RESPONSES
    • A.  Description  4.73A
    • B.  Statutes Governing Specific Motions  4.74
    • C.  Meet and Confer Requirement  4.75
    • D.  Timing, Service , and Format
      • 1.  Timing
        • a.  45-Day Limit  4.76
        • b.  Time Extension by Stipulation  4.77
      • 2.  Service  4.78
      • 3.  Format  4.79
        • a.  Notice of Motion  4.80
        • b.  Memorandum in Support of Motion  4.81
        • c.  Declaration or Affidavit  4.81A
        • d.  Separate Statement of Disputed Responses  4.81B
  • VI.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Form Interrogatories—General (Judicial Council Form DISC-001)  4.82
    • B.  Form: Response to Interrogatories; Verification  4.83
    • C.  Form: Requests for Admission (Judicial Council Form DISC-020)  4.84
    • D.  Form: Sample Response to Requests for Admission  4.85

5

Law and Motion Practice

Susan J. Harriman

  • I.  NATURE OF LAW AND MOTION PRACTICE
    • A.  Wide Range of Civil Motions Involved; Governing Law  5.1
    • B.  Preemptive Effect of Statewide Rules  5.2
    • C.  Motion and Notice of Motion Defined; When Motion Is Deemed Made  5.3
  • II.  PREPARING NOTICE OF MOTION AND SUPPORTING PAPERS
    • A.  Necessary Papers  5.4
    • B.  General Format and Content of Motion Papers
      • 1.  Overall Physical Appearance and Related Requirements for Presentation  5.5
      • 2.  Caption
        • a.  Attorney Information  5.6
        • b.  Title of Court and Notation of “Limited Civil Case”  5.7
        • c.  Telephone Appearance  5.8
        • d.  Title of Case  5.9
        • e.  Nature of Paper  5.10
        • f.  Date, Time, Location, and Other Details of Hearing
          • (1)  Hearing Date and Time  5.11
          • (2)  Hearing Location  5.12
          • (3)  Name of Hearing Judge or Referee  5.13
        • g.  Additional Information  5.14
        • h.  Attachments  5.15
      • 3.  Body of Motion
        • a.  Required Elements  5.16
        • b.  Nature of Order Sought  5.17
        • c.  Grounds for Issuance of Order  5.18
        • d.  Supporting Papers  5.19
        • e.  Date  5.20
        • f.  Signature  5.21
    • C.  Preparing Supporting Documents
      • 1.  Memorandum in Support of Motion
        • a.  When Memorandum Required  5.22
        • b.  Contents and Organization  5.23
        • c.  Citation Format and Style  5.24
        • d.  Length  5.25
        • e.  Tables of Contents and Authorities  5.26
        • f.  Introductory Statement; Introduction  5.27
        • g.  Argument
          • (1)  Inclusion of Argument Summary  5.28
          • (2)  Concise and Persuasive Argument  5.29
        • h.  Applicable Statutes and Cases  5.30
        • i.  Conclusion and Optional Signing of Memorandum  5.31
      • 2.  Declarations
        • a.  Declaration Compared With Affidavit  5.32
        • b.  Required Submission of Declaration and Use as Substitute for Oral Testimony  5.33
        • c.  Selecting Declarant  5.34
        • d.  Caption  5.35
        • e.  Identity of Declarant  5.36
        • f.  Competence of Declarant  5.37
        • g.  Admissibility of Matters Stated  5.38
        • h.  Signature
          • (1)  Declaration  5.39
          • (2)  Affidavit  5.40
      • 3.  Pleadings and Papers on File  5.41
      • 4.  Exhibits
        • a.  Attaching Exhibits  5.42
        • b.  Contracts, Letters, and Business Records as Exhibits  5.43
      • 5.  Materials Lodged With Clerk  5.44
      • 6.  Use of Copies  5.45
      • 7.  Requests for Judicial Notice  5.46
  • III.  PROCEDURE IN BRINGING MOTION
    • A.  Time for Making Motion
      • 1.  Timing Considerations  5.47
      • 2.  Restrictions on Time for Motion or Hearing  5.48
      • 3.  Shortening Time
        • a.  By Stipulation  5.49
        • b.  By Motion for Order Shortening Time  5.50
      • 4.  Extending Time
        • a.  By Stipulation  5.51
        • b.  By Motion for Order Extending Time  5.52
    • B.  Service and Filing
      • 1.  Planning and Mode of Service in General
        • a.  Whom to Serve  5.53
        • b.  Effect on Timing of Hearing if Service Is by Other Than Personal Delivery  5.54
        • c.  Service by Personal Delivery  5.55
        • d.  Service by Mail  5.56
        • e.  Service by Fax or Electronically  5.57
        • f.  Proof of Service  5.58
      • 2.  Special Rules for Service on Public Officers, Agencies, and Attorney General
        • a.  Identification on Cover of Document  5.59
        • b.  Service on Attorney General  5.60
        • c.  Proof of Service  5.61
      • 3.  Filing Papers With Court  5.62
  • IV.  OPPOSING MOTION
    • A.  Tactical Considerations
      • 1.  Evaluation of Options and Factors  5.63
      • 2.  Consulting With Client  5.64
      • 3.  Leaving Motion Unopposed  5.65
      • 4.  Resolving Motion by Stipulation or Compromise  5.66
    • B.  Grounds for Opposing Motion
      • 1.  Noncompliance With Procedural Requirements  5.67
      • 2.  Evidentiary Matters Inadmissible or Declarant Incompetent  5.68
      • 3.  Facts or Law Insufficient  5.69
    • C.  Preparing Opposition Papers
      • 1.  Memorandum in Opposition to Motion  5.70
      • 2.  Declarations Opposing Motion  5.71
      • 3.  Other Evidentiary Material  5.72
    • D.  Opposition Procedure
      • 1.  Check for Additional Filing Requirements  5.73
      • 2.  Time for Filing Opposition Papers  5.74
      • 3.  Filing and Serving Opposition Papers  5.75
      • 4.  Moving for Continuance  5.76
  • V.  REPLIES AND RESPONSES TO REPLIES
    • A.  Reply to Opposition Papers  5.77
    • B.  Responding to Reply  5.78
  • VI.  HEARINGS, RULINGS, AND ORDERS
    • A.  Hearings
      • 1.  Attendance at Hearings
        • a.  Attendance by Parties and Counsel  5.79
        • b.  Telephone Appearances
          • (1)  When Appropriate  5.80
          • (2)  Notice of Intent to Appear by Telephone  5.81
          • (3)  Personal Appearance After Notice to Appear by Telephone  5.82
          • (4)  Teleconferencing  5.83
      • 2.  Oral Argument; Answering Judge’s Questions  5.84
      • 3.  Presenting Evidence  5.85
    • B.  Rulings and Orders
      • 1.  Rulings and Orders Defined  5.86
      • 2.  Court’s Ruling on Noticed Motion  5.87
      • 3.  Submission of Proposed Order  5.88
      • 4.  Contents of Proposed Order  5.89
      • 5.  Attorney Preparation of Order  5.90
      • 6.  Findings  5.91
      • 7.  Notice of Ruling  5.92
  • VII.  POSTHEARING PROCEDURES
    • A.  Procedures After Motion Granted
      • 1.  Moving Party  5.93
      • 2.  Opposing Party  5.94
    • B.  Procedures After Motion Denied
      • 1.  Motion for Reconsideration
        • a.  Authority for Motion  5.95
        • b.  Subsequent (Renewed) Motion for Same Order  5.96
        • c.  Jurisdiction to Hear Motion  5.97
        • d.  Denial of Motion  5.98
        • e.  Sanctions  5.99
        • f.  Appeal  5.100
      • 2.  Court’s Inherent Power to Reconsider  5.101
      • 3.  Motion for Relief Under CCP §473 (Mistake, Inadvertence, Surprise, Neglect)  5.102
    • C.  Sanctions  5.103
  • VIII.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Moving Party’s Procedures for Motions and Hearings  5.104
    • B.  Checklist: Opposing Party’s Procedure to Respond to Noticed Motion  5.105
  • IX.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Notice of Motion  5.106
    • B.  Form: Declaration Supporting Motion  5.107
    • C.  Form: Declaration Opposing Motion  5.108
    • D.  Form: Notice of Ruling on Motion  5.109
    • E.  Form: Proposed Order  5.110
    • F.  Form: Order After Hearing  5.111

6

Basic Criminal Practice

Maria E. Schopp

  • I.  INITIAL CONSIDERATIONS IN HANDLING CRIMINAL CASES
    • A.  Unique Circumstances of Criminal Practice  6.1
    • B.  Meeting Standards of Professional Responsibility
      • 1.  Complying With Professional Standards  6.2
      • 2.  Competency to Handle Case  6.3
      • 3.  Avoiding Conflicts of Interest  6.4
      • 4.  Limited Withdrawal Opportunity After Accepting Case  6.5
      • 5.  Maintaining Client’s Confidences and Secrets as Part of Attorney-Client Privilege  6.6
      • 6.  Duty to Investigate  6.7
      • 7.  Duty to Assist on Appeal  6.8
      • 8.  Prosecutorial Duty to Disclose Exculpatory Evidence  6.9
    • C.  Attorney Fee Issues
      • 1.  Privately Retained Counsel
        • a.  Common Fee Arrangements  6.10
        • b.  When Written Agreement Required  6.11
      • 2.  Court-Appointed Private Counsel  6.12
    • D.  Interview Client and Identify All Issues Arising Out of Crime Charged
      • 1.  Using Interview to Understand Client’s Entire Circumstances  6.13
      • 2.  Client In or Out of Custody  6.14
      • 3.  Nature of Offense Charged and Client’s Prior Criminal History  6.15
      • 4.  Other Pending Cases  6.16
      • 5.  Prospective Job Loss and Related Economic and Support Issues  6.17
      • 6.  Potential Deportation of Noncitizen Client for Criminal Conviction  6.18
    • E.  Obtain and Review Police Report and Any Charging Documents  6.19
  • II.  EVALUATING CHARGES AGAINST CLIENT
    • A.  Distinguishing Types of Criminal Charges
      • 1.  Infractions  6.20
      • 2.  Misdemeanors  6.21
      • 3.  Felonies  6.22
      • 4.  “Wobblers”  6.23
    • B.  Charges That Include Prior Offenses or Sentencing Enhancements
      • 1.  Prior Offenses  6.24
      • 2.  Sentencing Enhancements  6.25
    • C.  Charges Subject to Diversion  6.26
    • D.  Common Issues Involved in Selected Criminal Charges
      • 1.  Illustrative Charges Presented  6.27
      • 2.  Shoplifting  6.28
      • 3.  Domestic Violence  6.29
      • 4.  Driving Under the Influence
        • a.  Wide Range of Issues and Consequences  6.30
        • b.  Client’s Arrest and Release  6.31
        • c.  Role of DMV  6.32
        • d.  Potential Criminal Charges  6.33
  • III.  BASIC PRETRIAL PROCEDURES
    • A.  Arraignment and Pleas
      • 1.  Arraignment
        • a.  General Purpose and Procedure  6.34
        • b.  Arraignment on Citation  6.35
        • c.  Arraignment on Complaint  6.36
        • d.  Arraignment on Information or Indictment in Felony Prosecutions  6.37
      • 2.  Pleas  6.38
    • B.  Pretrial Motions
      • 1.  Pretrial Motions in General  6.39
      • 2.  Checklist: Common Pretrial Motions  6.40
    • C.  Formal and Informal Discovery
      • 1.  Reciprocal Right to Discovery by Defense and Prosecution  6.41
      • 2.  Summary of Discovery to Be Provided to Defense  6.42
      • 3.  Summary of Discovery to Be Provided to Prosecution  6.43
      • 4.  Timing of Disclosures  6.44
    • D.  Preliminary Hearing in Felony Cases  6.45
    • E.  Suspension of Proceedings for Mental Health Issues or Evaluation  6.46
    • F.  Disposing of Case Before Trial by Plea Bargaining
      • 1.  Nature of Plea Bargaining  6.47
      • 2.  Charge Versus Sentence Bargaining  6.48
      • 3.  Timing of Plea Bargaining  6.49
      • 4.  Limitations on Plea Bargaining
        • a.  Certain Felonies and Prior Felony Convictions  6.50
        • b.  Illegal Sentences  6.51
  • IV.  TRIAL AND SENTENCING PROCEEDINGS
    • A.  Trial
      • 1.  Importance of Early Preparation  6.52
      • 2.  Summary of Rights at Trial  6.53
      • 3.  Order of Trial Presentation  6.54
    • B.  Judgment and Sentencing After Trial
      • 1.  Time and Procedure to Pronounce Judgment  6.55
      • 2.  Misdemeanor Sentencing  6.56
      • 3.  Felony Sentencing  6.57
  • V.  POSTCONVICTION CONSEQUENCES
    • A.  Registration as Certain Type of Offender  6.58
    • B.  License Suspensions  6.59
    • C.  Special Probation Conditions
      • 1.  Offenses Subject to Mandatory Conditions  6.60
      • 2.  Specific Discretionary Conditions  6.61

