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California Civil Procedure Before Trial

An indispensable source of information, this book helps you easily tackle pretrial litigation from first client contact, through pleadings and law and motion matters, to preparing yourself for the best outcome whether through settlement, arbitration, or trial. Filled with sample forms.

 

Purchase California Civil Procedure Before Trial and get Handling Subpoenas Action Guide (a $159 value) for free when you order with priority code 7040Z by July 19, 2019.

 

"The [CEB] book I find most helpful is Civil Procedure Before Trial. Although I have tried my share of cases, most litigators are proceduralists, and this book is a solid guide through the pretrial process."
William N. Hebert, Calvo Fisher & Jacob LLP San Francisco

An indispensable source of information, this book helps you effectively tackle pretrial litigation from first client contact, through pleadings and law and motion matters, to preparing yourself for the best outcome whether through settlement, arbitration, or trial. Filled with sample forms.

  • Conflicts of interest and new clients
  • When clients do not pay: fee collection through mandatory fee arbitration procedures
  • Jurisdiction and venue
  • Drafting complaints and responsive pleadings
  • Serving process and papers
  • Federal court removal
  • Law and motion practice and procedures
  • Injunctions and other provisional remedies
  • Summary judgment, default, and dismissal
  • Case management conferences, time delays, and complex cases
OnLAW CP94700

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4th edition, 3 looseleaf volumes, updated 6/19

 

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"The [CEB] book I find most helpful is Civil Procedure Before Trial. Although I have tried my share of cases, most litigators are proceduralists, and this book is a solid guide through the pretrial process."
William N. Hebert, Calvo Fisher & Jacob LLP San Francisco

An indispensable source of information, this book helps you effectively tackle pretrial litigation from first client contact, through pleadings and law and motion matters, to preparing yourself for the best outcome whether through settlement, arbitration, or trial. Filled with sample forms.

  • Conflicts of interest and new clients
  • When clients do not pay: fee collection through mandatory fee arbitration procedures
  • Jurisdiction and venue
  • Drafting complaints and responsive pleadings
  • Serving process and papers
  • Federal court removal
  • Law and motion practice and procedures
  • Injunctions and other provisional remedies
  • Summary judgment, default, and dismissal
  • Case management conferences, time delays, and complex cases

1

Accepting Cases and Implementing Office Procedures

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  1.1
  • II.  BEFORE TAKING CASE
    • A.  Determine Objectives of Litigation  1.2
    • B.  Avoid Future Claims of Malicious Prosecution or Abuse of Process  1.3
      • 1.  Malicious Prosecution  1.4
      • 2.  Abuse of Process  1.5
    • C.  Safeguard Against Sanctions
      • 1.  For Litigation of Matter Unwarranted by Law  1.6
        • a.  Sanctions Under CCP §128.5  1.6A
        • b.  Sanctions Under CCP §128.7  1.6B
      • 2.  For Bad Faith Appeal  1.7
    • D.  Check for Conflicts  1.8
    • E.  Know Rules of Professional Competence  1.9
    • F.  Ascertain Circumstances of Referral  1.10
    • G.  Consider Economic Feasibility and Other Matters  1.11
  • III.  INITIAL INTERVIEW
    • A.  Obtain Facts  1.12
    • B.  Establish Good Working Relationship  1.13
    • C.  Outline Possible Results, Risks, Costs, Timing, and Alternatives  1.14
    • D.  Discuss Fee Agreements  1.15
    • E.  Draft Engagement or Retainer Letter  1.16
  • IV.  CASE INVESTIGATION
    • A.  Confirm Client’s Facts; Resources  1.17
    • B.  Organize Research of Issues  1.18
    • C.  Plan Discovery  1.19
  • V.  OFFICE MANAGEMENT AND PROCEDURES
    • A.  Establish Procedures and Controls  1.20
      • 1.  Client Intake Forms and Procedures  1.21
      • 2.  Office Procedures  1.22
      • 3.  Forms Manuals  1.23
    • B.  Use of Contract Attorneys and Paralegals
      • 1.  Contract Attorneys
        • a.  Advantages and Disadvantages  1.24
        • b.  Need for Written Contract  1.25
        • c.  Depositions and Court Appearances  1.26
      • 2.  Paralegals  1.27
        • a.  Definition and Permitted Activities  1.28
        • b.  Prohibited Activities  1.29
        • c.  Education and Training Requirements  1.30
      • 3.  Delegation and Supervision  1.31
  • VI.  CASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM  1.32
    • A.  Filing System
      • 1.  Case Files
        • a.  Numbering  1.33
        • b.  Individual File Organization  1.34
        • c.  Location  1.35
        • d.  Document Management and Evidence Retrieval  1.36
        • e.  Closing Files  1.37
      • 2.  Client Directory Files  1.38
      • 3.  Conflicts File  1.39
    • B.  Evaluating Services Rendered  1.40
    • C.  Calendaring and Docket Control  1.41
      • 1.  Master Calendar  1.42
      • 2.  Secondary Calendars  1.43
      • 3.  “Tickler” System  1.44
  • VII.  TIMEKEEPING AND RECORDING
    • A.  Importance of Accurate Recordkeeping  1.45
    • B.  Timekeeping Systems  1.46
    • C.  Review of Office Productivity  1.47
  • VIII.  FORMS
    • A.  Questionnaire: Client Interview (Individuals)  1.48
    • B.  Questionnaire: Client Interview (Businesses)  1.49

2

Avoiding Conflicts of Interest

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  2.1
    • B.  Governing Law
      • 1.  Statutes, Rules, and Professional Standards  2.2
      • 2.  Ethics Opinions  2.3
      • 3.  Rationale for Rules  2.4
  • II.  AVOIDING CONFLICTS SITUATIONS
    • A.  Creating a Conflicts Check System  2.5
    • B.  Alternatives for Resolving Conflicts  2.6
    • C.  Effect of Breaching Conflicts Rules
      • 1.  Disqualification  2.7
      • 2.  State Bar Discipline  2.8
      • 3.  Refunding Attorney Fees  2.9
      • 4.  Tort Liability  2.10
  • III.  CONFLICTS ARISING FROM CONCURRENT REPRESENTATION (CAL RULES OF PROF COND 1.7)
    • A.  Rule Against Conflicting Concurrent Representation  2.11
    • B.  What Constitutes a Conflict Under Rule 1.7  2.12
    • C.  When Conflict Arises Later  2.13
    • D.  Existence of Attorney-Client Relationship  2.14
    • E.  Multiple Representation in Transactional Matters  2.15
    • F.  Advance Waivers of Future Conflicts  2.16
  • IV.  CONFLICTS ARISING FROM SUCCESSIVE REPRESENTATION (CAL RULES OF PROF COND 1.9)
    • A.  Concurrent Versus Successive Representation  2.17
    • B.  Duties to Former Clients  2.18
      • 1.  Definition of Same or Substantially Related Matters  2.19
        • a.  When No Confidential Information Given  2.20
        • b.  Information Not Confidential  2.21
        • c.  Confidential Information Given to Nonattorney  2.22
        • d.  Disclosures of Confidences Made by Attorney’s Client  2.23
        • e.  Disclosure Necessary to Prevent Criminal Act  2.24
      • 2.  Identifying Client Under Rule 1.9  2.25
  • V.  CONFLICTS ARISING FROM ATTORNEY’S ADVERSE PECUNIARY INTEREST (CAL RULES OF PROF COND 1.8.1)  2.26
  • VI.  ATTORNEY ACCEPTING COMPENSATION FROM NONCLIENT (CAL RULES OF PROF COND 1.8.6)  2.26A
  • VII.  CONFLICTS ARISING FROM RELATIONSHIPS WITH OTHER PERSONS (RULES 1.7(b)–(c))
    • A.  Interest in Subject Matter or Relationship With Another Party, Witness, or Third Person (Rule 1.7(b)–(d))  2.27
    • B.  Relationship With Other Party’s Lawyer (Rule 1.7(c)(2)–(d))  2.28
    • C.  Relationship With Successor Counsel and Co-Counsel  2.29
    • D.  Relationship With Nonclients  2.30
      • 1.  Nonclient Family Members  2.31
      • 2.  Attorney as Public Officer  2.32
      • 3.  Attorney as Arbitrator  2.33
      • 4.  Attorney as Trustee, Executor, Corporate Director, or Other Fiduciary  2.34
  • VIII.  CONFLICTS INVOLVING LAWYERS REPRESENTING CORPORATIONS (CAL RULES OF PROF COND 1.13)
    • A.  Organization Is Attorney’s Client  2.35
    • B.  Different Types of Conflicts
      • 1.  Between Client Corporation and Parent Corporation  2.36
      • 2.  Between Client Corporation and Partnership  2.37
      • 3.  Between Client Corporation and Its Constituents  2.38
    • C.  Dual Representation of Organization and Constituent  2.39
  • IX.  CONFLICTS ARISING IN INSURANCE CONTEXT
    • A.  Dual Representation of Insurer and Insured  2.40
    • B.  Conflicts Between Insurer and Insured  2.41
      • 1.  Insurer’s Duty to Provide Independent Counsel to Insured (Cumis Counsel)  2.42
      • 2.  Independent Counsel Owes Fiduciary Duty to Insured  2.43
  • X.  LIMITATIONS ON ATTORNEY ACTING AS WITNESS (RULE 3.7)
    • A.  When Attorney May Serve as Witness  2.44
    • B.  Informed, Written Consent  2.45
    • C.  Another Attorney in Firm as Witness  2.46
    • D.  Attorney as Witness for Opposing Party  2.47
  • XI.  IMPUTED AND VICARIOUS DISQUALIFICATION (RULES 1.10 AND 1.11)
    • A.  In General  2.48
    • B.  Imputed Disqualification and Former and Current Public Officials and Employees  2.48A
    • C.  Imputed Disqualification and Nonlawyer Employees  2.49
    • D.  Building an Ethical Wall  2.50
  • XII.  CLIENT’S CONSENT TO AND WAIVER OF CONFLICTS
    • A.  Consent Must Be Informed, in Writing  2.51
    • B.  Complete Disclosure  2.52
    • C.  Implied Waiver and Consent  2.53
  • XIII.  ATTORNEY WITHDRAWAL AND DISQUALIFICATION
    • A.  Withdrawal  2.54
    • B.  Disqualification  2.55
      • 1.  Motions for Disqualification or Recusal in General  2.56
        • a.  Delay in Filing Motion  2.57
        • b.  Effect of Making Motion Close to Trial  2.58
        • c.  Review by Appeal or Writ of Mandate  2.59
      • 2.  Appearance of Impropriety Not a Basis for Disqualification  2.60
  • XIV.  FORMS
    • A.  Sample Letter to Client: Adverse Representation  2.61
    • B.  Sample Letter to Corporate Officer: Dual Representation  2.62

3

Representation Agreements

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  3.1
    • B.  Governing Law  3.2
  • II.  FEE AND REPRESENTATION AGREEMENTS
    • A.  Basic Rules  3.3
      • 1.  When Written Agreement Required
        • a.  Contingent Fees  3.4
        • b.  Other Types of Fees  3.5
        • c.  Effect of Failure to Have Written Agreement  3.6
      • 2.  When Oral Fee Agreement Sufficient
        • a.  Total Costs and Fees Under $1000  3.7
        • b.  Claims Between Merchants  3.8
        • c.  Emergencies  3.9
        • d.  Similar Services Paid for by Client  3.10
        • e.  Client’s Written Waiver of Bus & P C §6148  3.11
        • f.  Agreements Made Before January 1, 1987  3.12
        • g.  Corporation as Client  3.13
    • B.  Confidentiality  3.14
    • C.  Form of Agreement
      • 1.  Contract or Letter  3.15
      • 2.  General Nature of Legal Services  3.16
      • 3.  Duplicate Copy of Signed Contract  3.17
      • 4.  Develop Written Forms That Can Be Adapted  3.18
    • D.  Disclosure of Professional Liability Insurance  3.19
    • E.  Income Tax Issues  3.20
    • F.  Attorney’s Lien
      • 1.  Right to Lien  3.20A
      • 2.  Agreeing to Lien  3.20B
      • 3.  Ethical Requirements  3.20C
    • G.  Optional Terms  3.21
  • III.  TYPES OF FEES
    • A.  Contingent Fee  3.22
      • 1.  Medical Malpractice Cases  3.23
      • 2.  “Reasonable Fee” If Agreement Voided  3.24
      • 3.  Attorney’s Lien [Deleted]  3.25
    • B.  Retainer
      • 1.  Nonrefundable, Not Credited on Fee  3.26
      • 2.  Refundable, Less Fees Earned  3.27
      • 3.  Nonrefundable: Minimum Fee  3.28
    • C.  Hourly or Other Noncontingent Fees
      • 1.  Billing Requirements  3.29
      • 2.  Description of Legal Services  3.30
      • 3.  Attorney’s Responsibilities  3.31
      • 4.  Client’s Responsibilities  3.32
    • D.  Fixed or Flat Fee  3.33
    • E.  Advance on Fees, Balance in Installments  3.34
    • F.  Forwarding or Referral Fee  3.35
    • G.  Fees to Associate Counsel  3.36
  • IV.  LIMITATIONS ON ABILITY TO AGREE ON FEES
    • A.  Fees Set or Limited by Statute  3.37
    • B.  Fees Subject to Court Approval  3.38
    • C.  Illegal Fee Contracts
      • 1.  Against Public Policy or Violate Ethical Standards  3.39
      • 2.  Family Law Cases  3.40
      • 3.  Other Examples  3.41
    • D.  Representation Agreements Acquiring an Adverse Interest  3.42
    • E.  Unconscionable Fees  3.43
  • V.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Sample Contingent Fee Agreement  3.44
    • B.  Form: Sample Fee Agreement Based on Hourly Rate for Services  3.45
    • C.  Form: Disclosure and Consent on Fee Splitting (Referral)  3.46
    • D.  Form: Disclosure and Consent on Fee Splitting (Association)  3.47
    • E.  Form: Attorney’s Lien Agreement  3.48