7

Personal Injury

Micha Star Liberty

  • I.  UNDERSTANDING SCOPE OF PERSONAL INJURY MATTERS  7.1
  • II.  INITIAL PROCEDURES AND CONSIDERATIONS IN HANDLING CASE
    • A.  Client Interview  7.2
    • B.  Establishing Fee Agreement and Obtaining Authorizations
      • 1.  Fee Agreement
        • a.  Contingent Fee Agreements  7.3
        • b.  Other Fee Agreements  7.4
        • c.  Limitations on Fees
          • (1)  Contingent Fees in Medical Malpractice Cases  7.5
          • (2)  Prevailing Party Fees Under MICRA  7.6
      • 2.  Obtaining Authorizations for Documents  7.7
    • C.  Advising Client Regarding Medical Care and Returning to Work  7.8
    • D.  Identifying Statute of Limitations
      • 1.  Two-Year Limitations Period  7.9
      • 2.  Special Limitation Periods  7.10
      • 3.  Tolling of Statute During Child’s Minority  7.11
    • E.  Accounting for Reimbursement Rights and Liens  7.12
    • F.  Exhausting Administrative Remedies if Claim Against Public Entity
      • 1.  When Required; Procedure  7.13
      • 2.  Time Limits  7.14
    • G.  Determining Right of Plaintiff-Decedent’s Representative or Survivors to Bring Action After Plaintiff’s Death
      • 1.  Personal Representative’s Right to Bring Plaintiff-Decedent’s Cause of Action  7.15
      • 2.  Survivors’ Own Actions in Wrongful Death Cases Contrasted  7.16
    • H.  Availability of Liability Insurance  7.17
    • I.  Consideration of Collateral Estoppel and Res Judicata
      • 1.  Collateral Estoppel  7.18
      • 2.  Res Judicata  7.19
    • J.  Avoiding Splitting Cause of Action  7.20
  • III.  EVALUATING LIABILITY
    • A.  Negligence
      • 1.  General Definition of Negligence  7.21
      • 2.  Elements  7.22
      • 3.  Application of Standard of Care to Specific Classes of Persons
        • a.  Minors  7.23
        • b.  Disabled Persons  7.24
        • c.  Professionals and Specialists With Occupational Standards  7.25
    • B.  Strict Liability  7.26
  • IV.  EVALUATING DEFENSES
    • A.  Comparative Fault  7.27
    • B.  Contributory Negligence  7.28
    • C.  Contributory Willful Misconduct  7.29
    • D.  Assumption of Risk
      • 1.  “Primary” (Implied) Assumption of Risk  7.30
      • 2.  “Secondary” Assumption of Risk  7.31
      • 3.  Express Assumption of Risk by Preinjury Agreement for Release of Liability  7.32
    • E.  Other Defenses
      • 1.  Statute of Limitations  7.33
      • 2.  Failure to Mitigate Damages  7.34
      • 3.  Workers’ Compensation as Exclusive Remedy  7.35
      • 4.  Defenses Available to Public Entities as Defendants
        • a.  Public Entity May Assert Defenses Available to Private Persons  7.36
        • b.  Liability Limited by Statute  7.37
        • c.  Failure to Exhaust Administrative Remedies
          • (1)  Availability as Defense  7.38
          • (2)  Exceptions  7.39
  • V.  ASSESSING DAMAGES
    • A.  Terminology Used in Assessing Damages
      • 1.  General and Special Damages  7.40
      • 2.  Economic and Noneconomic Damages  7.41
    • B.  Specific Types of General Damages
      • 1.  Bodily Injury  7.42
      • 2.  “Just” Damages in Wrongful Death Cases
        • a.  Determining Damages That Are “Just”  7.43
        • b.  Recoverable Elements  7.44
      • 3.  Pain and Suffering  7.45
      • 4.  Emotional Distress  7.46
      • 5.  Loss of Consortium  7.47
      • 6.  Limitations on General Damages  7.48
    • C.  Special Damages
      • 1.  Lost Wages and Impaired Earning Capacity  7.49
      • 2.  Reimbursement of Medical Expenses  7.50
    • D.  Future Damages  7.51
    • E.  Punitive Damages  7.52
  • VI.  ISSUES IN TYPICAL PERSONAL INJURY CASES
    • A.  Motor Vehicle (Automobile) Negligence Cases
      • 1.  Liability
        • a.  Liability of Drivers
          • (1)  Duty to Use Ordinary Care  7.53
          • (2)  Statutory Duties  7.54
          • (3)  Intentional, Willful, and Reckless Misconduct  7.55
        • b.  Liability of Automobile Owners
          • (1)  Vicarious Liability for Permissive Use  7.56
          • (2)  Negligent Entrustment  7.57
          • (3)  Failure to Equip and Maintain Safe Vehicle  7.58
          • (4)  Failure to Take Precautions Against Theft  7.59
        • c.  Liability of Adults for Minors at Fault  7.60
        • d.  Supervising Minor With Driver’s Permit  7.61
        • e.  Employers and Principals
          • (1)  Respondeat Superior  7.62
          • (2)  Personal Negligence of Employer  7.63
          • (3)  Independent Contractors
            • (a)  Public Franchise Rule; Carriers  7.64
            • (b)  Contractor Hired to Do Dangerous Work  7.65
            • (c)  Negligent Hiring  7.66
      • 2.  Defenses
        • a.  Contributory Negligence  7.67
        • b.  Assumption of Risk
          • (1)  General Principles  7.68
          • (2)  Firefighter’s Rule  7.69
        • c.  Willful Misconduct of Plaintiff  7.70
    • B.  Premises Liability
      • 1.  Liability of Private Property Owners in General
        • a.  Owner’s Liability to Visitors
          • (1)  Standard of Ordinary Care  7.71
          • (2)  Visitor’s Status
            • (a)  Invitee, Licensee, Trespasser  7.72
            • (b)  Criminals  7.73
            • (c)  Minor (Attractive Nuisance)  7.74
            • (d)  Firefighters, Peace Officers, Emergency Medical Personnel
              • (i)  Application of Firefighter’s Rule  7.75
              • (ii)  Exceptions to Firefighter’s Rule  7.76
            • (e)  Recreational Users of Private Property
              • (i)  General Rule of Immunity  7.77
              • (ii)  Exceptions to Immunity  7.78
            • (f)  Resort, Amusement Place, and Swimming Pool Users  7.79
            • (g)  Owner’s Liability for Conduct of Others  7.80
        • b.  Injuries on Public Sidewalks or Streets Adjacent to Private Property  7.81
      • 2.  Defenses to Premises Liability
        • a.  Contributory Fault  7.82
        • b.  Assumption of Risk  7.83
        • c.  Release Agreements
          • (1)  Limitations on Owners’ Liability to Visitors  7.84
          • (2)  Limitations on Landlords’ Liability to Tenants  7.85
    • C.  Injuries Involving Dogs and Other Animals
      • 1.  Persons Liable; Theories
        • a.  Keeper or Owner
          • (1)  Multiple Potential Bases of Liability  7.86
          • (2)  Strict Liability
            • (a)  Dog-Bite Statute  7.87
            • (b)  Dangerous Animal Rule; Known Dangerous Traits
              • (i)  Scope of Rule  7.88
              • (ii)  Knowledge of Trait  7.89
            • (c)  Trespassing Animals  7.90
          • (3)  Negligence
            • (a)  Animal Need Not Be Known to Be Vicious  7.91
            • (b)  Failure to Warn, Restrain, or Control  7.92
            • (c)  Failure to Vaccinate Dog for Rabies  7.93
            • (d)  Violation of Local Leash Law  7.94
            • (e)  Duty of Due Care to Control Livestock on Highway  7.95
        • b.  Owner’s Employer or Landlord  7.96
        • c.  Other Potential Defendants  7.97
      • 2.  Defenses
        • a.  Statute of Limitations  7.98
        • b.  Contributory Negligence
          • (1)  As Defense to Strict Liability Cause of Action  7.99
          • (2)  As Defense to Negligence Cause of Action  7.100
          • (3)  Assumption of Risk
            • (a)  Secondary Assumption of Risk  7.101
            • (b)  Assumption of Risk That Bars Recovery  7.102
            • (c)  Application of Assumption of Risk in Specific Contexts
              • (i)  Injury Caused by Dog; Veterinarian’s Rule  7.103
              • (ii)  Injury Caused by Horse: Primary and Express Assumption of Risk  7.104
        • c.  Willfully Invited Injury  7.105
        • d.  Public Entity Immunities  7.106
        • e.  Effect of Medical Injury Compensation Reform Act (MICRA)  7.107
    • D.  Product Liability Cases
      • 1.  Strict Product Liability  7.108
      • 2.  Liability Based on Negligence
        • a.  Negligence Liability as Alternative to Strict Liability  7.109
        • b.  Persons to Whom Duty of Care Owed  7.110
    • E.  Medical Malpractice Cases
      • 1.  Medical Doctors (Physicians and Surgeons)
        • a.  General Grounds for Professional Liability; Notice  7.111
        • b.  Battery for Unauthorized Surgery or Treatment  7.112
        • c.  Sexual Contact With or Harassment of Patient  7.113
        • d.  Other Grounds  7.114
      • 2.  Other Practitioners  7.115
      • 3.  Hospitals, Sanitariums, and Rest Homes  7.116
      • 4.  Defenses  7.117
      • 5.  Recovery From (or Release of) Initial Tortfeasor; Indemnity  7.118
      • 6.  Effect of Medical Injury Compensation Reform Act (MICRA)  7.119
  • VII.  CHECKLIST AND FORMS
    • A.  Checklist: General Client Interview for Personal Injury Case  7.120
    • B.  Form: Sample Client Authorization to Release Medical Information or Police Report  7.121
    • C.  Form: Sample Demand Letter-General Form  7.122

8

Uncontested Marital Dissolutions

Shanon K. Quinley, CFLS

  • I.  HOW UNCONTESTED PROCEEDINGS ARISE  8.1
  • II.  REPRESENTING CLIENT AND DEALING WITH UNREPRESENTED PARTY
    • A.  Representing Client and Avoiding Dual Representation
      • 1.  Importance of Written Fee Agreement for Representation  8.2
      • 2.  Avoidance of Dual Representation  8.3
    • B.  Dealing With Unrepresented Party  8.4
  • III.  INITIAL PROCEDURAL CONSIDERATIONS AND STEPS
    • A.  Jurisdiction and Venue Rules in Dissolution Cases
      • 1.  Subject Matter Jurisdiction
        • a.  Exclusive Jurisdiction of Superior Court  8.5
        • b.  Residency Requirement as Element of Jurisdiction  8.6
        • c.  Jurisdiction in Child Custody and Visitation Cases  8.7
      • 2.  Personal Jurisdiction  8.8
      • 3.  Venue  8.9
    • B.  Filing Dissolution Petition and Related Papers; Issuance of Summons
      • 1.  Dissolution Petition  8.10
      • 2.  Related Papers
        • a.  Declaration Under UCCJEA  8.11
        • b.  Voluntary Declaration of Paternity  8.12
        • c.  Property Declaration  8.13
        • d.  Child Custody and Visitation Attachments  8.14
      • 3.  Issuance of Summons  8.15
    • C.  Disclosure Declaration and Related Forms  8.16
    • D.  Forms Possibly Needed for Temporary Orders  8.17
    • E.  Service of Petition, Summons, and Other Forms  8.18
  • IV.  ALTERNATIVE PROCEDURES FOR UNCONTESTED CASE AFTER SERVICE OF PETITION AND SUMMONS
    • A.  Default by Respondent
      • 1.  Defaults With and Without Agreement Contrasted  8.19
      • 2.  When Default Available  8.20
      • 3.  Scope of Relief on Default  8.21
      • 4.  Submitting Forms
        • a.  Request to Enter Default and Attachments  8.22
        • b.  Additional Forms  8.23
      • 5.  Entry of Default  8.24
    • B.  Stipulated Appearance by Respondent  8.25
  • V.  ISSUES TO RESOLVE IN REACHING SETTLEMENT AGREEMENT
    • A.  Date of Separation  8.26
    • B.  Child Custody, Visitation, and Support
      • 1.  Child Custody and Visitation  8.27
      • 2.  Child Support
        • a.  Authority to Order Support and Duration  8.28
        • b.  Child Support Guideline
          • (1)  Mandatory Nature of Guideline; Calculation  8.29
          • (2)  Time-Share Factor  8.30
          • (3)  Special Adjustments to Formula
            • (a)  Mandatory and Discretionary “Add-Ons”  8.31
            • (b)  Low-Income Adjustment  8.32
            • (c)  Extraordinarily High Income  8.33
            • (d)  Parties’ Stipulation  8.34
        • c.  Tax Aspects  8.35
    • C.  Spousal Support
      • 1.  Nature of Support Duty; Waiver  8.36
      • 2.  Temporary Versus Long-Term Support
        • a.  Temporary Support  8.37
        • b.  Long-Term Support  8.38
    • D.  Tax Aspects  8.38A
    • E.  Family Support  8.39
    • F.  Separate Property Confirmation  8.40
    • G.  Community Property Division
      • 1.  Equal Division as Basic Rule; Valuation  8.41
      • 2.  Determining Property Subject to Division  8.42
      • 3.  Dividing Particular Assets
        • a.  Family Residence  8.43
        • b.  Multiple-Party Accounts  8.44
        • c.  Retirement and Pension Benefits  8.45
        • d.  Social Security Benefits  8.46
        • e.  Stock Options  8.47
        • f.  Personal Injury Damages  8.48
        • g.  Workers’ Compensation Benefits  8.49
        • h.  Small Businesses and Professional Practices  8.50
        • i.  Life Insurance  8.51
      • 4.  Special Reimbursement Issues
        • a.  Community or Separate Contributions to Acquisition of Property  8.52
        • b.  Community Contributions to Party’s Education or Training  8.53
        • c.  Debts Paid After Separation But Before Trial  8.54
    • H.  Choosing Form of Agreement
      • 1.  Stipulated Judgment  8.55
      • 2.  Marital Settlement Agreement
        • a.  Nature and Execution of Agreement  8.56
        • b.  Treatment of Agreement in Relation to Court Judgment
          • (1)  Incorporation of Agreement in Judgment  8.57
          • (2)  Approval of Agreement by Court  8.58
          • (3)  Merger of Agreement into Judgment  8.59
      • 3.  Considerations in Choosing Form of Agreement
        • a.  Enforcement  8.60
        • b.  Expense  8.61
        • c.  Stage of Proceeding  8.62
        • d.  Privacy  8.63
  • VI.  OBTAINING UNCONTESTED JUDGMENT
    • A.  Proof of Facts for Dissolution
      • 1.  Statutory Proof Requirement  8.64
      • 2.  Proof by Declaration General Rule  8.65
      • 3.  Proof by Hearing
        • a.  Need for Hearing  8.66
        • b.  Setting Hearing  8.67
        • c.  Notice of Hearing  8.68
        • d.  Proof of Facts  8.69
    • B.  Preparation and Submission of Proposed Judgment
      • 1.  Overview of Procedure  8.70
      • 2.  When No Agreement Exists  8.71
      • 3.  When Parties Have Agreement
        • a.  Agreement Must Be in Written Form  8.72
        • b.  Making Enforceable Record of Agreement  8.73
        • c.  Judicial Discretion to Reject Agreement  8.74
    • C.  Submitting Form for Notice of Entry of Judgment  8.75
  • VII.  CHECKLIST AND FORMS
    • A.  Checklist: Documents to Obtain  8.76
    • B.  Form: Request to Enter Default (Judicial Council Form FL-165)  8.77
    • C.  Form: Appearance, Stipulations, and Waivers (Judicial Council Form FL-130)  8.78
    • D.  Form: Declaration for Default or Uncontested Dissolution or Legal Separation (Judicial Council Form FL-170)  8.79
    • E.  Form: Judgment (Family Law) (Judicial Council Form FL-180)  8.80

9

Employment Cases

Stephen M. Murphy

  • I.  BROAD SCOPE OF POTENTIAL EMPLOYMENT ISSUES  9.1
  • II.  DETERMINING TYPE OF EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP
    • A.  Significance of Type of Employment Relationship  9.2
    • B.  Distinguishing Employees From Independent Contractors
      • 1.  General Characteristics of Employer-Employee Relationship
        • a.  Right to Control Manner and Means of Producing Result  9.3
        • b.  Employees and Independent Contractors  9.4
      • 2.  Common Law Standard  9.5
    • C.  Effect of Misclassification  9.6
  • III.  RIGHT TO ASSERT CLAIMS FOR DISCRIMINATION OR HARASSMENT
    • A.  Evaluating Type of Claim, Choosing Forum, and Exhausting Administrative Remedies
      • 1.  Evaluating Type of Claim  9.7
      • 2.  Choosing Forum  9.8
      • 3.  Need to Exhaust Administrative Remedies  9.9
    • B.  California State and Local Authority for Assertion of Claim
      • 1.  Discrimination Based on Race, Religion, National Origin, Disability, Gender, and Other Factors
        • a.  Fair Employment and Housing Act (FEHA)
          • (1)  FEHA Protects Against Wide Range of Discrimination  9.10
          • (2)  Retaliation Forbidden  9.11
          • (3)  Aiding, Inciting, or Coercing Violation of FEHA Forbidden  9.12
        • b.  Unruh and Other Civil Rights Acts
          • (1)  Unruh Civil Rights Act  9.13
          • (2)  Ralph Civil Rights Act  9.14
        • c.  Civil Code §52.4 Action for Gender Violence  9.15
      • 2.  Discrimination Based on Exercise of Family Leave Rights  9.16
      • 3.  Gender-Based Pay Discrimination  9.17
      • 4.  Interference With Exercise of Legal Rights  9.18
      • 5.  Local Ordinance Authority for Assertion of Claim  9.19
    • C.  Federal Authority for Assertion of Claim
      • 1.  Discrimination Based on Race, Color, Religion, Sex, or National Origin  9.20
      • 2.  Deprivation of Any Federal Right  9.21
      • 3.  Deprivation of Equal Protection of the Law  9.22
      • 4.  Gender-Based Pay Discrimination  9.23
      • 5.  Age Discrimination  9.24
      • 6.  Discrimination Based on National Origin or Citizenship Status  9.25
      • 7.  Discrimination Based on Disabilities  9.26
      • 8.  Discrimination Based on Genetic Information  9.27
  • IV.  RIGHT TO ASSERT CLAIMS FOR WAGES AND BENEFITS
    • A.  Need to Consider State and Federal Remedies; Administrative Claims  9.28
    • B.  Wage and Hour Claims
      • 1.  Wage and Hour Claims in General
        • a.  Federal Authority for Assertion of Claim
          • (1)  Fair Labor Standards Act  9.29
          • (2)  Portal-to-Portal Act of 1947  9.30
          • (3)  Other Federal Laws  9.31
        • b.  California Authority for Assertion of Claim and Enforcement
          • (1)  Authority for Assertion of Claim
            • (a)  Violations of Wage and Hour Laws  9.32
            • (b)  Effect of IWC Wage Orders; Exceptions  9.33
          • (2)  Enforcement  9.34
      • 2.  Assertion of Particular Wage and Hour Claims
        • a.  Overtime and Minimum Wage Requirements
          • (1)  Overtime Requirements  9.35
          • (2)  Minimum Wage Requirements  9.36
          • (3)  Exemptions From Overtime and Minimum Wage Requirements  9.37
        • b.  Meal and Rest Period Requirements  9.37A
        • c.  Pay Periods  9.38
        • d.  Recordkeeping Requirements  9.38A
        • e.  Payment of Wages on Termination of Employment  9.39
        • f.  Child Labor Issues  9.40
    • C.  Family and Medical Leave
      • 1.  Applicable California and Federal Law in General; Eligibility  9.41
      • 2.  Remedies Under Federal FMLA  9.42
      • 3.  Remedies Under CFRA  9.43
    • D.  Other Types of Leave and Time Off
      • 1.  Sick Leave and Medical Leave to Accommodate Disability
        • a.  Sick Leave  9.44
        • b.  Medical Leave to Accommodate Disability  9.45
      • 2.  Vacation Time  9.46
      • 3.  Legal Holidays  9.47
      • 4.  Pregnancy Disability Leave  9.48
      • 5.  Paid Time Off  9.49
  • V.  RIGHT TO ASSERT CLAIMS FOR RETALIATION IN VIOLATION OF PUBLIC POLICY OR FOR WHISTLEBLOWING
    • A.  Termination of Employment in Violation of Public Policy  9.50
    • B.  Employer Retaliation for “Whistleblowing”
      • 1.  California Authority for Assertion of Claim  9.51
      • 2.  Federal Authority for Assertion of Claim  9.52
  • VI.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Sample Complaint for Damages for Disability Discrimination Based on Medical Condition  9.53
    • B.  Form: Sample Complaint for Damages for Sexual Harassment  9.54

10

Workers’ Compensation Cases

Dennis A. Popalardo, Jr.

Justin M. Litvack

Carrie D. Wipplinger

  • I.  GOVERNING LAW AND BASIC CONCEPTS OF WORKERS’ COMPENSATION SYSTEM
    • A.  Governing Law
      • 1.  Injuries After 2004  10.1
      • 2.  Main Features  10.2
    • B.  Relationship to Tort Law  10.3
    • C.  Potential Collateral Benefits  10.4
    • D.  Attorney Fees  10.5
    • E.  Involvement of State Division of Workers’ Compensation (DWC)
      • 1.  Overall Role  10.6
      • 2.  Information and Assistance Officers  10.7
      • 3.  Electronic Adjudication Management System (EAMS)  10.8
  • II.  PREREQUISITES FOR RECOVERY
    • A.  Specific Conditions of Compensability
      • 1.  Conditions Summarized  10.9
      • 2.  Employer and Employee Must Be Subject to Workers’ Compensation Laws
        • a.  Employer and Employee Defined  10.10
        • b.  Included Occupations  10.11
        • c.  Excluded Occupations  10.12
        • d.  Joint Employers  10.13
      • 3.  Services Must Be Related to Employment  10.14
      • 4.  Proximate Cause  10.15
      • 5.  Post-Termination Claims
        • a.  Physical Injuries  10.16
        • b.  Psychiatric Injuries  10.17
    • B.  What Constitutes “Arising Out of and In Course of Employment” (AOE/COE)
      • 1.  Rule Stated  10.18
      • 2.  Arising Out of Employment
        • a.  Condition of Employer’s Premises or Equipment  10.19
        • b.  Extraneous or Unknown Source: Positional Risk or Zone of Danger Rule  10.20
        • c.  Employment Risks Versus Personal Risks  10.21
        • d.  Employee’s Preexisting Conditions  10.22
        • e.  Horseplay  10.23
        • f.  Intoxication  10.24
        • g.  Self-Inflicted Injuries  10.25
        • h.  Suicide  10.26
        • i.  Initial Physical Aggressor  10.27
        • j.  Felony Convictions  10.28
      • 3.  Arising in Course of Employment
        • a.  Focus on Time and Space Limitations of Employment  10.29
        • b.  Unauthorized or Forbidden Manner of Performing Work  10.30
        • c.  Activities for Personal Comfort and Convenience  10.31
        • d.  Lunch and Coffee Breaks  10.32
        • e.  “Bunkhouse Rule”  10.33
        • f.  Commercial Travelers; Travel Between Worksites  10.34
        • g.  Activities Before and After Work Hours  10.35
        • h.  Restriction for Recreational, Social, and Athletic Activity  10.36
        • i.  Going and Coming Rule  10.37
        • j.  Telecommuting  10.38
        • k.  Traveling to or From Medical Appointments  10.39
    • C.  Injury Defined
      • 1.  Event Gives Rise to Liability; Disability Distinguished  10.40
      • 2.  Disease  10.41
      • 3.  Psychiatric Injury  10.42
      • 4.  Other Compensable Injuries  10.43
  • III.  WORKERS’ COMPENSATION BENEFITS
    • A.  Benefits Summarized  10.44
    • B.  Medical Treatment and Legal Expenses
      • 1.  Extent of Treatment Benefits
        • a.  All Reasonably Required Medical Services  10.45
        • b.  Expenses for Requested Medical-Legal Examination  10.46
        • c.  Expenses for Travel Incident to Treatment  10.47
      • 2.  Employer’s Obligation to Provide Treatment
        • a.  Treatment Reasonably Required Must Be Provided  10.48
        • b.  Control of Treatment
          • (1)  Employer Has Initial Control  10.49
          • (2)  Worker’s Right to Change Physician; Treatment by HCO or MPN  10.50
        • c.  Physician Reports
          • (1)  Initial Report  10.51
          • (2)  Progress Reports  10.52
          • (3)  Permanent and Stationary Report  10.53
        • d.  Self-Procured Medical Treatment  10.54
        • e.  Medical Treatment Utilization Schedule (MTUS)  10.55
        • f.  Utilization Review  10.56
      • 3.  Legal Expenses
        • a.  Medical-Legal Expenses  10.57
        • b.  Procedure to Recover Costs  10.58
        • c.  Interpreter’s Fees  10.59
        • d.  Attorney Fees  10.60
        • e.  Other Costs  10.61
    • C.  Temporary Disability
      • 1.  Right to Temporary Disability Indemnity  10.62
      • 2.  Total or Partial  10.63
      • 3.  Availability of “Light” or “Modified” Work  10.64
      • 4.  Payment and Timing of Disability Payments  10.65
      • 5.  Calculating Average Weekly Earnings  10.66
    • D.  Permanent Disability
      • 1.  Right to Payment for Permanent Disability  10.67
      • 2.  What Is Permanent Disability?
        • a.  Disability Must Be Permanent and Stationary  10.68
        • b.  Progressive Diseases  10.69
        • c.  Disability May Be Total or Partial  10.70
      • 3.  Effect of Earnings on Permanent Disability  10.71
      • 4.  Calculating Permanent Disability Payments
        • a.  Permanent Partial Disability  10.72
        • b.  Permanent Total Disability  10.73
    • E.  Supplemental Job Displacement Benefits  10.74
    • F.  Death Benefits, Dependents, and Burial Expenses
      • 1.  Benefits if Work-Related Injury Proximately Caused Death  10.75
      • 2.  Death Benefits  10.76
      • 3.  Determining Dependents  10.77
      • 4.  Burial Expenses  10.78
  • IV.  CLAIMS PROCEDURE
    • A.  Initial Stages
      • 1.  Client Interview  10.79
      • 2.  Counsel’s Initial Role  10.80
      • 3.  Necessary Forms and Releases  10.81
      • 4.  Notice to Employer of Claimed Injury
        • a.  Use of Claim Form to Give Notice  10.82
        • b.  Thirty-Day Deadline  10.83
        • c.  When Claim Form Is Deemed Filed With Employer  10.84
        • d.  Effects of Filing Claim Form  10.85
      • 5.  Employer’s Response to Claim Form (Denial or Acceptance)  10.86
    • B.  General Dispute Resolution Procedures
      • 1.  Role of Workers’ Compensation Appeals Board  10.87
      • 2.  Application for Adjudication of Claim
        • a.  File Application Form With WCAB  10.88
        • b.  Effect of Filing Application for Adjudication of Claim  10.89
        • c.  Serve Application for Adjudication of Claim  10.90
      • 3.  Particular Types of Disputes
        • a.  Disputes on Compensability of Injury Under Workers’ Compensation  10.91
        • b.  Disputes Regarding Permanent Disability  10.92
        • c.  Disputes Regarding Medical Treatment
          • (1)  Mandatory Application of Utilization Review Process  10.93
          • (2)  Utilization Review Described  10.94
          • (3)  Mandatory Deadlines  10.95
      • 4.  Dispute Resolution When Recommended Treatment Not Approved in Full  10.96
      • 5.  Medical Evaluation Procedures
        • a.  Nature and Function of Procedures  10.97
        • b.  Obtaining Medical Evaluation
          • (1)   Agreement on Evaluator  10.98
          • (2)  Selecting Evaluator  10.99
          • (3)  Appointment for Examination  10.100
          • (4)  Communicating With Medical Evaluator  10.101
        • c.  Evaluation and Report of Qualified Medical Evaluator or Agreed Medical Evaluator  10.102
        • d.  Effect of Evaluation  10.103
        • e.  Obtaining Medical Evaluation in Medical Provider Network  10.104
    • C.  Declaration of Readiness to Proceed  10.105
    • D.  Trial Preparation
      • 1.  Discovery
        • a.  Typical Reliance on Items in Employer’s Possession  10.106
        • b.  Obtaining Medical Reports  10.107
        • c.  Subpoenas  10.108
        • d.  Depositions
          • (1)  Timing  10.109
          • (2)  Employee’s Deposition  10.110
          • (3)  Other Depositions  10.111
      • 2.  Delays in Obtaining Medical and Disability Benefits  10.112
      • 3.  Mandatory Settlement Conference
        • a.  Timing  10.113
        • b.  Conduct of Mandatory Settlement Conference  10.114
        • c.  When Hearing Required After Conference  10.115
        • d.  Certain Evidence Not Admissible  10.116
    • E.  Settlement
      • 1.  Advantages  10.117
      • 2.  Types of Settlement
        • a.  Compromise and Release Agreement
          • (1)  What Applicant Entitled to Receive  10.118
          • (2)  Forms  10.119
          • (3)  Approval  10.120
          • (4)  Effect of Approval  10.121
        • b.  Stipulations With Request for Award
          • (1)  Function  10.122
          • (2)  Form  10.123
          • (3)  Effect  10.124
    • F.  Hearings
      • 1.  Purpose  10.125
      • 2.  Conduct of Hearing
        • a.  Trial Briefs and Oral Statements  10.126
        • b.  Narrow Issues and Limit Presentations  10.127
        • c.  Confirm Issues and Stipulations  10.128
        • d.  Raise Issue or Risk Waiver  10.129
        • e.  Order of Proof  10.130
        • f.  How Workers’ Compensation Judge Weighs Evidence  10.131
        • g.  Continuances  10.132
        • h.  Disposition and Submission  10.133
      • 3.  Evidence  10.134
      • 4.  Burden of Proof  10.135
      • 5.  Presumptions  10.136
      • 6.  Decision After Hearing
        • a.  Timing  10.137
        • b.  Components  10.138
        • c.  Interest on Award  10.139
        • d.  Appealing Award to Worker’s Compensation Appeals Board  10.140
    • G.  Arbitration  10.141
    • H.  Reconsideration  10.142
    • I.  Judicial Review  10.143
  • V.  CHECKLIST: INFORMATION NECESSARY TO PURSUE WORKERS’ COMPENSATION CLAIM  10.144