4

Changing Representation During Suit

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  4.1
    • B.  Governing Law  4.2
  • II.  BECOMING ATTORNEY OF RECORD
    • A.  Initial Appearance in Action or Proceeding  4.3
    • B.  Client’s Right to Change Attorneys  4.4
  • III.  SUBSTITUTION OF ATTORNEY
    • A.  Substitution With Counsel’s Consent
      • 1.  Procedures  4.5
      • 2.  Notice to Other Parties  4.6
    • B.  Substitution Without Counsel’s Consent
      • 1.  Client’s Motion for Substitution
        • a.  Motion Generally Granted  4.7
        • b.  Denial Because Trial Imminent  4.8
        • c.  Denial Because Attorney’s Power Coupled With an Interest  4.9
      • 2.  Former Counsel’s Failure to Deliver Files  4.10
        • a.  Retaining Lien Void  4.11
        • b.  Unearned Fees  4.12
    • C.  Former Counsel’s Right to Fees
      • 1.  Reasonable Fees to Time of Discharge  4.13
      • 2.  Charging Lien Valid  4.14
  • IV.  ASSOCIATION OF ATTORNEY
    • A.  Authority  4.15
    • B.  Notice of Association  4.16
    • C.  Court Appearance by Out-of-State Attorney
      • 1.  Procedures for Appearing as Counsel Pro Hac Vice  4.17
      • 2.  Association of California Counsel as Attorney of Record Required  4.18
  • V.  ATTORNEY’S WITHDRAWAL
    • A.  Duties to Client  4.19
    • B.  Withdrawal With Client’s Consent  4.20
    • C.  Attorney’s Withdrawal Without Client’s Consent
      • 1.  Motion to Be Relieved as Counsel  4.21
      • 2.  Procedures for Obtaining Court Order Relieving Counsel
        • a.  Actions in Trial Court  4.22
          • (1)  Notice of Motion  4.23
          • (2)  Declaration of Counsel  4.24
          • (3)  Service of Notice and Declaration  4.25
          • (4)  Proposed Order  4.26
          • (5)  Order  4.27
        • b.  Appeals Pending in Superior Court Appellate Division  4.28
        • c.  Matters Pending in Court of Appeal and Supreme Court  4.29
        • d.  Withdrawal When Publicly Funded Representation Reduced  4.30
        • e.  Withdrawal From Dissolution of Marriage Action  4.31
        • f.  Withdrawal From Representation of Corporation  4.32
    • D.  Grounds
      • 1.  Mandatory Withdrawal  4.33
      • 2.  Conditionally Mandatory Withdrawal  4.34
      • 3.  Permissive Withdrawal  4.35
  • VI.  ATTORNEY’S ABANDONMENT OF CLIENT  4.36
  • VII.  CLIENT’S DEATH OR INCAPACITY  4.37
  • VIII.  CESSATION OF LAW PRACTICE
    • A.  Attorney’s Death, Incapacity, or Suspension  4.38
      • 1.  Procedures for Finding of Incapacity  4.39
      • 2.  Demand That Party Appoint Attorney or Appear  4.40
      • 3.  Party’s Appointment of Attorney  4.41
    • B.  Notice of Cessation of Law Practice  4.42
    • C.  Application for Court Jurisdiction Over Practice  4.43
      • 1.  Contents of Application  4.44
      • 2.  Hearing  4.45
      • 3.  Appointment of Attorney  4.46
      • 4.  Limited Judicial Powers  4.47
      • 5.  Confidentiality  4.48
      • 6.  No Liability  4.49
      • 7.  Expenses Paid, But No Fees  4.50
      • 8.  No Appeals  4.51
  • IX.  MOTION FOR DISQUALIFICATION
    • A.  Adverse Party’s Motion for Disqualification  4.52
    • B.  Grounds; Procedure  4.53
    • C.  Court’s Ruling  4.54
  • X.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Notice and Substitution of Attorney  4.55
    • B.  Form: Substitution of Attorney—Civil (Without Court Order) (Judicial Council Form MC-050)  4.56
    • C.  Client’s Motion for Substitution of Attorney
      • 1.  Form: Notice of Motion for Substitution of Attorney  4.57
      • 2.  Form: Declaration of Client Supporting Motion for Substitution of Attorney  4.58
      • 3.  Form: Declaration of Attorney Supporting Motion for Substitution of Attorney  4.59
      • 4.  Form: Order Substituting Attorney  4.60
    • D.  Form: Association of Attorney  4.61
    • E.  Form: Application to Appear as Counsel Pro Hac Vice; Notice of Hearing  4.62
    • F.  Form: Consent by Client to Continued Representation (Cal Rules of Prof Cond 3.7)  4.63
    • G.  Withdrawal as Attorney (Cal Rules of Ct 3.1362)
      • 1.  Form: Notice of Motion and Motion to Be Relieved as Counsel—Civil (Judicial Council Form MC-051)  4.64
      • 2.  Form: Declaration in Support of Attorney’s Motion to Be Relieved as Counsel—Civil (Judicial Council Form MC-052)  4.65
      • 3.  Form: Order Granting Attorney’s Motion to Be Relieved as Counsel—Civil (Judicial Council Form MC-053)  4.66
    • H.  Form: Notice of Attorney’s Withdrawal Under CCP §285.1 (Dissolution of Marriage Case)  4.67
    • I.  Form: Demand for Appointment of Attorney or Personal Appearance  4.68

5

Client Fee Dispute Arbitrations

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  5.1
    • B.  Governing Law  5.2
  • II.  MANDATORY FEE ARBITRATION ACT
    • A.  Purpose  5.3
    • B.  Duty to Notify Client  5.3A
    • C.  State Bar and Local Programs  5.4
      • 1.  State Bar Website  5.5
      • 2.  Filing Fees and Costs  5.6
      • 3.  Jurisdiction  5.7
      • 4.  Arbitral and Mediation Immunity  5.8
    • D.  Statutory Exceptions to Mandatory Fee Arbitration Act  5.9
    • E.  Nonstatutory Exceptions
      • 1.  Person or Entity Other Than Client Disputing Attorney Fees  5.10
      • 2.  “Cumis” Insurance Disputes Not Subject to Mandatory Fee Arbitration Act  5.11
      • 3.  Separate Negotiation of Damages and Attorney Fees  5.12
  • III.  PROCEDURES BEFORE ARBITRATION
    • A.  Notice of Client’s Right to Fee Arbitration; Service  5.13
    • B.  Request for Arbitration; Service on Respondent  5.14
      • 1.  Attorney’s Response  5.15
      • 2.  Client’s Response  5.16
    • C.  Client’s Loss of Right to Compel Arbitration
      • 1.  Failure to Request Arbitration Within 30 Days After Receipt of Notice  5.17
      • 2.  Client’s Answer to Complaint for Fees  5.18
      • 3.  Client’s Filing of Action or Pleading Seeking Judicial Resolution of Dispute or Affirmative Relief Based on Malpractice  5.19
    • D.  Effect of Requesting Arbitration
      • 1.  Proceedings Stayed  5.20
      • 2.  Vacating Stay: Exception for Certain Provisional Remedies  5.21
      • 3.  Time Tolled for Filing Civil Action  5.22
      • 4.  Agreement to Binding Arbitration  5.23
  • IV.  THE HEARING
    • A.  Preliminary Matters  5.24
      • 1.  Appointment of Arbitrators; Disqualification  5.25
      • 2.  Issuing Subpoenas  5.26
      • 3.  Clarification of Issues and Exchange of Documents  5.27
      • 4.  Waiver of Personal Appearance; Right to Counsel  5.28
    • B.  Testimony
      • 1.  Administering Oath  5.29
      • 2.  Evidence  5.30
        • a.  Discovery Generally Not Permitted  5.31
        • b.  Attorney-Client Communications and Work Product; Confidentiality  5.32
    • C.  Award; Contents  5.33
  • V.  POSTARBITRATION PROCEDURES
    • A.  Notice of Postarbitration Rights to Judicial Relief  5.34
    • B.  Confirmation, Correction, or Vacation of Award  5.35
    • C.  Rejection of Award and Trial After Arbitration  5.36
    • D.  Attorney Fees and Costs
      • 1.  After Award Confirmed, Corrected, or Vacated  5.37
      • 2.  After Postarbitration Trial; Prevailing Party Defined  5.38
    • E.  State Bar Enforcement  5.39
  • VI.  LITIGATING A FEE COLLECTION ACTION
    • A.  Pleading Service of Notice of Right to Arbitrate Fee Dispute  5.40
    • B.  Overcoming Presumption of Undue Influence  5.41
    • C.  Compliance With Fee Agreement Statute  5.42
    • D.  Proving Fee Agreement  5.43
    • E.  Determining Reasonable Attorney Fees in Absence of Fee Agreement; Guidelines  5.44
    • F.  Client’s Defenses to Action for Fees
      • 1.  Attorney’s Unjustified Withdrawal  5.45
      • 2.  Illegal Fee Agreements  5.46
      • 3.  Discharge of Attorney  5.47

6

California Jurisdiction

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  6.1
    • B.  Governing Law  6.2
    • C.  Related Issues  6.3
  • II.  SUBJECT MATTER JURISDICTION
    • A.  General Principles  6.4
      • 1.  Conferred by California Constitution  6.5
      • 2.  Consent, Waiver, or Estoppel  6.6
      • 3.  Judgment Void If Court Lacks Subject Matter Jurisdiction  6.7
      • 4.  Exclusive Concurrent Jurisdiction  6.8
    • B.  Supreme Court  6.9
    • C.  Courts of Appeal  6.10
    • D.  Superior Courts  6.11
      • 1.  Trial Court Unification  6.12
      • 2.  Unlimited Civil Cases
        • a.  Amount in Controversy Exceeds $25,000  6.13
        • b.  Unlimited Civil Cases by Statute  6.14
      • 3.  Limited Civil Cases
        • a.  Amount in Controversy Does Not Exceed $25,000  6.15
        • b.  Limited Civil Cases by Statute  6.16
        • c.  Appellate Jurisdiction in Limited Civil Cases  6.17
      • 4.  Small Claims Courts  6.18
        • a.  Jurisdiction Derived From Statute  6.19
        • b.  Attorney Assistance to Litigants  6.20
        • c.  Equitable Relief  6.21
        • d.  Appeals of Small Claims Cases  6.22
        • e.  Res Judicata and Collateral Estoppel Effect of Small Claims Judgments  6.22A
      • 5.  Classification of Case as Limited or Unlimited
        • a.  Importance of Correct Classification  6.23
        • b.  Classification by Party Initiating Case  6.24
          • (1)  Determining Amount in Controversy  6.25
          • (2)  Aggregation of Claims  6.26
      • 6.  Reclassification
        • a.  Changing Jurisdictional Classification  6.27
          • (1)  By Amended Initial Pleading  6.28
          • (2)  By Cross-Complaint  6.29
          • (3)  By Noticed Motion  6.30
          • (4)  By Stipulation  6.31
          • (5)  By Court  6.32
        • b.  When Reclassification Is Not Required  6.33
        • c.  Hearing to Obtain Information on Reclassification  6.34
        • d.  Reclassification Fees
          • (1)  Determination of Fees  6.35
          • (2)  Reclassification Dependent on Payment of Fees  6.36
        • e.  Abuses of Discretion in Reclassification  6.37
        • f.  Review of Trial Court’s Reclassification Order  6.38
      • 7.  Transfer of Case Mistakenly Filed in Superior Court  6.39
  • III.  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STATE AND FEDERAL SUBJECT MATTER JURISDICTION
    • A.  Scope of Discussion  6.40
    • B.  Exclusive and Concurrent Federal Court Jurisdiction  6.41
    • C.  Factors in Determining Choice of Forum  6.42
      • 1.  Geographic Considerations  6.43
      • 2.  Venue and Transfer  6.44
      • 3.  Applicable Substantive Law  6.45
      • 4.  Applicable Procedural Law  6.46
      • 5.  Juries  6.47
      • 6.  Calendar Congestion and Management  6.48
      • 7.  Caliber of Judiciary and Opposing Counsel  6.49
      • 8.  Attitude of Judiciary  6.50
      • 9.  Disqualification of Judge  6.51
  • IV.  LIMITATIONS ON SUBJECT MATTER JURISDICTION
    • A.  Governmental Immunity  6.52
    • B.  Action Barred by Time Limitations  6.53
    • C.  Failure to Exhaust Administrative Remedies  6.54
    • D.  Appellate Jurisdiction Invoked  6.55
    • E.  Voluntary Dismissal  6.56
    • F.  Order Changing Venue  6.57
    • G.  Standing  6.57A
  • V.  CHALLENGING SUBJECT MATTER JURISDICTION
    • A.  Timing and Procedures  6.58
    • B.  Jurisdiction to Determine Jurisdiction  6.59
  • VI.  PERSONAL JURISDICTION
    • A.  Introduction
      • 1.  Statutory Basis; Legislative Intent  6.60
      • 2.  Constitutional Limitations on Nonresidents
        • a.  Due Process Clause  6.61
        • b.  “Minimum Contacts”  6.62
        • c.  General and Specific Jurisdiction  6.63
        • d.  Forum Non Conveniens  6.64
      • 3.  Motion to Quash; Burden of Proof  6.65
    • B.  Jurisdiction Over Individuals
      • 1.  Introduction  6.66
      • 2.  Domicile  6.67
      • 3.  Residence  6.68
      • 4.  Citizenship  6.69
      • 5.  Physical Presence in State  6.70
      • 6.  Appearance in Judicial Proceeding  6.71
        • a.  Acts Constituting General Appearance  6.72
        • b.  Motion to Dismiss for Lack of Subject Matter Jurisdiction  6.73
        • c.  Motion for Attorney Fees  6.74
        • d.  Filing Status Conference Questionnaire  6.75
        • e.  Filing Answer  6.76
        • f.  Service of Notice of Taking Deposition  6.77
      • 7.  Consent to Jurisdiction  6.78
      • 8.  Forum Selection Clauses  6.79
      • 9.  Acts Done in State
        • a.  Doing Business in State  6.80
        • b.  Tort Actions  6.81
        • c.  Contract Actions
          • (1)  Execution and Effect of Contract  6.82
          • (2)  Purposeful Availment Required  6.83
          • (3)  Employment Agreements  6.84
          • (4)  Contracts Involving Purchase of Goods  6.85
      • 10.  Act Done Outside State Causing Effect in State  6.86
      • 11.  Ownership, Use, or Possession of Property in State  6.87
      • 12.  Other Bases  6.88
    • C.  Jurisdiction Over Corporations
      • 1.  Introduction  6.89
      • 2.  Incorporation in State  6.90
      • 3.  Appointment of Agent in State to Accept Service of Process  6.91
      • 4.  Doing Business in State
        • a.  Basic Rule  6.92
        • b.  “Doing Business” Defined  6.93
        • c.  Test for General Jurisdiction  6.94
        • d.  Test for Specific Jurisdiction  6.95
        • e.  Internet Activity  6.95A
        • f.  Past Business  6.96
      • 5.  Appearance in Judicial Proceeding  6.97
      • 6.  Consent to Jurisdiction  6.98
      • 7.  Act Done in State  6.99
      • 8.  Act Done Outside State Causing Effect in State  6.100
      • 9.  Ownership, Use, or Possession of Property in State  6.101
      • 10.  Parent Corporation’s Ownership or Control of Subsidiary in State  6.102
      • 11.  Subsidiary or Affiliate Entity Providing Representative Services in State  6.102A
      • 12.  Foreign Subsidiary Having Parent in State  6.103
      • 13.  Corporate Officers  6.104
      • 14.  Other Bases  6.105
    • D.  Jurisdiction Over Partnerships and Other Unincorporated Associations  6.106
  • VII.  IN REM AND QUASI IN REM JURISDICTION
    • A.  Nature of Proceeding  6.107
    • B.  “Minimum Contacts” Required  6.108
    • C.  Notice Requirements  6.109
    • D.  Form of Action and Judgment  6.110
  • VIII.  CHECKLIST: DIAGNOSTIC QUESTIONS  6.111