11

Residential Landlord-Tenant Issues

Laura L. Lane

  • I.  WIDE RANGE OF POTENTIAL LANDLORD-TENANT MATTERS  11.1
  • II.  CREATING THE LANDLORD-TENANT RELATIONSHIP
    • A.  Need for Contractual Agreement; Terminology  11.2
    • B.  Special Issues in Offering Premises for Rent
      • 1.  Rental Applications, Tenant Screening, and Screening Fees  11.3
      • 2.  Inspection of Rental Premises and Collection of Security Deposit  11.4
      • 3.  Negotiations Leading to Agreement  11.5
    • C.  Rental Agreement
      • 1.  Legal Requirements of Rental Agreement  11.6
      • 2.  Advantages and Disadvantages of Written Agreement
        • a.  For Landlord  11.7
        • b.  For Tenant  11.8
      • 3.  Using Preprinted Forms  11.9
      • 4.  Requisites of Agreement
        • a.  Parties and Their Capacity to Enter Into Agreement  11.10
        • b.  Consideration and Payment of Rent  11.11
        • c.  Description of Premises  11.12
        • d.  Term of Tenancy  11.13
        • e.  Use of Premises  11.14
        • f.  Required Disclosures
          • (1)  Mandate of State and Federal Law  11.15
          • (2)  Disclosures Required by CC §1962 and Related Statutes
            • (a)  Agent for Service of Process  11.16
            • (b)  Information About Payment of Rent  11.17
            • (c)  Penalties for Nondisclosure  11.18
            • (d)  Providing Copy of Agreement or Written Statement to Tenant  11.19
          • (3)  Other Required Disclosures
            • (a)  Common-Area Utilities  11.20
            • (b)  Carcinogenic Material  11.21
            • (c)  Lead Paint Warning Statement  11.22
            • (d)  Notice of Negative Credit Report  11.23
            • (e)  Deaths on Premises  11.24
            • (f)  Proposed Demolition  11.25
            • (g)  Potentially Explosive Munitions  11.26
            • (h)  “Megan’s Law” Disclosure in Residential Leases  11.27
            • (i)  Structural Pest Control Notice  11.28
            • (j)  Methamphetamine or Fentanyl Contamination  11.29
            • (k)  Mold  11.30
            • (l)  Smoking Restrictions  11.31
            • (m)  Pending Foreclosure  11.31A
            • (n)  Pending Condominium Conversion  11.31B
            • (o)  Separate Water Use Charges and Required Tenant Water Reports  11.31C
        • g.  Prohibited Provisions in Residential Rental Agreements  11.32
        • h.  Execution of Rental Agreement
          • (1)  By Spouses  11.33
          • (2)  By Joint Tenants or Tenants in Common  11.34
          • (3)  By Agents  11.35
          • (4)  By Guardians  11.36
    • D.  Fair Housing Considerations in Tenant Selection
      • 1.  Applicable Law  11.37
      • 2.  Exemptions to FEHA  11.38
      • 3.  Prohibited Conduct  11.39
      • 4.  Remedies  11.40
    • E.  Special Considerations in Rent-Controlled Jurisdictions
      • 1.  Limitations on Rent Increases  11.41
      • 2.  Eviction Control  11.42
    • F.  Special Requirements for Government-Owned and Government-Subsidized Rental Housing
      • 1.  Public Housing  11.43
      • 2.  Nonprofit Housing, Tax Credit Properties, and Other Low-Income Housing  11.44
      • 3.  Section 8 Housing Choice Vouchers  11.45
  • III.  RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS
    • A.  Tenant’s Right to Exclusive Possession of the Premises  11.46
    • B.  Implied Covenant of Quiet Enjoyment  11.47
    • C.  Implied Covenant of Good Faith and Fair Dealing  11.48
    • D.  Landlord’s Limited Right of Entry  11.49
    • E.  Implied Warranty of Habitability and Landlord’s Duty to Maintain Property
      • 1.  Implied Warranty of Habitability  11.50
      • 2.  Landlord’s Duty to Maintain Rental Property  11.51
      • 3.  Tenant’s Remedies for Breach of Habitability Warranty or Landlord’s Repair Duty
        • a.  Notify Building Inspectors  11.52
        • b.  Vacate Premises; Abandon Leasehold  11.53
        • c.  Repair and Deduct  11.54
        • d.  Withhold Rent  11.55
        • e.  Petition Local Rent Board  11.56
        • f.  File Civil Action
          • (1)  Action for Breach of Habitability Warranty  11.57
          • (2)  Action for Personal Injuries and Property Damage  11.58
      • 4.  Tenant’s Duty of Care  11.59
    • F.  Assignment and Subletting  11.60
    • G.  Extension and Renewal of Rental Term  11.61
    • H.  Sale and Purchase of the Rental Property  11.61A
    • I.  Landlord’s Duty to Reasonably Accommodate Tenant’s Disability  11.62
    • J.  Changing Terms of Tenancy; Rent Increases
      • 1.  Fixed-Term Tenancies  11.63
      • 2.  Periodic Tenancies
        • a.  Changing Terms in General; Notice  11.64
        • b.  Rent Increases  11.65
  • IV.  TERMINATING THE TENANCY
    • A.  Methods of Terminating Tenancy  11.66
    • B.  General Rules for Terminating Fixed-Term and Periodic Tenancies
      • 1.  Termination of Fixed-Term Tenancy  11.67
      • 2.  Termination of Periodic Tenancy
        • a.  Written Notice Required  11.68
        • b.  Termination During Sale of Rental Unit  11.69
        • c.  Termination by Tenant’s Death  11.70
    • C.  Other Means of Termination
      • 1.  Tenant’s Surrender  11.71
      • 2.  Tenant’s Abandonment
        • a.  Definition and Effect  11.72
        • b.  Establishing Abandonment  11.73
        • c.  Landlord’s Remedies  11.74
    • D.  Termination by Constructive Eviction  11.75
    • E.  Termination by Withdrawing Property From Rental Market  11.76
    • F.  Termination of Tenancy After Foreclosure  11.77
    • G.  Termination for Tenant’s Breach of Rental Agreement
      • 1.  Three-Day Notice  11.78
      • 2.  Limitations on Landlord’s Ability to Terminate Tenancy
        • a.  Retaliation
          • (1)  Retaliation Against Tenant Prohibited  11.79
          • (2)  Retaliation in Nonpayment of Rent Case  11.80
          • (3)  Common Law and Statutory Retaliatory Eviction Defense  11.81
        • b.  Discrimination  11.82
        • c.  Domestic Violence and Elder Abuse  11.83
    • H.  Unlawful Detainer Proceedings
      • 1.  Nature of Unlawful Detainer Proceeding  11.84
      • 2.  Strict Compliance With Notice Provisions Required  11.85
      • 3.  When 3-Day Notice Required for Unlawful Detainer  11.86
      • 4.  Unlawful Detainer Actions That Require No Notice
        • a.  Tenant Gives Notice, but Remains After Notice Expires  11.87
        • b.  Expiration of Fixed-Term Lease  11.88
    • I.  “Self-Help” by Landlord Not Permitted  11.89
    • J.  Disposition of Tenant’s Security Deposit  11.90
    • K.  Disposition of Personal Property Left at Premises  11.91

12

Sale of Residence

Howard L. Pearlman

  • I.  HANDLING RESIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS
    • A.  Customary Use of Nonlawyer Professionals  12.1
    • B.  Attorney’s Potential Role in Residential Transactions  12.2
  • II.  STANDARD FORM RESIDENTIAL PURCHASE AND SALE AGREEMENTS  12.3
    • A.  Contract Interpretation  12.4
    • B.  Offer, Acceptance, and Counteroffer  12.5
    • C.  Selected Provisions of Purchase Agreement  12.6
      • 1.  Property Interests Being Conveyed
        • a.  Real Property Versus Personal Property  12.7
        • b.  The Real Property  12.8
        • c.  Fixtures and Personal Property  12.9
      • 2.  “As Is” Clauses  12.10
      • 3.  Liquidated Damages  12.11
      • 4.  Deposit Forfeiture  12.12
      • 5.  Arbitration  12.13
      • 6.  Attorney Fees and Mediation  12.14
      • 7.  Contract Contingencies
        • a.  Typical Contingencies in Purchase Agreements  12.15
        • b.  Conditions Precedent  12.16
        • c.  Contingency Removal  12.17
      • 8.  Allocation, Proration, and Disclosure of Transaction Costs  12.18
  • III.  SELLER’S DISCLOSURES
    • A.  Disclosure of Material Facts Required  12.19
    • B.  Common Law Duty of Disclosure
      • 1.  When Duty Arises and Result of Breach  12.20
      • 2.  Materiality
        • a.  Fact Must Affect Property’s Value or Desirability to Be Material  12.21
        • b.  Physical Property Conditions  12.22
        • c.  Other Matters  12.23
      • 3.  Scope and Extent of Disclosure  12.24
      • 4.  Public Policy Limitations on the Duty to Disclose  12.25
    • C.  Statutory Disclosure Requirements
      • 1.  Matters Deemed Material in All Residential Transactions  12.26
      • 2.  Transfer Disclosures
        • a.  Application of Disclosure Statutes; Waiver Prohibited  12.27
        • b.  Timing of Transfer Disclosures  12.28
        • c.  Scope of Liability  12.29
        • d.  Real Estate Transfer Disclosure Statement  12.30
        • e.  Local Disclosure and Transfer Requirements
          • (1)  Local Option Transfer Disclosure Statement  12.31
          • (2)  Residential Building Records Report  12.32
          • (3)  “Point of Sale” Ordinances  12.33
        • f.  Mello-Roos Act and 1915 Bond Act  12.34
        • g.  Supplemental Property Tax Bill  12.35
        • h.  Former Federal or State Ordnance Locations  12.36
        • i.  Window Security Bars and Safety Release Mechanisms  12.37
        • j.  Industrial Use Zone  12.38
        • k.  Private Transfer Fees  12.39
      • 3.  Natural Hazard Disclosures
        • a.  When Disclosure Required and Applicable Standards  12.40
        • b.  Natural Hazard Zones  12.41
        • c.  Natural Hazard Disclosure Statement  12.42
      • 4.  Health and Safety Disclosures
        • a.  Lead-Based Paint Disclosure  12.43
        • b.  Earthquake Hazards  12.44
        • c.  Environmental Hazards
          • (1)  Mandatory Disclosure  12.45
          • (2)  Voluntary Disclosure  12.46
        • d.  Drug Lab Cleanup Order  12.47
        • e.  Registered Sex Offenders (“Megan’s Law”)  12.48
        • f.  Smoke Alarms and Carbon Monoxide Devices  12.49
        • g.  Water Heater Compliance Statement  12.50
        • h.  Structural Pest Control Inspection Report  12.51
      • 5.  Common Interest Development Disclosures  12.52
      • 6.  New Home Sales Disclosures  12.53
      • 7.  Miscellaneous Disclosures
        • a.  Death or Illness of Occupant of Property  12.54
        • b.  Advisability of Title Insurance  12.55
        • c.  FHA/HUD Inspection Disclosure  12.56
        • d.  Flood Disaster Insurance Requirements  12.57
        • e.  Financing Disclosures  12.58
        • f.  Home Energy Rating Program  12.59
        • g.  Gas and Hazardous Liquid Transmission Pipelines Disclosure  12.59A
        • h.  Water-Conserving Plumbing Fixtures  12.59B
  • IV.  BUYER’S DUE DILIGENCE
    • A.  Buyer’s Obligation to Act With Reasonable Care  12.60
    • B.  Buyer’s Duty of Self-Protection  12.61
    • C.  Buyer’s Duty to Investigate
      • 1.  When Duty Arises  12.62
      • 2.  Scope of Buyer’s Due Diligence
        • a.  Buyer Must Determine Scope  12.63
        • b.  Items Generally Investigated  12.64
        • c.  Additional Investigations in Common Interest Developments  12.65
    • D.  Property Inspections
      • 1.  Types of Inspections Summarized  12.66
      • 2.  Pest Inspection  12.67
      • 3.  Home Inspection
        • a.  Nature of Inspection  12.68
        • b.  Home Inspectors’ Qualifications and Duties  12.69
        • c.  Prohibited Practices  12.70
  • V.  TITLE AND VESTING
    • A.  Significance of Title Issues  12.71
    • B.  Condition of Title
      • 1.  Necessity of Marketable Title  12.72
      • 2.  Recorded Interests in the Property
        • a.  Preliminary Report  12.73
        • b.  Basic Title Review  12.74
      • 3.  Unrecorded Interests in Property  12.75
      • 4.  Residential Title Insurance Policies  12.76
    • C.  Vesting of Title
      • 1.  Options for Holding Title  12.77
        • a.  Joint Tenancy  12.78
        • b.  Tenancy in Common  12.79
        • c.  Community Property  12.80
        • d.  Community Property With Right of Survivorship  12.81
      • 2.  Title Forms Available to Registered Domestic Partners  12.82
  • VI.  TAX CONSIDERATIONS
    • A.  Real Estate Transactions Involve Multiple Taxing Authorities  12.83
    • B.  State and Federal Withholding Taxes  12.84
    • C.  Transfer Tax  12.85
    • D.  Property Tax
      • 1.  Change of Ownership Reassessment  12.86
      • 2.  Exempt Transfers  12.87
    • E.  Capital Gains Tax  12.88
  • VII.  FAIR HOUSING AND ANTIDISCRIMINATION LAWS
    • A.  Need for Consideration of Multiple Statutory Schemes  12.89
    • B.  Federal Law  12.90
    • C.  State Law  12.91
    • D.  Treatment of Senior Citizen Housing
      • 1.  Interplay of Public Policies  12.92
      • 2.  Federal Exemption  12.93
      • 3.  State Exemptions  12.94
    • E.  Other State and Local Antidiscrimination Laws  12.95
  • VIII.  SALE OF DISTRESSED PROPERTY
    • A.  Identifying Mechanisms for Sale of Distressed Property  12.96
    • B.  Deeds in Lieu of Foreclosure  12.97
    • C.  Short Sales
      • 1.  Short Sale Described  12.98
      • 2.  Antideficiency Protection in Short Sales
        • a.  Background  12.99
        • b.  Antideficiency Protection Under CCP §§580b and 580e  12.100
        • c.  Junior Lienholders’ Consent Required  12.101
      • 3.  Standard Forms Used; Disclosure Requirements Apply  12.102
      • 4.  Lender’s Evaluation and Requirements
        • a.  Agreement to Short Sale Is Lender’s Business Decision  12.103
        • b.  Short-Pay Demand Statement [Deleted]  12.104
        • c.  Home Affordable Foreclosure Alternatives (HAFA) Program [Deleted]  12.105
      • 5.  Tax Considerations  12.106
    • D.  Home Equity Sales Contracts  12.107
    • E.  Lender-Owned (REO) Sales
      • 1.  REO Sale Described  12.108
      • 2.  Disclosure Requirements  12.109
      • 3.  Buyer’s Choice of Escrow and Title Insurance Services  12.110

13

Basic Personal Bankruptcy Law

Michael T. O’Halloran

  • I.  BANKRUPTCY RELIEF AND CASE EVALUATION
    • A.  Nature of Bankruptcy Relief
      • 1.  Types of Bankruptcy Relief
        • a.  Two Types of Relief Under Bankruptcy Code  13.1
        • b.  Differentiating Chapter 7 and Chapter 13 Cases
          • (1)  Chapter 7 Cases  13.2
          • (2)  Chapter 13 Cases  13.3
    • B.  Evaluating Appropriate Remedies for Client
      • 1.  Representing Clients  13.4
      • 2.  Ascertaining Client’s Needs  13.5
      • 3.  Alternatives to Bankruptcy  13.6
      • 4.  Disadvantages and Limitations of Bankruptcy  13.7
      • 5.  Selecting Exempt Property  13.8
    • C.  Debtor’s Attorney as a “Debt Relief Agency”  13.9
    • D.  Fee Agreements With Debtor-Clients  13.10
  • II.  BANKRUPTCY TERMINOLOGY, SOURCES OF GOVERNING LAW, AND PROCEDURE
    • A.  Terminology  13.11
    • B.  Sources of Bankruptcy Law and Procedure
      • 1.  Bankruptcy Code  13.12
      • 2.  Federal Bankruptcy Rules  13.13
      • 3.  Interplay of Federal and State Law  13.14
    • C.  National and Local Bankruptcy Court Forms  13.15
    • D.  Electronic Case Filing  13.16
    • E.  Bankruptcy Courts and Their Districts  13.17
    • F.  Types of Bankruptcy Proceedings
      • 1.  Core and Noncore Proceedings  13.18
      • 2.  Contested Matters and Adversary Proceedings  13.19
  • III.  GENERAL BANKRUPTCY CASE ADMINISTRATION
    • A.  Voluntary Versus Involuntary Petitions  13.20
    • B.  Property of Bankruptcy Estate; Turnover, Transfer Avoidance, Use, and Abandonment
      • 1.  Property Generally Included in the Estate  13.21
      • 2.  Property Excluded From the Estate  13.22
      • 3.  Turnover of Property Held by Others  13.23
      • 4.  Trustee’s Powers to Void or Rescind Transfers  13.24
      • 5.  Use, Sale, or Lease of Estate Property  13.25
      • 6.  Abandonment of Estate Property  13.26
    • C.  Automatic Stay
      • 1.  Nature of Automatic Stay  13.27
      • 2.  Application  13.28
      • 3.  Exceptions to the Automatic Stay  13.29
      • 4.  Consequences of Stay Violations  13.30
      • 5.  Termination of Stay  13.31
      • 6.  Relief From Stay  13.32
    • D.  Claims
      • 1.  Claim Defined  13.33
      • 2.  Types of Claims
        • a.  Secured Claims  13.34
        • b.  Unsecured Claims  13.35
      • 3.  Filing Proof of Claim  13.36
      • 4.  Deadline for Filing Proof of Claim  13.37
      • 5.  Allowance of Claims  13.38
      • 6.  Objection to Claim  13.39
    • E.  Executory Contracts
      • 1.  Treatment of Executory Contracts in Bankruptcy Cases  13.40
      • 2.  Definition of Executory Contract  13.41
      • 3.  Assumption or Rejection of Executory Contracts  13.42
      • 4.  Effect of Assumption or Rejection  13.43
  • IV.  REPRESENTING A DEBTOR IN CHAPTER 7
    • A.  Purposes of Chapter 7  13.44
    • B.  Dischargeable and Nondischargeable Debts  13.45
    • C.  Chapter 7 Eligibility; Means Testing
      • 1.  Eligibility  13.46
      • 2.  Means Test  13.47
    • D.  Issues Relevant to the Timing of Filing  13.48
    • E.  Preparation of Petition and Other Filings
      • 1.  Summary of Items to File  13.49
      • 2.  Schedules  13.50
      • 3.  Statement of Financial Affairs  13.51
      • 4.  Other Information Required  13.52
    • F.  Meeting of Creditors Under §341(a)  13.53
    • G.  Rule 2004 Examinations  13.54
    • H.  Discharge and Reaffirmation of Debts  13.55
    • I.  Conversion or Dismissal  13.56
  • V.  REPRESENTING A DEBTOR IN CHAPTER 13
    • A.  Purpose of Chapter 13  13.57
    • B.  Eligibility to File  13.58
    • C.  Preparation of Petition and Other Filings  13.59
    • D.  Areas of Special Concern in Chapter 13 Cases  13.60
    • E.  Chapter 13 Plan
      • 1.  Preparation  13.61
      • 2.  Initial Payments Under Plan  13.62
      • 3.  Meeting of Creditors Under §341(a)  13.63
      • 4.  Confirmation  13.64
      • 5.  Performance; Motions to Dismiss or Convert Following Nonperformance  13.65
      • 6.  Final Plan Payments and Discharge  13.66
      • 7.  Exceptions to Discharge  13.67
  • VI.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Bankruptcy Interview Worksheet  13.68
    • B.  Form: Current Monthly Income Worksheet  13.69