7

Federal Jurisdiction

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  7.1
    • B.  Governing Law  7.2
  • II.  GENERAL PRINCIPLES
    • A.  Limitations on Federal Court’s Subject Matter Jurisdiction
      • 1.  Case or Controversy Requirement  7.3
        • a.  Advisory Opinions  7.4
        • b.  Mootness  7.5
          • (1)  On Appeal  7.6
          • (2)  Repetition-Evasion Exception  7.7
          • (3)  Class Actions  7.8
      • 2.  Standing  7.9
        • a.  Standing in Procedural Injury Cases  7.9A
        • b.  Standing When Statute Challenged on First Amendment Grounds  7.9B
      • 3.  Ripeness  7.10
      • 4.  Political Questions  7.11
      • 5.  Abstention  7.12
    • B.  Pleading Requirement  7.13
    • C.  Nonwaivability of Lack of Subject Matter Jurisdiction  7.14
  • III.  FEDERAL QUESTION JURISDICTION
    • A.  Statutory Authority  7.15
    • B.  When Cases Arise Under Federal Law  7.16
    • C.  The Well-Pleaded Complaint Rule  7.17
      • 1.  Plaintiff as Master of Complaint  7.18
      • 2.  Artful Pleading Doctrine  7.19
      • 3.  Federal Defense Insufficient  7.20
    • D.  Complete Preemption Doctrine  7.21
    • E.  Federal Claim Must Be Substantial  7.22
    • F.  Private Right of Action  7.23
    • G.  Cause of Action Under Federal Common Law  7.24
      • 1.  Development of Federal Common Law  7.25
      • 2.  Application of Federal Common Law  7.26
      • 3.  Whether to Adopt State Law as Federal Rule  7.27
    • H.  Private Cause of Action Under International Treaties  7.28
    • I.  Concurrent State and Federal Jurisdiction  7.29
    • J.  Exclusive Federal Court Jurisdiction  7.30
    • K.  Causes of Action Under Declaratory Judgment Act  7.31
    • L.  Jurisdiction to Proceed on Merits When Jurisdiction Attacked  7.32
  • IV.  SUPPLEMENTAL JURISDICTION
    • A.  Definitions; 28 USC §1367  7.33
      • 1.  Limited Supplemental Jurisdiction in Diversity Cases  7.34
      • 2.  When Exercise of Supplemental Jurisdiction May Be Declined  7.35
      • 3.  Statute of Limitations Tolling  7.36
    • B.  Pendent Jurisdiction
      • 1.  Defined; Discretionary Doctrine  7.37
      • 2.  Derivative Nature of Pendent Jurisdiction  7.38
      • 3.  Pendent Jurisdiction Determined by Pleadings  7.39
      • 4.  Factors That Court Considers  7.40
      • 5.  Effect of Dismissal of Federal Claim  7.41
      • 6.  Pendent Party Jurisdiction  7.42
    • C.  Ancillary Jurisdiction (Cases Begun Before December 1, 1990)
      • 1.  Defined; Discretionary Doctrine; Effect  7.43
      • 2.  Claims Against Existing Parties: Counterclaims; Cross-Claims  7.44
      • 3.  Claims Involving New Parties: Impleader; Intervention  7.45
      • 4.  Effect of Dismissal of Federal Claim  7.46
      • 5.  Limits on Use by Plaintiffs  7.47
  • V.  DIVERSITY JURISDICTION
    • A.  Statutory Authority  7.48
    • B.  Purpose of Diversity Jurisdiction  7.49
    • C.  Complete Diversity Requirement  7.50
      • 1.  Citizenship
        • a.  Individuals  7.51
          • (1)  Domicile  7.52
          • (2)  Domicile by Operation of Law  7.53
          • (3)  Residence Distinguished  7.54
          • (4)  Stateless Persons  7.55
        • b.  Governmental Bodies  7.56
        • c.  Corporations
          • (1)  General Rule  7.57
          • (2)  Principal Place of Business  7.58
          • (3)  Federal Corporations  7.59
        • d.  Unincorporated Associations  7.60
        • e.  Partnerships  7.61
        • f.  Assignees  7.62
        • g.  Aliens
          • (1)  Jurisdiction Generally  7.63
          • (2)  Aliens Admitted for Permanent Residence (Cases Commenced On or After January 6, 2012)  7.63A
          • (3)  Aliens Admitted for Permanent Residence (Cases Commenced Before January 6, 2012)  7.64
        • h.  Foreign States  7.65
        • i.  Legal Representative  7.66
        • j.  Class Action  7.67
        • k.  Special Rule for Direct Actions Against Insurer  7.68
      • 2.  Time of Filing of Complaint Controls  7.69
      • 3.  Court’s Duty to Realign Parties  7.70
      • 4.  Effect of Intervenors  7.71
      • 5.  Exception for Statutory Interpleader  7.72
    • D.  Jurisdictional Amount in Controversy Requirement  7.73
      • 1.  Determined by Pleadings  7.74
      • 2.  Determined as of Time Action Commenced  7.75
      • 3.  Punitive Damages  7.76
      • 4.  Attorney Fees  7.77
      • 5.  Exclusion of Interest and Costs  7.78
      • 6.  Relief Other Than Monetary Damages  7.79
      • 7.  Aggregation of Claims  7.80
    • E.  Exceptions for Domestic Relations and Probate  7.81

8

Venue

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  8.1
    • B.  Governing Law  8.2
    • C.  Statutory List: Venue Statutes  8.3
  • II.  PRELIMINARY MATTERS
    • A.  Venue Defined  8.4
    • B.  Nature of Action: Transitory, Local, or Mixed  8.5
    • C.  Importance of Complaint  8.6
    • D.  Importance of Trial Court Delay Reduction Act in Choosing Venue  8.7
    • E.  Effect of Contractual Venue Agreements  8.8
    • F.  Effect on Venue of Coordination Statutes  8.9
  • III.  VENUE IN TRANSITORY ACTIONS
    • A.  General Rule: County of Defendant’s Residence  8.10
      • 1.  Residence Defined  8.11
      • 2.  Effect of Multiple Defendants
        • a.  Residence of Any Defendant  8.12
        • b.  Improper Joinder of Defendants
          • (1)  Statutory Authority: CCP §395(a)  8.13
          • (2)  Case Examples  8.14
    • B.  Special Residence Problems
      • 1.  Residence Outside State or Unknown  8.15
      • 2.  Imminent Departure From State  8.16
    • C.  Particular Transitory Actions With Greater Venue Choice  8.17
      • 1.  Contract Actions
        • a.  Statutory Provisions  8.18
        • b.  Contract Actions Governed by CCP §395(a)
          • (1)  Types of Actions  8.19
          • (2)  Determining Where Contract Is Entered Into
            • (a)  Last Act Necessary: Acceptance  8.20
            • (b)  Illustrative Cases  8.21
            • (c)  Effect of Contract Provisions  8.22
          • (3)  Determining Place of Performance
            • (a)  Statutory Definitions  8.23
            • (b)  Illustrative Cases  8.24
        • c.  Consumer Obligations and Installment Sales
          • (1)  Consumer Obligations (CCP §395(b))  8.25
          • (2)  Installment Sales Contracts (CC §§1812.10, 2984)  8.26
          • (3)  Pleading Requirements  8.27
          • (4)  Consent to Improper Venue  8.28
      • 2.  Personal Injury and Wrongful Death Actions  8.29
      • 3.  Actions for Injury to Personal Property  8.30
  • IV.  VENUE IN LOCAL ACTIONS
    • A.  Local Action Defined  8.31
    • B.  Local Actions Involving Real Property
      • 1.  Real Property Actions (CCP §392)
        • a.  Types of Actions  8.32
        • b.  Examples
          • (1)  Recovery of Real Property or Estate or Interest in Real Property  8.33
          • (2)  Determination of Right or Interest in Real Property  8.34
          • (3)  Injury to Real Property  8.35
          • (4)  Foreclosure of Liens and Mortgages on Real Property  8.36
          • (5)  Unlawful Detainer Proceedings  8.37
      • 2.  Partition (CCP §872.110)  8.38
      • 3.  Eminent Domain Proceedings (CCP §1250.020)  8.39
      • 4.  Property Situated in More Than One County  8.40
    • C.  Local Actions Not Involving Real Property
      • 1.  Marital Dissolution Proceedings  8.41
      • 2.  Determination of Parental Relationship or to Enforce Support  8.42
      • 3.  Adoption  8.43
      • 4.  Actions Against Public Officers  8.44
      • 5.  Actions for Recovery of Penalty or Forfeiture  8.45
      • 6.  Actions Against Executor, Administrator, Guardian, Conservator, or Trustee  8.46
      • 7.  Actions for Involuntary Dissolution of Corporation  8.47
  • V.  VENUE IN MIXED ACTIONS
    • A.  When Situation Arises  8.48
    • B.  Main Relief Rule  8.49
      • 1.  Main Relief Affects Rights in Ownership or Use of Real Property: Local  8.50
      • 2.  Main Relief Affects Personal Rights: Transitory  8.51
    • C.  Joinder of Causes of Action
      • 1.  Transitory and Local  8.52
      • 2.  Two Transitory Causes of Action  8.53
    • D.  Public Policy Considerations  8.54
  • VI.  SPECIAL RULES FOR CORPORATIONS, ASSOCIATIONS, AND PARTNERSHIPS (CCP §395.5)
    • A.  Purpose of Statute  8.55
    • B.  Entities Governed by CCP §395.5  8.56
    • C.  Entities and Actions Not Governed by CCP §395.5  8.57
    • D.  Where Plaintiff May Bring Action  8.58
      • 1.  Contract Actions
        • a.  Where Contract Is Made  8.59
        • b.  Where Contract Is to Be Performed  8.60
      • 2.  Tort Actions  8.61
    • E.  When and Where Defendant May Transfer Action  8.62
    • F.  Multiple Defendants  8.63
    • G.  Multiple Causes of Action: Mixed Action Rule Applies  8.64
  • VII.  SPECIAL RULES FOR GOVERNMENT ENTITIES (CCP §394, Govt C §955)
    • A.  State as Defendant
      • 1.  Venue in Sacramento County  8.65
      • 2.  Exceptions to Applicability of Govt C §955
        • a.  Inverse Condemnation  8.66
        • b.  Personal Injury or Death; Injury to Property  8.67
        • c.  Action by City, County, or Local Agency Against State  8.68
        • d.  State Agency Considered Public Officer  8.69
        • e.  Actions Against State or State Agency  8.70
    • B.  State or State Agency as Plaintiff  8.71
    • C.  City, County, or Local Agency
      • 1.  The Removal Statute (CCP §394)  8.72
        • a.  Exception: Injury to Person or Property  8.73
        • b.  Effect of Removal Provisions of CCP §394: Specific Situations
          • (1)  Action Commenced Where Plaintiff Resides or Does Business  8.74
          • (2)  Entity Sues Individual Nonresidents or Corporation Not Doing Business Within County  8.75
          • (3)  Condemnation Proceedings  8.76
      • 2.  Multiple Defendants  8.77
      • 3.  Multiple Causes of Action  8.78