14

Administering Decedents’ Small Estates

Virginia Palmer

  • I.  SIGNIFICANCE OF SMALL ESTATE ADMINISTRATION  14.1
  • II.  NONPROBATE PROPERTY TRANSFERS IN GENERAL
    • A.  Nonprobate Transfers by Beneficiary Designation, Contract, Statute, or Other Operation of Law  14.2
    • B.  Property Passing to Surviving Spouse or Registered Domestic Partner Without Administration
      • 1.  Survivor’s Rights Under Prob C §§13500–13660  14.3
      • 2.  Optional Election of Administration  14.4
      • 3.  Right to Dispose of Community and Quasi-Community Property
        • a.  Real Property  14.5
        • b.  Securities Registered Solely in Name of Surviving Spouse or Registered Domestic Partner  14.6
      • 4.  Collection of Decedent’s Earnings by Affidavit or Declaration
        • a.  Right to Collect Earnings  14.7
        • b.  Presenting Affidavit or Declaration  14.8
        • c.  Liability Issues  14.9
        • d.  Form: Declaration Under Prob C §§13600–13606 to Collect Compensation Owed to Deceased Spouse or Registered Domestic Partner  14.10
    • C.  Determining and Confirming by Court Order Property Passing to Surviving Spouse or Registered Domestic Partner
      • 1.  Rationale for Obtaining Court Order  14.11
      • 2.  Petition for Order  14.12
      • 3.  Form: Spousal or Domestic Partner Property Petition (Judicial Council Form DE-221)  14.13
      • 4.  Notice of Hearing on Petition  14.14
      • 5.  When Inventory and Appraisal Required  14.15
      • 6.  Order  14.16
      • 7.  Form: Spousal or Domestic Partner Property Order (Judicial Council Form DE-226)  14.17
      • 8.  Attorney Fees  14.18
      • 9.  Liability Issues  14.19
    • D.  Setting Aside Small Estates to Surviving Spouse, Registered Domestic Partner, or Minor Children
      • 1.  Authority for Set-Aside  14.20
      • 2.  Determining Net Value of Estate  14.21
      • 3.  Petition for Set-Aside  14.22
      • 4.  Form: Petition to Set Aside and Assign Estate  14.23
      • 5.  Inventory and Appraisal  14.24
      • 6.  Notice of Hearing  14.25
      • 7.  Order to Set Aside Estate  14.26
      • 8.  Form: Order Setting Aside Estate and Assigning Estate  14.27
      • 9.  Attorney Fees  14.28
      • 10.  Liability Issues  14.29
  • III.  SMALL ESTATE SUMMARY PROCEDURES
    • A.  Nature and Use of Summary Procedures  14.30
    • B.  Collecting Personal Property by Affidavit or Declaration When Estate’s Aggregate Value Does Not Exceed $166,250
      • 1.  Authority for Transfer by Affidavit or Declaration  14.31
      • 2.  Determining Value of Estate  14.32
      • 3.  Affidavit or Declaration
        • a.  Preparing and Presenting Affidavit or Declaration  14.33
        • b.  Supporting Documents  14.34
        • c.  Form: Declaration Under Probate Code §§13100–13116  14.35
      • 4.  Completing Transfer  14.36
      • 5.  Liability Issues  14.37
    • C.  Transferring Real Property by Affidavit When Property’s Aggregate Value Does Not Exceed $50,000
      • 1.  Authority and Use of Affidavit Procedure  14.38
      • 2.  Preparing Affidavit
        • a.  Use of Judicial Council Form  14.39
        • b.  Required Attachments  14.40
        • c.  Form: Affidavit re Real Property of Small Value ($55,425 or Less) (Judicial Council Form DE-305)  14.41
      • 3.  Filing Affidavit, Obtaining Certified Copy, and Giving Notice  14.42
      • 4.  Recording Affidavit and Submitting PCOR to Assessor  14.43
      • 5.  Liability Issues  14.44
    • D.  Transferring Real Property by Petition for Court Order When Estate’s Aggregate Value Does Not Exceed $166,250
      • 1.  Use of Petition Procedure  14.45
      • 2.  Preparing Petition and Attachments
        • a.  Use of Judicial Council Form  14.46
        • b.  Required Attachments
          • (1)  Inventory and Appraisal  14.47
          • (2)  Other Supporting Documents  14.48
        • c.  Form: Petition to Determine Succession to Real Property (Estates of $166,250 or Less) (Judicial Council Form DE-310)  14.49
      • 3.  Filing Petition  14.50
      • 4.  Notice, Hearing, and Order
        • a.  Notice of and Attendance at Hearing  14.51
        • b.  Objections to Petition at Hearing; Order  14.52
        • c.  Recording Order and Submitting PCOR to Assessor  14.53
        • d.  Form: Order Determining Succession to Real Property (Estates of $166,250 or Less) (Judicial Council Form DE-315)  14.54
      • 5.  Liability Issues  14.55
      • 6.  Attorney Fees  14.56
  • IV.  PROBATING AN ESTATE
    • A.  Functions of Probate Administration  14.57
    • B.  Beginning Probate Proceedings
      • 1.  Persons Who May Initiate Probate Proceedings  14.58
      • 2.  Preparing Petition for Probate  14.59
      • 3.  Filing Petition and Setting Hearing  14.60
      • 4.  Preparing Notice of Petition to Administer Estate  14.61
      • 5.  Order for Probate and Letters of Administration or Testamentary  14.62
      • 6.  Obtaining Probate Bond  14.63
    • C.  Handling Estate After Appointment of Personal Representative
      • 1.  Marshalling Estate Assets  14.64
      • 2.  Filing Inventory and Appraisal of Estate Assets  14.65
      • 3.  Exercising Independent Authority Under IAEA  14.66
      • 4.  Paying Debts, Taxes, and Estate Liabilities
        • a.  Creditors’ Claims
          • (1)  Importance of Handling Creditors’ Claims  14.67
          • (2)  Ascertaining Creditors  14.68
          • (3)  Giving Notice of Administration to Creditors  14.69
          • (4)  Completing Allowance or Rejection of Creditor’s Claim Form  14.70
        • b.  Taxes  14.71
    • D.  Petitioning for Preliminary Distribution
      • 1.  When Preliminary Distribution Necessary and How Made  14.72
      • 2.  Petition for Preliminary Distribution and Notice Requirements
        • a.  Importance of Local Court Rules  14.73
        • b.  Notice of Petition Under Prob C §11620  14.74
        • c.  Notice of Petition Under Prob C §11623  14.75
    • E.  Closing the Estate
      • 1.  Role of Personal Representative  14.76
      • 2.  Petition for Final Distribution; Compensation for Services  14.77
      • 3.  Transferring Assets and Discharge  14.78
  • V.  IMPORTANT TERMS USED IN ESTATE ADMINISTRATION  14.79

15

Basic Estate Planning and Drafting

Judith Y. Tang

  • I.  OVERALL CONSIDERATIONS IN ESTATE PLANNING
    • A.  Key Goals of Estate Planning  15.1
    • B.  Ethical Issues in Estate Planning  15.2
    • C.  Tax Issues in Estate Planning  15.3
  • II.  ESTATE PLANNING VEHICLES FOR MANAGING AND DISTRIBUTING ASSETS
    • A.  Wills
      • 1.  Function of Wills; Basic Requirements  15.4
      • 2.  Advantages of Using Wills  15.5
      • 3.  Disadvantages of Using Wills  15.6
      • 4.  California Statutory Will
        • a.  Authority to Use Statutory Will  15.7
        • b.  Limitations of Statutory Will  15.8
        • c.  Execution of Statutory Will  15.9
        • d.  Effect of Marital or Domestic Partnership Dissolution on Statutory Will  15.10
      • 5.  Uniform International Will  15.11
      • 6.  Testamentary Trusts Created by Will
        • a.  Nature, Uses, and Elements of Testamentary Trusts
          • (1)  Nature and Uses of Testamentary Trusts  15.12
          • (2)  Elements of Testamentary Trust  15.13
        • b.  Trust Intent  15.14
        • c.  Trust Property  15.15
        • d.  Trust Beneficiary  15.16
        • e.  Trust Purposes
          • (1)  Purpose Cannot Be Illegal or Against Public Policy  15.17
          • (2)  Purpose Cannot Be Too Indefinite or General  15.18
        • f.  Single Versus Multiple Trusts  15.19
      • 7.  Pourover Wills
        • a.  Nature of Pourover Wills  15.20
        • b.  Purposes of Pourover Wills  15.21
        • c.  Uniform Testamentary Additions to Trusts Act  15.22
        • d.  Authorizing Acceptance of Additions to Trust  15.23
        • e.  Pourover Default Trust Provisions  15.24
    • B.  Inter Vivos Trusts
      • 1.  General Description and Distinguishing Inter Vivos From Testamentary Trusts  15.25
      • 2.  Inter Vivos Revocable Trusts
        • a.  Dual Functions of Inter Vivos Revocable Trusts  15.26
        • b.  Advantages and Disadvantages
          • (1)  Advantages  15.27
          • (2)  Disadvantages  15.28
        • c.  Drafting Inter Vivos Revocable Trusts
          • (1)  No Single Type of Trust for All Estates  15.29
          • (2)  Drafting to Meet Trust Objectives
            • (a)  Drafting Trust to Enable Understanding by Intended Audience  15.30
            • (b)  Flexibility and Safety  15.31
      • 3.  Marital Trusts: The Marital Deduction  15.32
    • C.  Nomination of Estate Conservator  15.33
    • D.  Accounts Transferred on Death
      • 1.  Types of Accounts
        • a.  Pay-on-Death Accounts  15.34
        • b.  Totten Trust Accounts  15.35
        • c.  Registered Securities and Brokerage Accounts  15.36
      • 2.  Planning Issues  15.37
    • E.  Assets With Designated Beneficiaries
      • 1.  Types of Assets  15.38
      • 2.  Retirement Plans
        • a.  Plans Tied to Income Tax Deferrals  15.39
        • b.  Spouse as Beneficiary  15.40
        • c.  Nonspouse Beneficiaries  15.41
        • d.  Children as Beneficiaries  15.42
        • e.  Trust as Beneficiary  15.43
      • 3.  Roth IRAs  15.44
      • 4.  Life Insurance  15.45
    • F.  Joint Tenancy
      • 1.  Nature of Joint Tenancy and Exception to Probate Avoidance  15.46
      • 2.  Creating and Severing Joint Tenancy  15.47
      • 3.  Planning Issues
        • a.  Disadvantages of Joint Tenancy  15.48
        • b.  When Severance May Be Advantageous
          • (1)  Distribution to Other Than Joint Tenant Desired  15.49
          • (2)  For Married Couples  15.50
    • G.  Community Property With Right of Survivorship  15.51
    • H.  Planning for Tenancy-in-Common and Community Property
      • 1.  Tenancy-in-Common Property  15.52
      • 2.  Community Property  15.53
  • III.  IMPLEMENTING THE ESTATE PLAN
    • A.  Consideration of Documents Involved  15.54
    • B.  Real Property Deeds  15.55
  • IV.  PLANNING FOR INCAPACITY WITH POWERS OF ATTORNEY, HEALTH CARE DIRECTIVES, AND OTHER DOCUMENTS
    • A.  Commonly Used Powers of Attorney and Health Care Directives (AHCDs)  15.56
    • B.  Advantages and Disadvantages of Durable Power of Attorney for Financial Management (DPOA)
      • 1.  DPOA Advantages  15.57
      • 2.  DPOA Disadvantages  15.58
    • C.  Advantages and Disadvantages of AHCD and PAHC
      • 1.  AHCD and PAHC Advantages  15.59
      • 2.  AHCD and PAHC Disadvantages  15.60
    • D.  Planning Durable Power of Attorney for Financial Management (DPOA)
      • 1.  Durable Versus Nondurable Powers of Attorney  15.61
      • 2.  General Versus Limited Powers of Attorney
        • a.  General Power of Attorney  15.62
        • b.  Limited (or Special) Power of Attorney  15.63
      • 3.  Immediately Effective Versus Springing DPOA
        • a.  Immediately Effective DPOA  15.64
        • b.  Springing (Contingent, Standby, or Conditional) DPOA  15.65
      • 4.  Statutory, Printed, and Attorney-Drafted DPOAs  15.66
      • 5.  Execution of DPOA Generally  15.67
      • 6.  Eligibility of Principal to Execute DPOA
        • a.  Individuals  15.68
        • b.  Fiduciaries  15.69
        • c.  Agent’s Delegation to Secondary Agents  15.70
      • 7.  Agent
        • a.  Eligibility to Serve as Agent  15.71
        • b.  Selection of Agent  15.72
        • c.  Agent’s Duty and Standard of Care; Authority to Act  15.73
      • 8.  Termination of DPOA
        • a.  Revocation by Principal  15.74
        • b.  Expiration of Agent’s Term or Extinction of Subject of Instrument  15.75
        • c.  Agent’s Death  15.76
        • d.  Agent’s Resignation  15.77
        • e.  Agent’s Incapacity to Act  15.78
        • f.  Dissolution or Annulment; Effect of Legal Separation or Termination of Domestic Partnership  15.79
        • g.  Principal’s Incapacity to Contract Terminates Nondurable Power of Attorney  15.80
        • h.  Principal’s Restoration to Capacity and Springing DPOA  15.81
        • i.  Principal’s Death  15.82
        • j.  Revocation by Court Order  15.83
      • 9.  Record Keeping for DPOAs
        • a.  Availability of Documents  15.84
        • b.  Use of Photocopies  15.85
        • c.  Recording of DPOA  15.86
        • d.  Multistate Considerations  15.87
    • E.  Alternatives to DPOA  15.88
    • F.  Additional Considerations in Planning for AHCDs and Related PAHCs
      • 1.  Complying With Health Care Decisions Law  15.89
      • 2.  Agent Under PAHC
        • a.  Authority to Make Health Care Decisions
          • (1)  Scope of Authority  15.90
          • (2)  Health Care Decisions by Someone Other Than Agent  15.91
        • b.  Right to Receive Information  15.92
    • G.  Alternative Devices to AHCD
      • 1.  Conservatorship of the Person  15.93
      • 2.  Court-Ordered Health Care Decisions for Adult Without Conservator  15.94
      • 3.  Ability of Spouse to Make Health Care Decisions  15.95
    • H.  Do Not Resuscitate Orders (DNRs)
      • 1.  Nature of DNRs  15.96
      • 2.  DNR Order in Home Care Setting  15.97
      • 3.  DNR Order in Skilled Nursing Facility (SNF)  15.98
      • 4.  DNR Order in Assisted Living or Residential Care Facility  15.99
    • I.  Physician Orders for Life Sustaining Treatment (POLST)  15.100
    • J.  Anatomical Gifts (Powers)
      • 1.  Description  15.101
      • 2.  Agent’s Authorization to Make Anatomical Gift  15.102
      • 3.  Making Anatomical Gift  15.103
      • 4.  Revoking or Amending Anatomical Gift
        • a.  By Donor or by Agent Under Power of Attorney  15.104
        • b.  By Other Third Parties  15.105
      • 5.  Written Refusal to Make Anatomical Gift  15.106
    • K.  Health Care Surrogates  15.107
  • V.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: California Statutory Will  15.108
    • B.  Form: Uniform Statutory Form Power of Attorney  15.109

16

Debt Collection

  • I.  INITIAL CONSIDERATIONS
    • A.  Assessing the Case
      • 1.  Overview of Issues Involved in Debt Collection Cases  16.1
      • 2.  Identifying the Client and Determining Client’s Motives
        • a.  Identifying Client  16.2
        • b.  Determining Client’s Motives for Debt Collection  16.3
      • 3.  Identifying the Debtor  16.4
      • 4.  Viability of Claim Against Debtor
        • a.  Overall Age of Claim  16.5
        • b.  Accounting for Statute of Limitations  16.6
        • c.  Status of Claim  16.7
        • d.  Solvency of Debtor  16.8
        • e.  Cost of Obtaining and Collecting Judgment  16.9
    • B.  Complying With Laws Regulating Debt Collection
      • 1.  Overall Governing Law
        • a.  Both California and Federal Law Must Be Considered  16.10
        • b.  California Law  16.11
        • c.  Federal Law  16.12
      • 2.  Regulation of Specific Debt Collection Practices
        • a.  Restricted and Prohibited Communications With Debtor  16.13
        • b.  Prohibited Communications With Third Parties About Debt  16.14
        • c.  Permitted Communications With Third Parties About Debt  16.15
        • d.  Required Notices From Debt Collector When Validating Debt  16.16
  • II.  INITIATING DEMAND FOR PAYMENT AND EVALUATING DEBTOR’S RESPONSE
    • A.  Demand for Payment  16.17
    • B.  Evaluating Debtor’s Response to Demand Letter  16.18
  • III.  COMMENCING A DEBT COLLECTION ACTION
    • A.  Court Jurisdiction and Venue
      • 1.  Jurisdiction  16.19
      • 2.  Venue  16.20
    • B.  Drafting Complaint
      • 1.  Form of Complaint  16.21
      • 2.  Specifying Causes of Action in Complaint
        • a.  Common Counts  16.22
        • b.  Contract Actions
          • (1)  Essential Elements to Plead  16.23
          • (2)  Written Contracts  16.24
          • (3)  Oral Contracts  16.25
          • (4)  Performance  16.26
          • (5)  Excuse or Prevention  16.27
          • (6)  Waiver  16.28
          • (7)  Breach  16.29
    • C.  Pretrial Discovery  16.30
    • D.  Special Prejudgment Remedies
      • 1.  Attachment  16.31
      • 2.  Writ of Possession  16.32
  • IV.  OBTAINING JUDGMENT IN DEBT COLLECTION CASE; ENFORCEABILITY
    • A.  Judgment Without Trial
      • 1.  Default Judgments  16.33
      • 2.  Other Judgments Without Trial
        • a.  Judgment by Consent or Stipulation  16.34
        • b.  Acceptance of Offer to Compromise Under CCP §998  16.35
        • c.  Confession of Judgment  16.36
        • d.  Judgment on Pleadings  16.37
        • e.  Summary Judgment and Summary Adjudication
          • (1)  Summary Judgment  16.38
          • (2)  Summary Adjudication  16.39
    • B.  Judgment After Trial
      • 1.  Trial by Court or Jury  16.40
      • 2.  Statement of Decision  16.41
      • 3.  Drafting Judgment
        • a.  Key Considerations in Drafting Judgment  16.42
        • b.  Costs
          • (1)  Statutory Authority  16.43
          • (2)  Selective Cost Provisions  16.44
          • (3)  Procedure for Recovery  16.45
        • c.  Attorney Fees  16.46
        • d.  Interest  16.47
    • C.  Entry of Judgment  16.48
    • D.  Period of Judgment’s Enforceability; Renewal
      • 1.  Period of Enforceability  16.49
      • 2.  Renewal of Judgment  16.50
  • V.  ENFORCING JUDGMENT
    • A.  Judgment Liens on Real and Personal Property
      • 1.  Judgment Lien on Real Property  16.51
      • 2.  Judgment Lien on Personal Property  16.52
      • 3.  Extinguishment of Enforcement Liens; Exceptions  16.53
    • B.  Writ of Execution
      • 1.  Statutory Authority  16.54
      • 2.  Issuance; Limitation  16.55
      • 3.  Affidavit of Identity  16.56
      • 4.  Executing Writ  16.57
      • 5.  Execution Lien  16.58
      • 6.  What Property May Be Levied On  16.59
      • 7.  Levying Officer  16.60
      • 8.  Specific Types of Property Not Subject to Levy  16.61
      • 9.  Exemptions  16.62
      • 10.  Release of Custody of Property; Extinguishment of Lien  16.63
      • 11.  Appointment of Receiver; Sale of Perishable Property  16.64
      • 12.  Levy on Third Party
        • a.  Third Party’s Duties and Liabilities After Levy  16.65
        • b.  Third Party’s Response  16.66
      • 13.  Secured Party  16.67
      • 14.  Sale of Personal Property  16.68
      • 15.  Levy on Real Property; Sale
        • a.  Method of Levy  16.69
        • b.  Sale
          • (1)  Statutory Authority; Notice of Sale; Timing  16.70
          • (2)  Sale Procedure  16.71
          • (3)  No Right to Redemption; Exceptions  16.72
      • 16.  Return of Writ of Execution; Time Limitations  16.73
      • 17.  Debtor’s Remedies Against Enforcement by Writ of Execution
        • a.  Claim of Exemption  16.74
        • b.  Stay of Enforcement  16.75
        • c.  Recalling and Quashing Writ of Execution  16.76
        • d.  Remedies After Execution Sale
          • (1)  Restitution After Reversal of Judgment  16.77
          • (2)  Setting Aside Improper Execution Sale; Damages  16.78
        • e.  Third Party Claims  16.79
        • f.  Exemptions From Levy of Execution
          • (1)  Filing Exemption Claim  16.80
          • (2)  Property Not Subject to Levy  16.81
          • (3)  Bankruptcy  16.82
          • (4)  Homesteads  16.83
    • C.  Wage Garnishment
      • 1.  Statutory Authority; Definitions  16.84
      • 2.  Earnings Withholding Orders
        • a.  Procedures to Obtain Order and Effect Levy; Creation of Lien
          • (1)  Judgment Creditor’s Application  16.85
          • (2)  Manner of Levy; Papers Served on Employer  16.86
          • (3)  Lien Created by Service of Earnings Withholding Order  16.87
        • b.  Employer’s Duties After Service of Earnings Withholding Order  16.88
        • c.  Duration of Withholding Period; Payment to Levying Officer  16.89
        • d.  Special Status of Earnings Withholding Orders for Support  16.90
        • e.  Special Status of Earnings Withholding Orders for Elder or Dependent Adult Financial Abuse  16.91
        • f.  Judgment Creditor’s Duty to Give Notice When Judgment Satisfied Before Earnings Withholding Order Terminates  16.92
        • g.  Additional Earnings Withholding Order for Recovery of Cost and Interest  16.93
        • h.  Earnings Withholding Order for Taxes  16.94
      • 3.  Exemption From Wage Garnishment
        • a.  General State and Federal Provisions  16.95
        • b.  Exempt Earnings; Procedure to Claim Exemption
          • (1)  Earnings Necessary to Support Debtor and Family  16.96
          • (2)  Exemption Amounts Under Different Types of Withholding Orders
            • (a)  “General” Earnings Withholding Order  16.97
            • (b)  Earnings Withholding Order for Support  16.98
            • (c)  Earnings Withholding Order for Taxes  16.99
        • c.  Procedure to Claim Exemption
          • (1)  Filing Claim  16.100
          • (2)  Opposing Claim  16.101
          • (3)  Hearing; Orders  16.102
  • VI.  ACKNOWLEDGING SATISFACTION OF JUDGMENT
    • A.  Filing Acknowledgment of Satisfaction Form  16.103
    • B.  Motion to Compel Filing of Acknowledgment  16.104
    • C.  Vacating Satisfaction  16.105

CALIFORNIA BASIC PRACTICE HANDBOOK

(1st Edition)

November 2020

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

File Name

Book Section

Title

CH01

Chapter 1

Opening a Law Practice and Ethically Representing Clients

01-088

§1.88

General Letter Agreement for Representation on Hourly Basis

01-089

§1.89

Agreement for Representation Based on Contingent Fee

CH02

Chapter 2

Alternative Dispute Resolution

02-070

§2.70

Sample Agreement to Mediate Existing Dispute

02-071

§2.71

Stipulation to Submit to Judicial Arbitration

02-072

§2.72

Sample Contractual Provision to Resolve Disputes by
Arbitration

CH03

Chapter 3

Preparing, Filing, and Serving Complaints and Answers

03-109

§3.109

Sample Verified Complaint

03-110

§3.110

Sample Verified Answer

CH04

Chapter 4

Pretrial Discovery: A Step-by-Step Approach

04-083

§4.83

Response to Interrogatories; Verification

04-085

§4.85

Sample Response to Requests for Admission

CH05

Chapter 5

Law and Motion Practice

05-104

§5.104

Checklist: Moving Party’s Procedures for Motions and Hearings

05-105

§5.105

Checklist: Opposing Party’s Procedure to Respond to Noticed Motion

05-106

§5.106

Notice of Motion

05-107

§5.107

Declaration Supporting Motion

05-108

§5.108

Declaration Opposing Motion

05-109

§5.109

Notice of Ruling on Motion

05-110

§5.110

Proposed Order

05-111

§5.111

Order After Hearing

CH06

Chapter 6

Basic Criminal Practice

06-040

§6.40

Checklist: Common Pretrial Motions

CH07

Chapter 7

Personal Injury

07-120

§7.120

Checklist: General Client Interview for Personal Injury Case

07-121

§7.121

Sample Client Authorization to Release Medical Information or Police Report

07-122

§7.122

Sample Demand Letter-General Form

CH08

Chapter 8

Uncontested Marital Dissolutions

08-076

§8.76

Checklist: Documents to Obtain

CH09

Chapter 9

Employment Cases

09-053

§9.53

Sample Complaint for Damages for Disability Discrimination Based on Medical Condition

09-054

§9.54

Sample Complaint for Damages for Sexual Harassment

CH10

Chapter 10

Workers’ Compensation Cases

10-144

§10.144

Checklist: Information Necessary to Pursue Workers’ Compensation Claim

CH13

Chapter 13

Basic Personal Bankruptcy Law

13-068

§13.68

Bankruptcy Interview Worksheet

13-069

§13.69

Current Monthly Income Worksheet

CH14

Chapter 14

Administering Decedents’ Small Estates

14-010

§14.10

Declaration Under Prob C §§13600–13606 to Collect Compensation Owed to Deceased Spouse or Registered Domestic Partner

14-023

§14.23

Petition to Set Aside and Assign Estate

14-027

§14.27

Order Setting Aside Estate and Assigning Estate

14-035

§14.35

Declaration Under Probate Code §§13100–13116

CH15

Chapter 15

Basic Estate Planning and Drafting

15-109

§15.109

Uniform Statutory Form Power of Attorney

 

Selected Developments

November 2020 Update

The current update includes changes throughout this publication that reflect recent developments in case law, legislation, court rules, and administrative procedures. Summarized below are some of the more important developments included in this update since publication of the 2018 update.

Certain procedures and deadlines may be affected by the California Rules of Court Emergency Rules Related to COVID-19, such as Rule 3 (“Use of Technology for Remote Appearances”), Rule 5 (“Personal Appearance Waivers of Defendants During Health Emergency”), and Rule 7 (“Emergency Orders: Juvenile Delinquency Proceedings”). The latest version of the Emergency Rules can be viewed at https://www.courts.ca.gov/43820.htm.

Discovery. Effective January 1, 2020, under CCP §2016.090, litigants have the option of stipulating to the exchange of initial disclosures related to witnesses, supporting documents, and insurance information. If the court issues an order under that stipulation, those disclosures must be completed before routine discovery can be commenced. See §4.13.

Postconviction consequences. Effective January 1, 2021, a three-tiered sex offender registration system replaces the current Pen C §290. See Stats 2017, ch 541 (SB 384) in §§6.56, 6.58.

Limitations on general damages. An intentional tortfeasor is not entitled to a reduction or apportionment of noneconomic damages under CC §1431.2. See B.B. v County of Los Angeles (2020) 10 C5th 1 in §7.48.

General characteristics of employer-employee relationship. The California legislature has codified the “ABC” test of Dynamex Operations W., Inc. v Superior Court (2018) 4 C5th 903 in adding Lab C §§2775–2787. See §§9.4–9.5.

Overtime and minimum wage requirements. In Goonewardene v ADP, LLC (2019) 6 C5th 817, the California Supreme Court held that, in a lawsuit based on unpaid overtime, employees did not have viable claims for breach of contract, negligence, and negligent misrepresentation against the outside vendor that performed payroll services under a contract with the employer. See §9.35.

Health and safety disclosures. Under Health & S C §§25400.10–25400.47, a property owner has specific disclosure, remediation, and recordkeeping obligations if the owner has been notified by a local health officer that the property is contaminated by methamphetamine or fentanyl. See §§11.2, 12.47.

Termination for tenant’s breach of rental agreement. Unlawful detainer actions are subject to the COVID–19 Tenant Relief Act of 2020 (CCP §§1179.01–1179.07) if the default in payment of rent, or neglect or failure to perform other conditions or covenants of the lease or agreement, is based on the COVID–19 rental debt. This act is repealed on February 1, 2025. CCP §1179.07. See §§11.78, 11.86. In addition, until January 1, 2021, it is also unlawful for a lessor to bring an action for unlawful detainer based on a cause of action other than nonpayment of COVID–19 rental debt for the purpose of retaliating against the lessee because the lessee has a COVID–19 rental debt. See §§11.79–11.80.

Transfer fees. Effective January 1, 2019, CC §1098.6 prohibits the creation of new transfer fees unless they provide a direct benefit to the property as required under federal law. See §12.39.

Automatic stay in bankruptcy. Sanctions are not appropriate if the creditor had an objectively reasonable basis for believing that the creditor’s actions did not violate the discharge. See Taggart v Lorenzen (2019) ___ US ___, 139 S Ct 1795, in §13.30.