9

Prelitigation Claims, Notices, and Petitions for Guardians Ad Litem

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  9.1
    • B.  Governing Law  9.2
  • II.  CLAIMS AGAINST PUBLIC ENTITIES
    • A.  Presenting Claim as Prerequisite to Suit
      • 1.  Requirements; Definition of Public Entity  9.3
      • 2.  Exceptions  9.4
      • 3.  Effect of Failure to Comply  9.5
      • 4.  Claims Against Public Employees  9.6
      • 5.  Claims Against Judicial Branch Entities or Judges  9.7
    • B.  Identifying Public Entity  9.8
    • C.  Drafting the Claim
      • 1.  Contents  9.9
      • 2.  Printed Forms Provided by Entities  9.10
    • D.  Time and Mode of Presentation
      • 1.  Deadline for Filing Claim  9.11
      • 2.  Accrual of Cause of Action  9.12
      • 3.  Amended Claims  9.13
      • 4.  Presenting the Claim: Method; Date  9.14
      • 5.  Claimant Charged With Crime  9.15
    • E.  Entity Responses to Claims
      • 1.  Acceptance; Denial; Rejection; Return; No Action  9.16
      • 2.  Notice of Rejection  9.17
      • 3.  Notice of Insufficiencies  9.18
      • 4.  Waiver; Estoppel
        • a.  Failure to Give Notice of Insufficiency  9.19
        • b.  Misleading Claimant  9.20
        • c.  Failure to Give Notice That Claim Was Late  9.21
        • d.  Failure to File Identifying Information  9.22
        • e.  Failure to Advise of Limitations Period After Advance or Partial Payment  9.23
        • f.  Failure to Give Notice of Denial of Application to File Late Claim  9.24
    • F.  Applying to Entity for Leave to Present Late Claim
      • 1.  Procedure; Contents of Application  9.25
      • 2.  Time Limits on Presenting Application  9.26
    • G.  Petitioning Court for Late Claim Relief
      • 1.  Procedure; Time to File Petition  9.27
      • 2.  Grounds for Late Claim Relief  9.28
    • H.  Filing Suit
      • 1.  Filing After Claim Rejected  9.29
      • 2.  Filing Suit After Obtaining Court Permission to Sue  9.30
  • III.  SUING PROFESSIONALS
    • A.  Notice to Health Care Provider Before Filing Medical Malpractice Suit
      • 1.  Notice Requirement  9.31
      • 2.  Form and Contents of Notice  9.32
    • B.  Certificate of Merit in Professional Negligence Suit Against Architect, Engineer, or Land Surveyor
      • 1.  Requirement  9.33
      • 2.  Procedures After Certificate Filed  9.34
    • C.  Leave to Sue Unpaid Officer or Director of Nonprofit Corporation
      • 1.  Requirement  9.35
      • 2.  Form and Contents of Application; Service  9.36
    • D.  Leave to Sue Attorney for Civil Conspiracy  9.37
  • IV.  CLAIMS AGAINST ESTATES
    • A.  Filing Claim as Prerequisite to Suit
      • 1.  Situations Requiring Claims  9.38
      • 2.  Situations Not Requiring Prior Claims  9.39
      • 3.  Statute of Limitations  9.40
      • 4.  Effect of Failure to Present Claim; Waiver  9.41
      • 5.  Claims of Public Entities  9.42
    • B.  Procedure for Filing Claim
      • 1.  Notice to Creditors  9.43
      • 2.  Time Limits on Filing  9.44
      • 3.  Petition to File Late Claim  9.45
      • 4.  Amending Claims  9.46
      • 5.  Place to File; Method  9.47
    • C.  Contents of Claim  9.48
    • D.  Rejection of Claim  9.49
    • E.  Suit Following Rejection of Claim
      • 1.  In General  9.50
      • 2.  Action Pending on Date of Death  9.51
  • V.  APPOINTING GUARDIANS AD LITEM
    • A.  When Available
      • 1.  Defined  9.52
      • 2.  Situations in Which Appointment of Guardian Is Required or Desirable  9.53
      • 3.  Effect of Failure to Appoint
        • a.  Right to Disaffirm Judgment  9.54
        • b.  Waiver of Right to Disaffirm  9.55
    • B.  Petitioning for Appointment
      • 1.  Selecting Petitioner
        • a.  General Qualifications  9.56
        • b.  Serving Ward’s Best Interest; Avoiding Conflict  9.57
        • c.  Eligible Petitioners
          • (1)  For Minor Plaintiff  9.58
          • (2)  For Minor Defendant  9.59
          • (3)  For Person With a Disability  9.60
      • 2.  Time to File Petition
        • a.  For Minor Plaintiff  9.61
        • b.  For Minor Defendant  9.62
        • c.  For Person With a Disability  9.63
      • 3.  Form and Content of Petition  9.64
      • 4.  Filing and Serving Petition and Proposed Order  9.65
    • C.  Powers and Duties of Guardian Ad Litem
      • 1.  Introduction; Ethical Considerations  9.66
      • 2.  Power to Employ Attorney  9.67
      • 3.  Power to Conduct Litigation  9.68
      • 4.  Power to Compromise Claim
        • a.  Statutory Authority  9.69
        • b.  Procedures
          • (1)  Contents of Petition  9.70
          • (2)  Hearing  9.71
          • (3)  Distribution of Award  9.72
    • D.  Terminating Appointment; Compensation
      • 1.  Procedures  9.73
      • 2.  Termination When Ward Attains Majority or Competence  9.74
      • 3.  Compensation  9.75
  • VI.  FORMS
    • A.  Claims Against Public Entities
      • 1.  Form: Claim Against Public Entity  9.76
      • 2.  Form: Application for Leave to Present Late Claim  9.77
      • 3.  Form: Petition for Leave to File Civil Action  9.78
      • 4.  Form: Order Permitting Suit to Be Filed  9.79
      • 5.  Form: Allegation in Complaint: Compliance With Claim Requirement  9.80
    • B.  Suing Professionals
      • 1.  Form: Notice of Intention to Sue Health Care Provider  9.81
      • 2.  Suit Against Architect, Engineer, or Surveyor
        • a.  Form: Certificate of Merit  9.82
        • b.  Form: Certificate of Reliance on Res Ipsa Loquitur or Failure to Inform  9.83
        • c.  Form: Certificate of Impending Impairment  9.84
        • d.  Form: Certificate of Inability to Obtain Consultation  9.85
    • C.  Claims Against Estates
      • 1.  Form: Allegation in Complaint: Compliance With Claim Requirement  9.86
      • 2.  Form: Creditor’s Claim (Probate) (Judicial Council Form DE-172)  9.87
    • D.  Appointing Guardians Ad Litem
      • 1.  Form: Petition for Appointment of Guardian Ad Litem for Plaintiff  9.88
      • 2.  Form: Petition for Appointment of Guardian Ad Litem for Defendant  9.89
      • 3.  Form: Order Appointing Guardian Ad Litem  9.90
      • 4.  Form: Petition by Guardian Ad Litem for Authorization to Employ Attorney and for Approval of Fee; Order  9.91
      • 5.  Form: Petition for Order Authorizing Compromise of Claim  9.92
      • 6.  Form: Order Approving Compromise of Claim of Minor or Person with a Disability  9.93
      • 7.  Form: Petition for Order Terminating Appointment of Guardian Ad Litem  9.94
      • 8.  Form: Order Terminating Appointment of Guardian Ad Litem  9.95

10

Fee Waiver

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  10.1
    • B.  Governing Law  10.2
  • II.  NATURE OF RELIEF; PERSONS ENTITLED
    • A.  Persons Eligible for Fee Waiver  10.3
      • 1.  Receipt of Specified Government Benefits  10.4
      • 2.  Income Near Poverty Level  10.5
      • 3.  Common Necessaries of Life  10.6
    • B.  Special Rules for State and County Inmates  10.7
    • C.  Indigent Litigant Suing on Behalf of Nonindigent Real Party in Interest  10.8
    • D.  Waivable Fees and Costs  10.9
      • 1.  Fees Waivable at Initial Application  10.10
      • 2.  Fees Waivable on Additional Application  10.11
      • 3.  Bonds and Undertakings  10.12
      • 4.  Appointed Counsel  10.13
      • 5.  No Waiver of Third Party Fees  10.14
  • III.  PROCEDURE FOR APPLYING FOR FEE WAIVER
    • A.  Applying for Waiver
      • 1.  Mandatory Application Forms  10.15
      • 2.  Attorney Advancing Litigation Costs  10.16
      • 3.  Attaching Order Form  10.17
      • 4.  Confidentiality  10.18
    • B.  When and Where to File  10.19
    • C.  Court Review and Determination  10.20
      • 1.  Application Granted  10.21
      • 2.  Partial Payments and Installments  10.22
      • 3.  Application Denied  10.23
        • a.  Application Is Incomplete  10.24
        • b.  Information Conclusively Establishes Applicant Is Ineligible for Fee Waiver  10.25
      • 4.  Eligibility Hearings  10.26
        • a.  Veracity of Statements in Application  10.27
        • b.  Information Does Not Conclusively Establish Applicant Is Eligible for Fee Waiver  10.28
      • 5.  Applicant Request for Hearing  10.29
  • IV.  CHANGED CIRCUMSTANCES  10.30
    • A.  Before Final Disposition of the Case  10.31
    • B.  At Final Disposition of the Case  10.32
    • C.  Retrospective Application of Fees  10.33
    • D.  Prospective Application of Fees  10.34
    • E.  Bad Faith  10.35
  • V.  REIMBURSEMENT OF FEE WAIVER
    • A.  Judgment in Favor of Party Granted Waiver  10.36
    • B.  Settlement Recovery of $10,000 or More  10.37
  • VI.  Sanctions and Costs Against Party Granted Waiver  10.38
  • VII.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Request to Waive Court Fees (Judicial Council Form FW-001)  10.39
    • B.  Form: Information Sheet on Waiver of Superior Court Fees and Costs (Judicial Council Form FW-001-INFO)  10.40
    • C.  Form: Request to Waive Additional Court Fees (Superior Court) (Judicial Council Form FW-002)  10.41
    • D.  Form: Order on Court Fee Waiver (Superior Court) (Judicial Council Form FW-003)  10.42
    • E.  Form: Notice: Waiver of Court Fees (Superior Court) (Judicial Council Form FW-005)  10.43
    • F.  Form: Request for Hearing About Court Fee Waiver Order (Superior Court) (Judicial Council Form FW-006)  10.44
    • G.  Form: Notice on Hearing About Court Fees (Judicial Council Form FW-007)  10.45
    • H.  Form: Order on Court Fee Waiver After Hearing (Superior Court) (Judicial Council Form FW-008)  10.46
    • I.  Form: Notice to Court of Improved Financial Situation or Settlement (Judicial Council Form FW-010)  10.47
    • J.  Form: Notice to Appear for Reconsideration of Fee Waiver (Judicial Council Form FW-011)  10.48
    • K.  Form: Order on Court Fee Waiver After Reconsideration Hearing (Superior Court) (Judicial Council Form FW-012)  10.49

11

Pleadings and Court Papers

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  11.1
    • B.  Governing Rules  11.2
    • C.  Role of Judicial Council; Local Rule Preemption  11.3
    • D.  Trial Court Unification  11.4
    • E.  Electronic Access to Court Records  11.5
  • II.  FORM AND FORMAT  11.6
    • A.  Physical Form
      • 1.  Paper: Quality, Weight, and Size  11.7
      • 2.  Font; Printed Copies  11.8
      • 3.  Lines: Spacing, Numbering  11.9
      • 4.  Pages: One-Sided, Margins  11.10
      • 5.  Pages: Numbering, Footer, Fastening, Prepunched Holes  11.11
      • 6.  Corrections and Changes  11.12
      • 7.  Unused Lines  11.13
      • 8.  Exhibits
        • a.  Attaching; Numbering  11.14
        • b.  Incorporation by Reference: Form of Allegation  11.15
      • 9.  Copies  11.16
    • B.  First-Page Format
      • 1.  Name, State Bar Number, Address, Telephone Number, Fax, and E-Mail; Representation  11.17
        • a.  Firm Names; Law Corporations  11.18
        • b.  Several Attorneys; Several Parties  11.19
      • 2.  Caption  11.20
        • a.  Name of Court  11.21
        • b.  Title of Action (Names of Parties)  11.22
        • c.  Number of Case  11.23
        • d.  Nature of Paper and Character of Action; Judge’s Name and Department  11.24
        • e.  Referee’s Name  11.25
        • f.  Limited Civil Case  11.26
  • III.  PREPRINTED FORMS
    • A.  Judicial Council Forms
      • 1.  Mandatory and Optional Forms  11.27
      • 2.  Contents of Form; Requirements  11.28
      • 3.  Pleading Forms  11.29
      • 4.  Filing  11.30
      • 5.  Obtaining Forms  11.31
    • B.  Local Court Forms  11.32
  • IV.  RESPONDING TO CLERK’S REFUSAL TO FILE  11.33
  • V.  CHECKLIST: PROCEDURE FOR PREPARING COURT PAPERS  11.34
  • VI.  SAMPLE: FIRST-PAGE FORMAT OF COURT PAPER  11.35

12

Noticed Motions

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  12.1
    • B.  Governing Law
      • 1.  Statutes  12.2
      • 2.  California Rules of Court  12.3
      • 3.  Applicability of Local Court Rules and Policies  12.4
    • C.  Tactical Objectives  12.5
    • D.  Consultation With Client  12.6
  • II.  TIME FOR MAKING MOTION
    • A.  Timing Considerations  12.7
      • 1.  Statutory and Rule Restrictions on Timing of Motions  12.8
      • 2.  Calculating Effect of Service on Timing of Motion  12.9
      • 3.  Effect of Service by Methods Other Than Personal Delivery  12.10
    • B.  Shortening Time  12.11
      • 1.  By Stipulation  12.12
      • 2.  By Application for Order Shortening Time  12.13
    • C.  Extending Time  12.14
      • 1.  By Stipulation  12.15
      • 2.  By Motion  12.16
  • III.  NOTICE OF MOTION AND MOTION
    • A.  Motion Defined  12.17
    • B.  Necessary Papers  12.18
    • C.  Notice of Motion and Motion  12.19
      • 1.  Physical Formatting
        • a.  Paper, Print, Spacing, and Margins  12.20
        • b.  Binding  12.21
        • c.  Footer  12.22
      • 2.  Information Required in Caption
        • a.  Attorney Information  12.23
        • b.  Title of Court  12.24
        • c.  Telephone Appearance  12.25
        • d.  Title of Case  12.26
        • e.  Nature of Paper  12.27
        • f.  Date, Time, Location of Hearing  12.28
          • (1)  Date and Time  12.29
          • (2)  Location  12.30
        • g.  Name of Hearing Judge  12.31
        • h.  Attachments  12.32
      • 3.  Body of Notice of Motion and Motion  12.33
        • a.  Introductory Line  12.34
        • b.  Nature of Order Sought  12.35
        • c.  Grounds for Issuance of Order  12.36
          • (1)  Effect of Failure to State Grounds  12.37
          • (2)  Court’s Consideration of Grounds Not Stated in Motion  12.38
      • 4.  Identification of Papers Supporting the Motion  12.39
        • a.  Reference to Papers Previously Filed With Court  12.40
        • b.  Papers Not Previously Served on Adverse Party  12.41
      • 5.  Date; Signature  12.42
    • D.  Checklist: Procedures for Motions and Hearings  12.43
  • IV.  SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS
    • A.  Memorandum in Support of Motion
      • 1.  When Supporting Memorandum Required  12.44
      • 2.  Motions, Applications, and Petitions Not Requiring Memorandum  12.45
      • 3.  Format of Supporting Memorandum
        • a.  Contents of Supporting Memorandum  12.46
        • b.  Format and Style  12.47
        • c.  Length of Supporting Memorandum  12.48
        • d.  Table of Contents; Table of Authorities  12.49
      • 4.  Organization of Supporting Memorandum  12.50
        • a.  Introductory Statement; Introduction  12.51
        • b.  Argument
          • (1)  Summary of Argument  12.52
          • (2)  Concise and Persuasive Argument  12.53
          • (3)  Applicable Statutes and Cases  12.54
            • (a)  Improper Use of Repealed or Overruled Legal Authority  12.55
            • (b)  Using Authority From Jurisdictions Outside California  12.56
      • 5.  Conclusion  12.57
      • 6.  Signature  12.58
    • B.  Declarations
      • 1.  Declaration Compared With Affidavit  12.59
      • 2.  Declaration as Substitute for Oral Testimony  12.60
      • 3.  Selecting Declarant
        • a.  Tactical Considerations  12.61
        • b.  Attorney as Declarant  12.62
      • 4.  Format of Declaration
        • a.  Caption  12.63
        • b.  Identity of Declarant  12.64
        • c.  Competence of Declarant  12.65
          • (1)  Declarations Made “On Information and Belief”  12.66
          • (2)  Expert Declarations  12.67
      • 5.  Admissibility of Matters Stated  12.68
        • a.  Statements of Opinion  12.69
        • b.  Hearsay Statements  12.70
      • 6.  Subscription  12.71
        • a.  Declaration Under Penalty of Perjury  12.72
          • (1)  Writing Requirement  12.73
          • (2)  Date of Execution  12.74
        • b.  Affidavit  12.75
    • C.  Pleadings and Papers on File  12.76
    • D.  Documentary Evidence in Support of Motion  12.77
    • E.  Attached Exhibits  12.78
      • 1.  Materials Lodged With Clerk  12.79
      • 2.  Use of Copies  12.80
    • F.  Requests for Judicial Notice  12.81
  • V.  SERVICE AND FILING
    • A.  Proof of Service  12.82
      • 1.  Whom to Serve  12.83
      • 2.  Service by Mail  12.84
      • 3.  Service by Personal Delivery  12.85
      • 4.  Service by Fax or Electronically  12.86
    • B.  Filing Papers With Court  12.87
    • C.  Service on Public Officer or Agency
      • 1.  Service on Attorney General  12.88
      • 2.  Proof of Service  12.89
      • 3.  Identification on Cover  12.90
  • VI.  OPPOSING MOTION
    • A.  Tactical Considerations
      • 1.  Initial Evaluation of Motion  12.91
        • a.  Cost-Benefit Analysis  12.92
        • b.  Factors to Be Evaluated  12.93
      • 2.  Consulting With Client  12.94
      • 3.  Leaving Motion Unopposed  12.95
      • 4.  Resolving Motions by Stipulation or Compromise  12.96
    • B.  Grounds for Opposing Motion
      • 1.  Noncompliance With Procedural Requirements  12.97
      • 2.  Evidentiary Matters Inadmissible or Declarant Incompetent  12.98
      • 3.  Facts or Law Insufficient to Support Motion  12.99
    • C.  Preparing Opposition Papers
      • 1.  Memorandum in Opposition to Motion  12.100
        • a.  Organization of Opposition Memorandum  12.101
        • b.  Length Restrictions on Opposition Memorandum  12.102
      • 2.  Declarations Opposing Motion  12.103
      • 3.  Other Evidentiary Material  12.104
    • D.  Opposition Procedure
      • 1.  Check for Additional Filing Requirements  12.105
      • 2.  Time for Filing Opposition Papers  12.106
      • 3.  Serving and Filing Opposition Papers  12.107
      • 4.  Moving for Continuance  12.108
    • E.  Checklist: Procedure for Responding to Noticed Motion  12.109
  • VII.  REPLY
    • A.  Replying to Opposition Papers  12.110
    • B.  Responding to Reply Papers  12.111
  • VIII.  HEARING
    • A.  Attendance  12.112
    • B.  Tentative Rulings  12.112A
    • C.  Telephone Appearances
      • 1.  When Telephone Appearance Is Appropriate  12.113
        • a.  Procedure for Appearing by Telephone  12.114
        • b.  Matters in Which Personal Appearance Is Required  12.115
        • c.  Ex Parte Proceedings  12.115A
      • 2.  Notice of Intent to Appear by Telephone
        • a.  Notice Requirements for Proceeding Other than Ex Parte Application  12.116
        • b.  Notice Requirements for Ex Parte Application  12.116A
      • 3.  Personal Appearance After Notice to Appear by Telephone  12.117
      • 4.  Teleconferencing  12.118
    • D.  Oral Argument
      • 1.  Purpose of Oral Argument  12.119
      • 2.  Presentation of Argument  12.120
      • 3.  Answering Judge’s Questions  12.121
    • E.  Presenting Evidence  12.122
    • F.  Arranging for Court Reporter  12.123
  • IX.  RULINGS AND ORDERS
    • A.  Rulings and Orders Defined  12.124
    • B.  Court’s Ruling on Noticed Motion  12.125
    • C.  Order After Hearing
      • 1.  Preparation of Order  12.126
      • 2.  Reason to Submit Proposed Order  12.127
      • 3.  Contents of Proposed Order  12.128
      • 4.  Findings  12.129
    • D.  Notice of Ruling  12.130
    • E.  Procedures After Motion Granted
      • 1.  Moving Party  12.131
      • 2.  Opposing Party  12.132
    • F.  Procedures After Motion Denied
      • 1.  Motion for Reconsideration  12.133
        • a.  Effect of Motion on Timing to File Appeal  12.134
        • b.  Subsequent Motion for Same Order  12.135
        • c.  Jurisdiction to Hear Motion  12.136
        • d.  Denial of Motion  12.137
        • e.  Sanctions  12.138
        • f.  Appeal  12.139
      • 2.  Court’s Inherent Power to Reconsider  12.140
    • G.  Motion for Relief Under CCP §473 (Mistake, Inadvertence, Surprise, Neglect)  12.141
  • X.  SANCTIONS
    • A.  Availability of Sanctions  12.142
      • 1.  When Sanctions Are Not Available  12.143
      • 2.  Discovery Motions  12.144
    • B.  Moving for Sanctions Under CCP §128.7
      • 1.  Motion Must Be Made Separately  12.145
      • 2.  Safe Harbor Provisions  12.146
  • XI.  SEALING OF COURT RECORDS
    • A.  Standards and Procedures Generally  12.147
      • 1.  Applicable Rules of Court  12.148
      • 2.  Definitions  12.149
      • 3.  Court Records Presumed to Be Open  12.150
    • B.  Procedures for Filing Records Under Seal
      • 1.  Court Approval Required  12.151
      • 2.  Motion or Application to Seal a Record
        • a.  Motion or Application  12.152
        • b.  Express Factual Findings Required to Seal Records  12.153
          • (1)  Facts Establishing Overriding Interests  12.154
          • (2)  Facts Failing to Establish Overriding Interests  12.155
        • c.  Service  12.156
      • 3.  Lodging of Records  12.157
      • 4.  Trial Records Subject to Confidentiality Agreement or Protective Order  12.158
      • 5.  Sealing Order
        • a.  Content and Scope of Order  12.159
        • b.  Procedure on Grant or Denial of Order  12.160
    • C.  Custody of Sealed Records  12.161
    • D.  Custody of Voluminous Public Agency Records  12.162
    • E.  Motion, Application, or Petition to Unseal Records  12.163
      • 1.  Who May Move to Unseal Records  12.164
      • 2.  Documents Supporting and Opposing Motion  12.165
      • 3.  Court Order Unsealing Records  12.166
    • F.  Request for Delayed Public Disclosure  12.167
    • G.  In Camera Confidential Proceedings
      • 1.  Minutes of Proceedings  12.168
      • 2.  Disposition of Examined Records  12.169
  • XII.  FORMS
    • A.  Moving Party’s Forms
      • 1.  Form: Notice of Motion  12.170
      • 2.  Form: Memorandum in Support of Motion  12.171
      • 3.  Form: Declaration Supporting Motion  12.172
      • 4.  Form: Request for Judicial Notice  12.173
      • 5.  Form: Application for Order Shortening Time; Order  12.174
      • 6.  Form: Proposed Order Shortening Time  12.175
      • 7.  Form: Stipulation Extending Time  12.176
    • B.  Opposing Party’s Forms
      • 1.  Form: Memorandum in Opposition to Motion  12.177
      • 2.  Form: Declaration Opposing Motion  12.178
    • C.  Notice of Ruling and Orders
      • 1.  Form: Notice of Ruling on Motion  12.179
      • 2.  Form: Proposed Order  12.180
      • 3.  Form: Application for Order Extending Time  12.181
      • 4.  Form: Proposed Order Extending Time  12.182
      • 5.  Form: Order  12.183

13

Ex Parte Motions and Orders to Show Cause

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  13.1
    • B.  Governing Law  13.2
  • II.  APPLICATION FOR EX PARTE ORDER
    • A.  Nature  13.3
    • B.  When Available  13.4
    • C.  Required Documents  13.5
      • 1.  Contents of Application  13.6
      • 2.  Declaration Stating Basis for Relief  13.7
      • 3.  Declaration Regarding Notice  13.8
      • 4.  Contents of Notice and Declaration Regarding Notice  13.9
    • D.  Time of Notice  13.10
    • E.  Filing of Ex Parte Application  13.11
    • F.  Service of Papers  13.12
    • G.  Appearance Requirements  13.13
    • H.  Checklist: Procedure for Application for Ex Parte Order  13.14
  • III.  APPLICATION FOR ORDER TO SHOW CAUSE
    • A.  Nature; When to Use  13.15
    • B.  Notice of Application  13.16
    • C.  Checklist: Procedure for Application for Order to Show Cause  13.17
  • IV.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Application for Ex Parte Order  13.18
    • B.  Form: Proposed Ex Parte Order  13.19
    • C.  Form: Application for Order to Show Cause and Order  13.20