Chapter 13 cases. Effective until March 27, 2021, “disposable income” does not include payments received under federal law relating to the COVID–19 pandemic. In addition, effective until March 27, 2021, the plan may be modified if the debtor is experiencing or has experienced a material financial hardship due, directly or indirectly, to the COVID–19 pandemic. See 11 USC §§1325, 1329 in §§13.60, 13.65.

Retirement plans in trusts and estates. Effective January 1, 2020, the Setting Every Community Up for Retirement Enhancement (SECURE) Act of 2019 (Pub L 116–94, 133 Stat 2534) eliminates “stretch payments” from IRAs to any beneficiary other than an “eligible designated beneficiary.” See §15.39.

About the Authors

Hon. Jeremy D. Fogel, who received his B.A. from Stanford University in 1971 and his J.D. from Harvard Law School in 1974, is the director of the Federal Judicial Center in Washington, D.C., the education and research agency of the federal courts. For over a decade before his 2011 appointment as director, Judge Fogel was a district judge of the United States District Court for the Northern District of California. Before his appointment to the federal bench, he served as a judge of the Santa Clara County Municipal and Superior Courts (1981–1998).

Susan J. Harriman, who received her B.A. from Brown University in 1976 and her J.D., magna cum laude, from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law, in 1983, is a partner with Keker & Van Nest LLP in San Francisco and handles a wide range of business litigation. Since joining that firm in 1985, she has tried state and federal cases involving legal malpractice defense, commercial disputes, real estate, and wrongful termination. She also has arbitrated cases before the American Arbitration Association and the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority. Ms. Harriman has been honored with numerous awards for her trial skills, including being repeatedly named to Best Lawyers.

R. Camille King, who earned her undergraduate degree from the University of Georgia in 1995 and her J.D. from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law, in 2001, began practicing law in Alameda County in 2001 and currently is a partner with the Law and Mediation Offices of Lovko & King in Berkeley, focusing on family law and mediation matters. She is a member of the State Bar Family Law Section and is an original contributing author of California Client Communications Manual: Sample Letters and Forms (Cal CEB).

Laura L. Lane, who earned her B.A. from Hunter College in 1988, her M.A. from San Francisco State University in 1992, and her J.D. from the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law in 1996, joined the East Bay Community Law Center in Berkeley as a supervising attorney in 1997 and has directed its housing practice since 2003. She has taught housing law and policy at the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law and at Golden Gate University School of Law. As a past recipient of an Echoing Green public interest fellowship, she founded and directed a project to provide free legal services to persons living with HIV/AIDS in Contra Costa County and has been recognized for her contributions to fair housing in the East Bay.

Lawrence E. Leone, CFLS, who earned his undergraduate degree from the University of California, Los Angeles, in 1969 and his J.D. from Loyola University of Los Angeles School of Law in 1977, is a Certified Family Law Specialist who maintains a solo practice in Los Angeles. A former partner in the Los Angeles law firm of Trope and Trope LLP, Mr. Leone is a former chair of the Family Law Section of the Los Angeles County Bar Association and currently is a Trustee as well as a member of the Los Angeles County Bar Association Foundation. Mr. Leone also serves as a Personnel Commissioner for Santa Monica College. He was appointed as a member of the Elkins Task Force. He has written extensively for and chaired the annual Los Angeles County Bar Association Family Law Symposium, edited the Los Angeles County Bar Association Monthly for many years, and is an ongoing editorial consultant for the California Family Law Monthly. Mr. Leone has also served as a judge pro tem in Los Angeles and Santa Monica as well as a family law mediator. He is a contributing author of the following publications: California Child Custody Litigation and Practice (Cal CEB), Dividing Pensions and Other Employee Benefits in California Divorces (Cal CEB), Family Law Financial Discovery (Cal CEB), and California Client Communications Manual: Sample Letters and Forms (Cal CEB).

Micha Star Liberty, who earned her undergraduate degree from the University of California, Los Angeles, in 1995 and her J.D. from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law, in 2001, maintains a law practice in Oakland, specializing in litigating serious injury, civil rights, sexual abuse, and employment matters in both individual and class actions. She also is a certified mediator. A frequent lecturer and published author, Ms. Liberty focuses much of her public speaking on trial practice, discovery techniques, the importance of mentoring, and the best practices for opening a law office and for law office management. She currently serves on CEB’s governing committee, formerly served on the California State Bar’s Board of Governors from 2008 to 2010, and formerly served as the Board of Governors representative of the California Young Lawyers Association. She currently serves on numerous other boards of professional associations and is a contributing author of California Client Communications Manual: Sample Letters and Forms (Cal CEB).

Justin M. Litvack, who earned his undergraduate degree from the University of Washington and his J.D. from Santa Clara University School of Law, is an associate attorney with Boxer & Gerson, LLP, in Oakland, specializing in workers’ compensation cases, representing injured workers. Mr. Litvack helps clients navigate the workers’ compensation system. He is a member of the California Applicants’ Attorneys Association.

Rae Lovko, who earned her undergraduate degree from Old Dominion University in 1989, her M.A. from the College of William and Mary in 1993, and her J.D. from Golden Gate University School of Law in 2000, where she was class valedictorian, is a partner with the Law and Mediation Offices of Lovko & King in Berkeley, handling personal injury, residential landlord-tenant, and employment law matters. As a practitioner for over a decade, Ms. Lovko has become both a skilled trial attorney and an effective negotiator and has represented hundreds of injured workers, consumers, and families. She has published articles in legal journals and worked for fair representation in the court system in both Florida and California.

Teresa A. McQueen, a senior partner at Pedersen McQueen, in Irvine, is dedicated to representing individuals in all areas of employment litigation, as well as providing general counsel services to small and medium-size companies. Ms. McQueen is a former Orange County Bar Association board member and a past chair of the California State Bar Solo and Small Firm Section and of the OCBA Solo Practitioner/Small Firm Section. She is a member of California Employment Lawyers Association, the California State Bar Labor and Employment Law Section, and the California State Bar Solo and Small Firm Section. Ms. McQueen is also an author and speaker on employment law, practice management, and water law. She earned her undergraduate degree from the University of Idaho and her J.D. from Chapman University School of Law.

Stephen M. Murphy, who earned his undergraduate degree from College of the Holy Cross in 1977 and his J.D. from the University of San Francisco in 1981, maintains a solo practice in San Francisco, specializing in plaintiffs’ employment litigation. Mr. Murphy handles a wide range of employment issues, from wage-and-hour and similar claims to wrongful termination, discrimination, and harassment. He has been honored as a top 100 Northern California Super Lawyer, listed in Best Lawyers, and honored as the “Trial Lawyer of the Year” for 2008 by the San Francisco Trial Lawyers Association. Mr. Murphy has lectured and contributed articles to numerous legal journals and is a contributing author of Wrongful Employment Termination Practice: Discrimination, Harassment, and Retaliation (2d ed Cal CEB) and Handling a Wrongful Termination Action (Cal CEB Action Guide).

Michael T. O’Halloran, who earned his B.A. degree from the University of California, San Diego, in 1976 and his J.D. from the University of Southern California in 1981, maintains a private law practice in San Diego. His firm specializes in insolvency counseling and all types of bankruptcy representation. He is a Certified Specialist in Consumer and Small Business Bankruptcy (California State Bar certification) as well as a Certified Specialist in Business Bankruptcy and Consumer Bankruptcy (American Board of Certification). He is active in many community and bar association activities, including the San Diego Volunteer Lawyer Program. He received the State Bar President’s Pro Bono Service Award in 2014. Mr. O’Halloran is a former contributing author of California Domestic Partnerships (Cal CEB).

Virginia Palmer, who received her B.A. from California State University, San Francisco, in 1975 and her J.D. from Golden Gate University School of Law in 1980, is a partner with the firm of Wendel, Rosen, Black & Dean LLP in Oakland. She focuses her practice on estate planning, probate, trust administration, and elder law. She has particular expertise in estate planning for both married and unmarried couples (including domestic partners), premarital and postmarital agreements, representation of individual and professional fiduciaries in the administration of living trusts, and conservatorship. In addition, she serves as a judge pro tem in the Alameda County Superior Court as well as a court-appointed guardian ad litem for children and incapacitated adults. Ms. Palmer is a frequent lecturer on estate planning and other issues for domestic partners and has been listed as a Northern California Super Lawyer. She is a contributing author of California Domestic Partnerships (Cal CEB) and Crossover Issues in Estate Planning and Family Law (Cal CEB).

Howard L. Pearlman, who earned his undergraduate degree from Reed College in 1980 and his J.D. from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law, in 1986, has practiced real estate law for more than 30 years. After 24 years as a shareholder of the San Francisco firm of Bartko, Zankel, Tarrant & Miller, Mr. Pearlman opened a real estate practice in Oakland in 2012. He has litigated, arbitrated, and mediated a wide range of matters involving purchase and sale transactions, commercial leases, construction contracts and defects, common interest developments, broker liability, nondisclosure/fraud claims, and adjoining landowner disputes. He also counsels clients on environmental aspects of real property transactions and has represented clients in environmental litigation and regulatory matters. Mr. Pearlman is an active member of the National Roster of Arbitrators of the American Arbitration Association. He is a contributing author of California Real Property Sales Transactions (4th ed Cal CEB) and Ground Lease Practice (2d ed Cal CEB).

Neil Pedersen, the principal at Pedersen McQueen, in Irvine, is dedicated to representing individuals in all areas of employment litigation, as well as providing general counsel services to small and medium-size companies. Mr. Pederson has been an adjunct professor at Western State College of Law teaching Employment Law. He also co-created and taught the school’s first Law Practice Management course for 8 years. Mr. Pederson is a prolific author and regular lecturer on subjects of employment law, law practice management, and general litigation. Mr. Pederson served as executive committee member and Chair of the OCBA’s Insurance Law and Solo & Small Firm Practitioner sections. He was also an active member of the Executive Committee of the California Lawyers Association Law Practice Management & Technology Section for 8 years. Mr. Pederson has been selected as a Top Attorney in Southern California for the last 9 years, has repeatedly been named one of the Top Employment Law Attorneys in Orange County, and has been identified as a Southern California Super Lawyer from 2015 to the present. In 2016, the State Bar Solo and Small Firm Section named Mr. Pederson as its Attorney of the Year. Mr. Pederson graduated magna cum laude from Western State College of Law in 1988 as co-Valedictorian and Editor-in-Chief of the Law Review. He was inducted into that school’s Alumni Hall of Fame in 2010.

Dennis A. Popalardo, Jr., who earned his B.A. from Fairfield University in 1989 and his J.D. from Pepperdine University School of Law in 1992, is with the firm of Boxer & Gerson LLP in Oakland. Since becoming an attorney in 1992, he has practiced exclusively in the area of workers’ compensation law and is a Certified Specialist in Workers’ Compensation Law. Before joining the Boxer & Gerson firm, Mr. Popalardo was a managing partner of a nationwide insurance defense firm. He has been recognized as a Northern California Super Lawyer by San Francisco Magazine.

Shanon K. Quinley, CFLS, who earned her B.A. from the University of California, Santa Barbara, in 2000 and her J.D. from Southwestern University School of Law in 2004, maintains a solo law practice in Pasadena, with an emphasis on family law. Ms. Quinley is certified as a specialist in Family Law by the State Bar of California Board of Legal Specialization. She is an active member of the Family Law Sections of the Los Angeles County Bar Association and the State Bar as well as a member of the Pasadena Bar Association. In addition, Ms. Quinley has been a member of CEB’s Family Law Advisory Committee and consulted on the needs of newer attorneys. She is a contributing author of the following publications: Family Law Financial Discovery (Cal CEB), California Child and Spousal Support: Establishing, Modifying, and Enforcing (Cal CEB), Basic Practice Handbook (Cal CEB), and California Client Communications Manual: Sample Letters and Forms (Cal CEB).

Maria E. Schopp, who received her undergraduate degree from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1989 and her J.D. from City University of New York School of Law in 1995, maintains a solo law practice in Walnut Creek, handling both family and criminal law matters. Her practice includes mediation and collaborative negotiation in addition to traditional litigation. She is a past chair of the Family Law Section of the Barristers Club of the Bar Association of San Francisco as well as a former president of the Queen’s Bench Bar Association of the San Francisco Bay Area. Ms. Schopp was an original contributing author of California Client Communications Manual: Sample Letters and Forms (Cal CEB).

Judith Y. Tang is a partner and co-chair of the Trusts and Estates department at the firm of Wendel, Rosen, Black & Dean LLP in Oakland. She earned her B.S. degree from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1992 and her J.D. from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law, in 1995. Ms. Tang is certified by the State Bar of California Board of Legal Specialization as a Specialist in Estate Planning, Trust, and Probate Law and provides comprehensive estate planning and legal services in those areas. She has lectured on estate planning issues in both legal forums and before civic groups. Ms. Tang has been included in the Northern California Super Lawyer magazine for the years 2010 through 2020. She was appointed to the Executive Committee of the Trusts & Estates Section of the California Lawyers Association in 2020.

Carrie D. Wipplinger, who earned her B.A. from the University of Chicago in 1999 and her J.D. from Golden Gate University School of Law in 2010, is an associate attorney with the firm of Boxer & Gerson LLP in Oakland, with a focus on workers’ compensation law. Before joining that firm, Ms. Wipplinger interned for the San Francisco City Attorney’s Office (Workers’ Compensation Team) and clerked for Bay Area Legal Aid.

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