14

Ascertaining, Joining, and Naming Parties

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  14.1
    • B.  Governing Law  14.2
  • II.  REAL PARTY IN INTEREST
    • A.  Requirement; Definition  14.3
    • B.  Exceptions  14.4
  • III.  CAPACITY TO SUE OR BE SUED  14.5
    • A.  Individuals Without Capacity  14.6
    • B.  Entities Without Capacity  14.7
  • IV.  JOINDER
    • A.  Compulsory Joinder
      • 1.  Requirements  14.8
      • 2.  Effect of Failure to Join  14.9
      • 3.  Procedure  14.10
    • B.  Permissive Joinder
      • 1.  Plaintiffs  14.11
      • 2.  Defendants  14.12
  • V.  NAMING PARTICULAR PARTIES
    • A.  Defendants Sued by Fictitious Names
      • 1.  Situations  14.13
      • 2.  Fictitious Name Allegation  14.14
      • 3.  Need to State Cause of Action  14.15
    • B.  Individual Doing Business Under Fictitious Name
      • 1.  As Plaintiff  14.16
      • 2.  As Defendant  14.17
    • C.  Partnerships; Unincorporated Associations
      • 1.  As Plaintiffs  14.18
      • 2.  As Defendants  14.19
    • D.  Corporations  14.20

15

Complaints

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  15.1
    • B.  Governing Law  15.2
  • II.  COMPONENTS OF COMPLAINTS
    • A.  First-Page Format; Caption  15.3
    • B.  Introductory Clause  15.4
    • C.  Allegation Paragraphs
      • 1.  Paragraphing and Numbering; Headings for Causes of Action and Counts  15.5
      • 2.  Incorporating Allegations by Reference  15.6
    • D.  Demand for Judgment (Prayer)
      • 1.  Requirement  15.7
      • 2.  Placement; Wording  15.8
      • 3.  Personal Injury and Wrongful Death Actions: Statement of Damages  15.9
      • 4.  Statement Reserving Right to Punitive Damages  15.10
      • 5.  Effect of Prayer on Judgment
        • a.  Default Cases  15.11
        • b.  Contested Cases  15.12
    • E.  Subscription  15.13
  • III.  VERIFICATION  15.14
    • A.  Deciding Whether to Verify  15.15
      • 1.  Reasons to Verify  15.16
      • 2.  Reasons Not to Verify  15.17
    • B.  Persons Who May Verify; Verification Forms
      • 1.  Plaintiff  15.18
      • 2.  Attorney  15.19
      • 3.  Other Person  15.20
      • 4.  Officer of Corporation or Public Entity  15.21
  • IV.  PLEADING CAUSES OF ACTION
    • A.  Distinctions: Cause of Action; Count; Remedy; Relief  15.22
    • B.  Stating Causes of Action Separately  15.23
      • 1.  Joinder of Causes of Action  15.24
      • 2.  Rule Against Splitting Causes of Action  15.25
    • C.  Allegations
      • 1.  Ultimate Facts  15.26
      • 2.  Direct Allegations; Information and Belief  15.27
  • V.  CHOICE AND ELECTION OF REMEDIES
    • A.  General Considerations  15.28
    • B.  Tax Considerations  15.29
    • C.  Election of Remedies  15.30
  • VI.  FILING COMPLAINT
    • A.  Filing and Serving Complaint and Summons; Fees  15.31
    • B.  Case Cover Sheet  15.32
    • C.  If Filing Fee Check Is Returned by Bank  15.33
  • VII.  USING OFFICIAL FORMS  15.34
  • VIII.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Sample Complaint  15.35
    • B.  Judicial Council Official Complaint Forms
      • 1.  Form: Complaint—Personal Injury, Property Damage, Wrongful Death (Judicial Council Form PLD-PI-001)  15.36
      • 2.  Form: Cause of Action—Motor Vehicle (Judicial Council Form PLD-PI-001(1))  15.37
      • 3.  Form: Cause of Action—General Negligence (Judicial Council Form PLD-PI-001(2))  15.38
      • 4.  Form: Cause of Action—Intentional Tort (Judicial Council Form PLD-PI-001(3))  15.39
      • 5.  Form: Cause of Action—Premises Liability (Judicial Council Form PLD-PI-001(4))  15.40
      • 6.  Form: Cause of Action—Products Liability (Judicial Council Form PLD-PI-001(5))  15.41
      • 7.  Form: Exemplary Damages Attachment (Judicial Council Form PLD-PI-001(6))  15.42
      • 8.  Form: Complaint—Contract (Judicial Council Form PLD-C-001)  15.43
      • 9.  Form: Cause of Action—Breach of Contract (Judicial Council Form PLD-C-001(1))  15.44
      • 10.  Form: Cause of Action—Common Counts (Judicial Council Form PLD-C-001(2))  15.45
      • 11.  Form: Cause of Action—Fraud (Judicial Council Form PLD-C-001(3))  15.46
      • 12.  Form: Complaint—Unlawful Detainer (Judicial Council Form UD-100)  15.47
      • 13.  Form: Civil Case Cover Sheet (Judicial Council Form CM-010)  15.48

16

Amending Complaints

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  16.1
    • B.  Governing Law  16.2
  • II.  OVERVIEW
    • A.  Reasons to Amend  16.3
    • B.  Need for Leave of Court; Notice  16.4
    • C.  Limits on Amendments  16.4A
    • D.   Limits on Amendments Before and After Filing of Anti-SLAPP Motion  16.4B
    • E.  Effect on Limitation Periods
      • 1.  Statute of Limitations and Failure to Prosecute  16.5
      • 2.  Relation-Back Doctrine  16.5A
    • F.  Prompt Service  16.6
  • III.  FORMS OF WRITTEN AMENDMENTS
    • A.  Amended Complaint
      • 1.  Defined; Uses  16.7
      • 2.  Format  16.8
    • B.  Amendment to Complaint
      • 1.  Defined; Uses  16.9
      • 2.  Format  16.10
  • IV.  PROCEDURES TO AMEND
    • A.  Amendment of Course: Before Answer Filed or Demurrer Heard  16.11
    • B.  Amendment by Stipulation  16.12
    • C.  Amendment to Correct Mistake or Add or Delete Name of Party  16.13
    • D.  Substituting True Name for Fictitious Name  16.14
    • E.  Amendment After Demurrer Sustained  16.15
    • F.  Oral Motion to Amend; Motions at Trial  16.16
    • G.  Noticed Motion for Leave to Amend  16.17
  • V.  SUPPLEMENTAL COMPLAINT  16.18
  • VI.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Amendment to Complaint  16.19
    • B.  Form: Stipulation for Filing Amended Complaint or Amendment to Complaint; Order  16.20
    • C.  Form: Request for Order Allowing Amendment to Complaint  16.21
    • D.  Form: Order Allowing Amendment to Complaint  16.22
    • E.  Form: Amendment Substituting True Name for Fictitious Name; Order  16.23
    • F.  Form: Notice of Motion to Amend Complaint  16.24
    • G.  Form: Order Allowing Amendment of Complaint  16.25

17

Service of Summons

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  17.1
    • B.  Governing Law  17.2
  • II.  OVERVIEW
    • A.  Relationship Between Service of Process and Jurisdiction  17.3
    • B.  Requirements for Valid Service  17.4
    • C.  Effect of Failure to Make Proper Service  17.5
  • III.  PREPARING SUMMONS
    • A.  Use of Judicial Council Forms  17.6
    • B.  Use of Attorney-Drafted Forms  17.7
    • C.  Requirements in Particular Actions  17.8
    • D.  Additional Requirements for Particular Parties
      • 1.  Action Against Corporation or Unincorporated Association  17.9
      • 2.  Action Against Fictitiously Named Defendants  17.10
  • IV.  ISSUANCE OF SUMMONS
    • A.  On Original Complaint  17.11
    • B.  On Amended or Supplemental Complaint  17.12
    • C.  Lost Summons  17.13
  • V.  SERVING SUMMONS
    • A.  Persons Who May Serve Summons  17.14
    • B.  Fees  17.15
    • C.  Time for Service  17.16
    • D.  Persons and Entities on Whom Summons May Be Served
      • 1.  Individuals
        • a.  Basic Rule  17.17
        • b.  Determination of Agency for Purposes of Service  17.18
      • 2.  Corporations
        • a.  To Serve a Corporation  17.19
        • b.  Information Available From Secretary of State  17.20
        • c.  Ostensible Corporate Authority  17.21
        • d.  General Managers for Corporation  17.22
        • e.  Suspended Corporations  17.23
        • f.  Service on Secretary of State
          • (1)  Criteria for Service on Secretary of State  17.24
          • (2)  Court Order Required  17.25
      • 3.  Financial Institutions
        • a.  California Locations  17.26
        • b.  Foreign and International Institutions  17.27
      • 4.  Defunct Corporations  17.28
      • 5.  Joint Stock Companies  17.29
      • 6.  Partnerships and Unincorporated Associations, Including Homeowners Associations  17.30
      • 7.  Limited Liability Companies
        • a.  Limited Liability Company in Good Standing  17.31
        • b.  Foreign Limited Liability Company  17.32
        • c.  Dissolved Limited Liability Company  17.33
        • d.  Service on the Secretary of State
          • (1)  Circumstances Requiring Service on Secretary of State  17.34
          • (2)  Court Order Required  17.35
      • 8.  Joint Ventures  17.36
      • 9.  Public Entities  17.37
      • 10.  Minors and Conservatees  17.38
      • 11.  Political Candidates  17.39
      • 12.  Prisoners  17.40
    • E.  Manner of Service
      • 1.  Within California
        • a.  Available Methods  17.41
        • b.  Personal Service  17.42
          • (1)  Sufficiency of Attempted Delivery  17.43
          • (2)  Effect of Concealment  17.44
        • c.  Substituted Service
          • (1)  On Business and Other Entities  17.45
          • (2)  On Natural Persons  17.46
        • d.  Service by Mail and Acknowledgment of Receipt
          • (1)  Procedure  17.47
          • (2)  Form of Notice and Acknowledgment of Receipt  17.48
          • (3)  Effect of Execution and Return  17.49
          • (4)  Effect of Failure to Respond  17.50
        • e.  Service by Publication  17.51
      • 2.  Outside California
        • a.  Within United States
          • (1)  Basic Rule  17.52
          • (2)  Service by Mail and Return Receipt  17.53
          • (3)  Service as Prescribed by Local Law  17.54
        • b.  Outside United States  17.55
      • 3.  Unlawful Detainer Actions
        • a.  Service by Posting  17.56
        • b.  Abandonment  17.57
      • 4.  Manner of Service When No Procedure Provided  17.58
    • F.  Statutory Provisions Outside Jurisdiction and Service of Process Act  17.59
      • 1.  Statutes Governing Service on State and Certain State Agencies  17.60
      • 2.  Statutes Governing Service in Particular Actions  17.61
  • VI.  FILING PROOF OF SERVICE OF SUMMONS
    • A.  Requirement of Filing Proof of Service of Summons  17.62
    • B.  Time for Filing Proof of Service  17.63
    • C.  Procedure When Original Summons Lost  17.64
    • D.  Content of Proof of Service  17.65
      • 1.  Service Within California  17.66
        • a.  Personal or Substituted Service; Service by Mail  17.67
        • b.  Service by Publication  17.68
        • c.  Service by Posting  17.69
        • d.  Service by Other Methods  17.70
      • 2.  Service Outside California  17.71
        • a.  Personal or Substituted Service, or Other Methods  17.72
        • b.  Service by Mail and Return Receipt  17.73
        • c.  Service as Prescribed by Court Order  17.74
        • d.  Service in Accordance With Foreign Law  17.75
      • 3.  Service on Fictitiously Named Defendants  17.76
  • VII.  CHECKLIST: PROCEDURE FOR SERVING SUMMONS ON PARTIES  17.77
  • VIII.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Summons (Judicial Council Form SUM-100)  17.78
    • B.  Form: Proof of Service of Summons (Judicial Council Form POS-010)  17.79
    • C.  Form: Notice and Acknowledgment of Receipt—Civil (Judicial Council Form POS-015)  17.80
    • D.  Form: Summons (Joint Debtor) (Judicial Council Form SUM-120)  17.81
    • E.  Form: Summons—Unlawful Detainer—Eviction (Judicial Council Form SUM-130)  17.82
    • F.  Form: Summons (Family Law) (Judicial Council Form FL-110)  17.83
    • G.  Form: Proof of Service of Summons (Family Law—Uniform Parentage—Custody and Support) (Judicial Council Form FL-115)  17.84
    • H.  Form: Summons (Joinder) (Judicial Council Form FL-375)  17.85
    • I.  Form: Ex Parte Application for Extension of Time to Serve Pleading and Orders (Judicial Council Form CM-020)  17.86

18

Service of Papers

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  18.1
    • B.  Governing Law  18.2
  • II.  OVERVIEW  18.3
  • III.  TIME FOR SERVICE  18.4
    • A.  Extensions of Time for Mail, Fax, or Electronic Delivery  18.5
    • B.  When Extensions Do Not Apply  18.6
    • C.  Effect of Weekends, Holidays  18.7
  • IV.  MANNER OF SERVICE
    • A.  Service by Mail
      • 1.  When Permitted  18.8
      • 2.  Procedures  18.9
      • 3.  When Service by Mail is Complete  18.10
    • B.  Service by Express Mail or Overnight Delivery
      • 1.  Procedures  18.11
      • 2.  When Express Mail Service is Complete  18.12
    • C.  Personal and Substituted Service  18.13
      • 1.  Service on Attorney; Exceptions  18.14
      • 2.  Service on Party  18.15
    • D.  Service and Filing by Facsimile Transmission (Fax)
      • 1.  Service by Fax  18.16
      • 2.  When Service by Fax Is Complete  18.17
      • 3.  Filing by Fax  18.18
        • a.  Format of Fax-Filed Documents  18.19
        • b.  Filing Through Fax-Filing Agency  18.20
        • c.  Direct Fax Filing  18.21
      • 4.  Demand for Originals After Fax Service or Filing  18.22
    • E.  Electronic Service and Filing  18.23
      • 1.  Permissive Electronic Service and Filing  18.24
      • 2.  Mandatory Electronic Service and Filing
        • a.  May Be Required in Specified Actions by Local Rule  18.25
        • b.  Exemptions and Opt-Out Provisions From Mandatory Electronic Service and Filing  18.26
      • 3.  Electronic Service and Filing May Be Required by Court Order in Complex Cases  18.27
      • 4.  Party That Is Required to File Documents Electronically Must Also Serve and Accept Documents Electronically; Exceptions  18.28
      • 5.  Filing and Service May Be Direct or Through Electronic Filing Service Provider  18.29
      • 6.  Electronic Service  18.30
        • a.  When Electronic Service is Complete  18.31
        • b.  Consent to Electronic Service
          • (1)  Consent of Parties or Other Persons  18.32
            • (a)  Withdrawing Consent  18.32A
          • (2)   Consent of Court  18.32B
        • c.  Methods of Electronic Service  18.33
        • d.  Service of Confidential or Sealed Records  18.33A
        • e.  Proof of Electronic Service  18.34
      • 7.  Electronic Filing  18.35
        • a.  Receipt by the Court  18.36
        • b.  §18.37 Filing Fees  18.37
        • c.  Format of Electronically Filed Documents  18.38
        • d.  Signatures on Electronically Filed Documents and Demand for Originals after Electronic Filing  18.39
      • 8.  Electronic Submission of Proposed Orders  18.40
    • F.  Service by Telegraph  18.41
  • V.  PROOF OF SERVICE
    • A.  Service by Mail  18.42
    • B.  Electronic Service or Fax  18.43
    • C.  Personal or Substituted Service  18.44
  • VI.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Declaration of Service by Mail (Documents Deposited in Mail)  18.45
    • B.  Form: Declaration of Service by Mail (Documents Placed for Collection and Mailing)  18.46
    • C.  Form: Attorney Certification of Service by Mail (Documents Deposited in Mail)  18.47
    • D.  Form: Facsimile Transmission Cover Sheet (Fax Filing) (Judicial Council Form MC-005)  18.48
    • E.  Form: Proposed Order (Cover Sheet) (Judicial Council Form EFS-020)  18.49

19

Motions to Quash

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  19.1
    • B.  Governing Law  19.2
  • II.  WHEN TO CHALLENGE JURISDICTION OVER THE PERSON
    • A.  Motion to Quash Preferable  19.3
    • B.  If Default Judgment Already Entered
      • 1.  Direct Attack  19.4
      • 2.  Collateral Attack  19.5
  • III.  MOTION TO QUASH
    • A.  When Appropriate  19.6
    • B.  Making the Motion
      • 1.  Grounds  19.7
        • a.  No Minimum Contacts or Continuing Jurisdiction  19.8
        • b.  Ineffective Service of Process  19.9
        • c.  Failure to State Cause of Action for Unlawful Detainer  19.10
        • d.  Dissolved Corporation  19.11
      • 2.  Time for Filing
        • a.  Actions Other Than Unlawful Detainer  19.12
        • b.  Unlawful Detainer Actions  19.13
      • 3.  Effect of Filing  19.14
        • a.  Court’s Jurisdiction to Rule on Other Matters  19.15
        • b.  Extends Time to Plead  19.16
      • 4.  Date for Hearing; Notice  19.17
    • C.  Opposing the Motion  19.18
    • D.  Discovery  19.19
    • E.  The Hearing
      • 1.  Burden and Standard of Proof  19.20
      • 2.  Proving Jurisdiction in Tort Cases  19.21
      • 3.  Evidence  19.22
        • a.  The Complaint  19.23
        • b.  Declarations  19.24
    • F.  Sanctions for Bringing Motion to Quash  19.25
    • G.  Response to Order After Hearing
      • 1.  If Motion Denied  19.26
        • a.  Petition for Writ of Mandate  19.27
        • b.  Other Responses  19.28
      • 2.  If Motion Granted  19.29
    • H.  Attorney Fees  19.29A
  • IV.  CHECKLIST: PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING JURISDICTION  19.30

20

Motions to Change Venue

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  20.1
    • B.  Governing Law  20.2
  • II.  CHALLENGING VENUE—DESCRIPTION AND USE
    • A.  Grounds
      • 1.  Wrong Court  20.3
      • 2.  Convenience of Witnesses  20.4
      • 3.  Impartial Trial  20.5
      • 4.  No Judge Qualified  20.6
    • B.  Who May Challenge  20.7
  • III.  PROCEDURES FOR MOVING PARTY
    • A.  Time to File Motion
      • 1.  Wrong Court  20.8
      • 2.  Convenience of Witnesses  20.9
      • 3.  Impartial Trial  20.10
    • B.  Required Moving Papers  20.11
      • 1.  Notice of Motion  20.12
      • 2.  Supporting Declarations  20.13
        • a.  Declaration of Residence  20.14
        • b.  Declaration Relating to Type of Action  20.15
        • c.  Declaration Based on Convenience of Witnesses  20.16
      • 3.  Memorandum in Support of Motion  20.17
    • C.  Effect of Motion  20.18
  • IV.  PROCEDURES FOR RESPONDING PARTY
    • A.  Counterdeclarations, Countermotions, and Motions to Retransfer  20.19
    • B.  Evidentiary Showing  20.20
    • C.  Consistency With Theory of Complaint  20.21
  • V.  HEARING AND DETERMINATION
    • A.  Burden of Proof  20.22
    • B.  Effect of Order Granting Motion  20.23
      • 1.  Family Law Proceedings  20.23A
    • C.  Renewal of Motion  20.24
    • D.  Time to Answer After Order  20.25
  • VI.  TRANSFER OF ACTION
    • A.  Selection of Court  20.26
    • B.  Transmission of Papers  20.27
    • C.  Payment of Costs and Fees
      • 1.  Wrong Court Motion  20.28
      • 2.  Motion on Other Grounds  20.29
    • D.  Attorney Fees and Expenses
      • 1.  Wrong Court Motion  20.30
      • 2.  Motion on Other Grounds  20.31
  • VII.  REVIEW OF ORDERS
    • A.  Method of Review
      • 1.  Superior Court in Other Than Limited Civil Case  20.32
      • 2.  Limited Civil Cases  20.33
    • B.  Standard of Review  20.34
    • C.  Time to Answer After Review  20.35
  • VIII.  CHECKLIST: PROCEDURE FOR MOTION FOR CHANGE OF VENUE  20.36
  • IX.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Notice of Motion for Change of Venue  20.37
    • B.  Form: Notice of Motion to Retain Venue  20.38
    • C.  Form: Declaration Supporting Motion for Change of Venue on Wrong Court Grounds  20.39
    • D.  Form: Declaration by Defendant’s Attorney When Motion Made on Wrong Court Grounds  20.40
    • E.  Form: Declaration Supporting Motion for Change of Venue for Convenience of Witnesses and Ends of Justice  20.41
    • F.  Form: Stipulation and Order Changing Venue  20.42

21

Motions to Stay or Dismiss for Inconvenient Forum

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  21.1
    • B.  Governing Law  21.2
  • II.  CHARACTERISTICS OF DOCTRINE  21.3
    • A.  Distinguished From Change of Venue and Jurisdiction  21.4
    • B.  Statutory Authority; Limitations  21.5
    • C.  Combining Motion With Challenge to Jurisdiction or With Answer, Demurrer, or Motion to Strike  21.6
  • III.  WHEN APPROPRIATE
    • A.  Availability of Suitable Alternative Forum  21.7
    • B.  Factors Considered  21.8
      • 1.  Plaintiff’s Residence, Choice of Forum  21.9
      • 2.  Defendant’s Residence  21.10
      • 3.  Other Factors  21.11
    • C.  Effect of Federal Law  21.12
    • D.  Dismissal or Stay  21.13
    • E.  Order on Just Conditions  21.14
    • F.  Effect of Contractual Provision  21.15
  • IV.  PROCEDURE
    • A.  Time to Make Motion
      • 1.  Before or After General Appearance  21.16
      • 2.  Effect of Making Motion Before Pleading  21.17
    • B.  Time to Serve and File Papers  21.18
    • C.  Content of Moving Papers  21.19
    • D.  Content of Responsive Papers  21.20
    • E.  Hearing on the Motion; Order  21.21
    • F.  Effect of Order on Time to File Responsive Pleading or Writ of Mandate  21.22
    • G.  Review by Writ or Appeal  21.23
  • V.  CHECKLIST: DIAGNOSTIC QUESTIONS  21.24
  • VI.  CHECKLIST: PROCEDURE FOR MOTION TO DISMISS OR STAY FOR INCONVENIENT FORUM  21.25
  • VII.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Notice of Motion to Dismiss or Stay Action  21.26
    • B.  Form: Declaration Supporting Motion to Dismiss or Stay Action  21.27
    • C.  Form: Request to Take Judicial Notice to Support or Oppose Motion to Dismiss or Stay Action  21.28
    • D.  Form: Order Dismissing or Staying Action  21.29

22

Removal to Federal Court

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  22.1
    • B.  Governing Law  22.2
  • II.  OVERVIEW
    • A.  Nature of Removal Jurisdiction  22.3
    • B.  Former Derivative Rule  22.4
    • C.  Current Nonderivative Rule  22.5
  • III.  REMOVAL OF FEDERAL QUESTION CASES
    • A.  Authority  22.6
    • B.  When Is a Federal Question Involved?  22.7
    • C.  Determining Federal Question Removal Jurisdiction
      • 1.  Well-Pleaded Complaint Rule  22.8
      • 2.  Federal Defenses Generally Irrelevant  22.9
      • 3.  Artful Pleading Doctrine
        • a.  Exception to Well-Pleaded Complaint Rule  22.10
        • b.  Courts May Look Beyond Complaint for Artful Pleading  22.11
        • c.  Defense of Federal Preemption
          • (1)  Defense of Federal Preemption Generally Insufficient as Ground for Removal  22.12
          • (2)  Exception: The Complete Preemption Doctrine  22.13
            • (a)  How Complete Preemption Is Determined  22.14
            • (b)  Examples of When Complete Preemption Doctrine Applied  22.15
  • IV.  REMOVAL OF DIVERSITY CASES
    • A.  Diversity Removal Jurisdiction Generally; Jurisdictional Amount  22.16
    • B.  Plaintiff as Master of Plaintiff’s Complaint
      • 1.  In General  22.17
      • 2.  Effect of Amendments to Complaint  22.18
      • 3.  Effect of Fraudulent Joinder
        • a.  Does Not Defeat Diversity  22.19
        • b.  Standard Court Applies to Determine if Liability Exists Under State Law  22.20
    • C.  Defendant’s Burden to Establish Diversity; When Court May Look Beyond Complaint  22.21
    • D.  Special Rules on Citizenship
      • 1.  Individuals  22.22
      • 2.  Doe Defendants  22.23
      • 3.  Corporations  22.24
      • 4.  Partnerships  22.25
      • 5.  Joint Ventures  22.26
      • 6.  Unincorporated Associations  22.27
      • 7.  Aliens  22.28
      • 8.  States  22.29
    • E.  Class Action Fairness Act of 2005  22.29A
  • V.  REMOVAL OF SEPARATE AND INDEPENDENT CLAIMS
    • A.  State Cases Commenced On or After January 6, 2012  22.29B
    • B.  State Cases Commenced Before January 6, 2012
      • 1.  General Rule  22.30
      • 2.  Determining What Constitutes Separate and Independent Claim  22.31
      • 3.  Effect of Rule When Federal Question Involved  22.32
      • 4.  Applicability of Rule When Diversity of Citizenship Involved  22.33
  • VI.  REMOVAL OF OTHER CLAIMS
    • A.  Actions Against Foreign States  22.34
    • B.  Actions Against Federal Officers  22.35
    • C.  Action Against Military Personnel  22.36
    • D.  Civil Rights Cases  22.37
    • E.  Actions Brought Against United States Concerning Property on Which United States Has or Claims Lien  22.38
  • VII.  CROSS-CLAIMS AGAINST PLAINTIFF OR THIRD PARTIES
    • A.  Generally Removal by Cross-Defendants Prohibited  22.39
    • B.  Exception: Removal by Third Party Defendant When Separate and Independent Claim Involved  22.40
  • VIII.  PENDENT CLAIM JURISDICTION  22.41
  • IX.  ACTIONS SPECIFICALLY MADE NONREMOVABLE BY STATUTE
    • A.  Actions Against Railroads  22.42
    • B.  Actions Against Carriers  22.43
    • C.  Actions Arising Under State Workers’ Compensation Laws  22.44
    • D.  Other Nonremovable Actions  22.45
    • E.  Effect When Actions Made Nonremovable by Statute Are Joined With Otherwise Removable Actions  22.46
  • X.  WHETHER TO SEEK REMOVAL
    • A.  Removal Discretionary  22.47
    • B.  Practical Considerations
      • 1.  Where Case Will Be Litigated and Tried
        • a.  Centralized Location of Federal Courts  22.48
        • b.  Possible Venue Change  22.49
      • 2.  Pretrial Considerations
        • a.  Time to Demand Jury Trial  22.50
        • b.  Attorney Time  22.51
        • c.  Single Judge Assignment  22.52
        • d.  Time to Trial; Trial Date  22.53
        • e.  Discovery; Privileges  22.54
        • f.  Monetary Sanctions  22.55
        • g.  Pleadings; Stipulations  22.56
        • h.  Disqualification of Judge  22.57
        • i.  Possible Remand of Pendent State Claims  22.58
        • j.  Summary Judgment Standards  22.59
        • k.  Judicial Arbitration  22.60
      • 3.  Trial Considerations
        • a.  Jury Composition  22.61
        • b.  Juror Voir Dire  22.62
        • c.  Evidentiary Considerations
          • (1)  Differences Between State and Federal Rules of Evidence  22.63
          • (2)  Tax Returns  22.64
        • d.  Jury Size; Three-Fourths or Unanimous Verdict  22.65
      • 4.  Post Trial; Registering or Entering Judgment Outside State  22.66
  • XI.  REMOVAL TIMING AND PROCEDURES
    • A.  Time Limitations
      • 1.  When Initial Pleading Contains Removable Claim
        • a.  30-Day Rule  22.67
        • b.  Receipt of Letter No Longer Starts 30-Day Period  22.68
        • c.  Cases Involving Multiple Defendants  22.69
      • 2.  When Amended Pleading, Motion, Order, or Other Paper Establishes Right to Removal
        • a.  30-Day Rule  22.70
        • b.  Unequivocal Action Creating Removal Jurisdiction Required  22.71
        • c.  Plaintiff’s Voluntary Act Required for Change Rendering Case Removable  22.72
      • 3.  One-Year Limitation Period Beyond Which Removal Prohibited in Diversity Cases
        • a.  Cases Commenced in State Court On and After January 6, 2012  22.72A
        • b.  Cases Commenced in State Court Before January 6, 2012  22.73
      • 4.  Waiver of Right to Remove by Acts Done in State Court Within 30-Day Period  22.74
      • 5.  Effect of Failure to Remove Within Statutory Period; Waiver of Objection  22.75
    • B.  Procedure
      • 1.  Preparation of Notice of Removal; Content  22.76
        • a.  Requirement That All Defendants Join in Notice of Removal  22.77
        • b.  Exceptions to Requirement of Joinder by All Defendants
          • (1)  Nonserved Defendants  22.78
          • (2)  Formal or Nominal Parties  22.79
          • (3)  Fraudulently Joined Defendants  22.80
          • (4)  Federal Claims Joined With Unrelated State Claims (Cases Commenced in State Court On and After January 12, 2012)  22.80A
          • (5)  Separate and Independent Claims (Cases Commenced in State Court Before January 12, 2012)  22.81
          • (6)  Federal Officers  22.82
        • c.  Specifying Exceptions to Joinder of Defendants Requirement In Notice of Removal  22.83
        • d.  Plaintiff’s Waiver of Defect That All Defendants Not Joined in Notice of Removal  22.84
      • 2.  Filing Notice of Removal and Other Requirements
        • a.  Timely Filing in Federal Court; Automatic Removal  22.85
        • b.  Other Papers to Be Filed With Notice in Federal Court  22.86
        • c.  Prompt Written Notice to Adverse Parties  22.87
        • d.  Promptly File Copy of Notice in State Court  22.88
      • 3.  Amending Notice of Removal  22.89
      • 4.  Removability Determined at Time Notice Filed  22.90
      • 5.  Proceeding in Federal Court After Removal; Avoiding Waiver of Jury Trial  22.91
      • 6.  Objecting to Removal
        • a.  Noticing Motion to Remand; Time Limitation  22.92
        • b.  Burden of Removability Lies With Moving Party; Costs and Attorney Fees  22.93
        • c.  Reviewability of Court Order
          • (1)  When Remand Granted; Multiple Proceedings  22.94
          • (2)  When Remand Denied  22.95
        • d.  Time to Respond to Complaint After Remand  22.96
  • XII.  CHECKLIST: PROCEDURE FOR EVALUATING REMOVAL OF ACTION TO FEDERAL COURT  22.97
  • XIII.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Notice of Removal  22.98
    • B.  Form: Joinder in Notice of Removal  22.99

23

Demurrers

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  23.1
    • B.  Law Governing Demurrers  23.2
  • II.  DEMURRERS DESCRIBED
    • A.  Use of Demurrers  23.3
    • B.  General and Special Demurrers Distinguished  23.4
    • C.  Availability of Demurrers  23.5
    • D.  Tactical Considerations  23.6
    • E.  Alternatives to Demurrer  23.7
      • 1.  Answer  23.8
      • 2.  Motion to Strike  23.9
      • 3.  Anti-SLAPP Motion  23.10
      • 4.  Motion for Judgment on Pleadings  23.11
      • 5.  Motion for Summary Judgment or Summary Adjudication  23.12
      • 6.  [Deleted]  23.13
      • 7.  Discovery  23.14
      • 8.  Objection to Evidence  23.15
  • III.  DEMURRER TO COMPLAINT
    • A.  Timing for Demurrer
      • 1.  When to File Demurrer; Meet and Confer Requirement  23.16
      • 2.  Avoiding Default  23.17
      • 3.  Consider Filing Answer Simultaneously  23.18
    • B.  Preparing Demurrer
      • 1.  Multiple Party Variations  23.19
      • 2.  Stating Grounds Separately  23.20
      • 3.  Demurring to All or Part of Complaint  23.21
      • 4.  Requesting Judicial Notice  23.22
    • C.  Grounds For Demurrer  23.23
      • 1.  Matters on Which Grounds Based  23.24
      • 2.  Grounds That Are Not Waived  23.25
    • D.  Stating Specific Grounds; Examples  23.26
      • 1.  Failure to State Facts Sufficient to Constitute Cause of Action  23.27
        • a.  Barred by Statute of Limitations  23.28
        • b.  Defenses Appearing on Face of Complaint  23.29
      • 2.  No Jurisdiction of Subject Matter  23.30
      • 3.  Lack of Legal Capacity to Sue  23.31
      • 4.  Another Action Pending  23.32
      • 5.  Defect or Misjoinder of Parties
        • a.  Defect  23.33
        • b.  Misjoinder  23.34
      • 6.  Uncertain, Ambiguous, or Unintelligible  23.35
      • 7.  Uncertain Whether Contract Written, Oral, or Implied by Conduct  23.36
      • 8.  No Certificate of Merit in Action for Malpractice of Architect, Professional Engineer, or Land Surveyor  23.37
    • E.  Supporting Memorandum; Examples  23.38
    • F.  Notice of Hearing; Service  23.39
    • G.  Declaration Regarding Meet and Confer Efforts  23.39A
  • IV.  DEMURRER TO CROSS-COMPLAINT
    • A.  Similarity to Demurrer to Complaint  23.40
    • B.  Timing For Demurrer to Cross-Complaint  23.41
    • C.  Tactical Considerations  23.42
  • V.  DEMURRER TO ANSWER
    • A.  Multiple Party Variations  23.43
    • B.  Grounds For Demurrer to Answer  23.44
      • 1.  Failure to State Facts Sufficient to Constitute Defense  23.45
      • 2.  Uncertainty  23.46
      • 3.  Uncertain Whether Contract Written or Oral  23.47
    • C.  Timing for Demurrer to Answer  23.48
    • D.  Tactical Considerations  23.49
  • VI.  RESPONSIVE PROCEDURES
    • A.  Amending Pleading Before Hearing  23.50
    • B.  Filing Opposition Papers  23.51
  • VII.  DEMURRING PARTY’S REPLY PAPERS  23.52
  • VIII.  HEARING AND COURT RULING
    • A.  Hearing  23.53
    • B.  Ruling  23.54
      • 1.  Leave to Amend  23.55
      • 2.  Decision or Order  23.56
        • a.  Time to Answer or Amend  23.57
        • b.  Statement of Grounds  23.58
      • 3.  Notice of Decision  23.59
  • IX.  POSTHEARING PROCEDURES
    • A.  Motion for Reconsideration  23.60
    • B.  Demurrer to Complaint or Cross-Complaint
      • 1.  If Demurrer Overruled
        • a.  Answer  23.61
        • b.  Default and Appeal  23.62
        • c.  Writ of Prohibition  23.63
      • 2.  If Demurrer Sustained With Leave to Amend
        • a.  Amendment  23.64
        • b.  Voluntary Dismissal  23.65
        • c.  Demurrer or Answer After Amended Complaint Filed  23.66
        • d.  Appeal After Dismissal  23.67
      • 3.  If Demurrer Sustained Without Leave to Amend
        • a.  Writ of Mandate  23.68
        • b.  Dismissal and Appeal  23.69
    • C.  Demurrer to Answer
      • 1.  If Demurrer Overruled  23.70
      • 2.  If Demurrer Sustained  23.71
  • X.  DIAGNOSTIC QUESTIONS
    • A.  Checklist: Defendant’s Diagnostic Questions  23.72
    • B.  Checklist: Plaintiff’s Diagnostic Questions  23.73
  • XI.  CHECKLIST: PROCEDURE FOR DEMURRER TO COMPLAINT  23.74
  • XII.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Notice of Hearing on Demurrer to Complaint  23.75
    • B.  Form: Demurrer to Complaint  23.76
    • C.  Form: Demurrer to Cross-Complaint  23.77
    • D.  Form: Demurrer to Answer  23.78
    • E.  Form: Notice of Decision Sustaining or Overruling Demurrer to Complaint  23.79

24

Motions to Strike

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  24.1
    • B.  Governing Law  24.2
  • II.  DESCRIPTION AND USE
    • A.  Function; Motion to Strike Compared With Demurrer  24.3
    • B.  Grounds
      • 1.  In Unlimited Civil Cases  24.4
      • 2.  In Limited Civil Cases  24.5
      • 3.  Examples of Grounds for Motion to Strike  24.6
  • III.  PROCEDURES
    • A.  Meet and Confer Requirement  24.6A
    • B.  Timing
      • 1.  When to File Against Complaint or Cross-Complaint  24.7
      • 2.  When to File Against Answer  24.8
      • 3.  Extensions by Stipulation or Court Order  24.9
      • 4.  Effect of Trial Court Delay Reduction Act  24.10
      • 5.  Motion to Strike Must Be Filed and Heard at Same Time as Demurrer  24.11
      • 6.  Setting Time of Hearing; Service  24.12
    • C.  Drafting the Motion  24.13
      • 1.  Notice of Motion  24.14
      • 2.  Declaration Regarding Meet and Confer  24.14A
      • 3.  Judicial Notice  24.15
    • D.  Responsive Procedures
      • 1.  Amending Pleading Before Hearing  24.15A
      • 2.  Opposing the Motion  24.15B
    • E.  Moving Party’s Reply to Opposition Papers  24.15C
  • IV.  HEARING AND COURT RULING
    • A.  Hearing; Judge’s Ruling on Motion to Strike  24.16
    • B.  Notice of Ruling  24.17
  • V.  PROCEDURES AFTER RULING
    • A.  Motion Granted
      • 1.  Time to Amend  24.18
      • 2.  Appellate Review  24.19
    • B.  Motion Denied
      • 1.  Time to Answer  24.19A
      • 2.  Appellate Review  24.19B
    • C.  Prevailing Party’s Response to Amended Pleading  24.20
  • VI.  CHECKLIST: DIAGNOSTIC QUESTIONS  24.21
  • VII.  CHECKLIST: PROCEDURE FOR MOTION TO STRIKE  24.22
  • VIII.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Notice of Motion to Strike  24.23
    • B.  Form: Order Granting Motion to Strike  24.24

24A

Anti-SLAPP Motions

Michael C. Denison

Hon. Fumiko H. Wasserman

  • I.  INTRODUCTION  24A.1
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  24A.2
    • B.  Governing Law  24A.3
  • II.  USE OF ANTI-SLAPP MOTION
    • A.  Activities Protected Under Anti-SLAPP Statute  24A.4
    • B.  Pleadings Anti-SLAPP Motion May Attack  24A.5
    • C.  Persons Protected By Anti-SLAPP Statute  24A.6
    • D.  Advantages and Disadvantages of Anti-SLAPP Motions
      • 1.  Benefits of Filing Anti-SLAPP Motion  24A.7
      • 2.  Risks of Filing Anti-SLAPP Motion  24A.8
    • E.  Comparing Anti-SLAPP Motion to Other Possible Motions
      • 1.  Summary Judgment Motion  24A.9
      • 2.  Other Alternative Motions  24A.10
  • III.  CAUSES OF ACTION EXEMPT FROM ANTI-SLAPP MOTION  24A.11
    • A.  Public Enforcement Action Exemption  24A.12
    • B.  Public Interest Exemption  24A.13
    • C.  Commercial Speech Exemption  24A.14
    • D.  When Anti-SLAPP Motion Is Available Despite Exemption  24A.15
  • IV.  SHOWING REQUIRED FOR ANTI-SLAPP STATUTE
    • A.  Two-Part Test  24A.16
    • B.  Defendant’s Burden of Proof (Part One of Anti-SLAPP Test)  24A.17
      • 1.  Does the Cause of Action “Arise From” Defendant’s Exercise of Constitutional Free Speech or Petition Rights?  24A.18
      • 2.  Is Plaintiff Challenging an Exercise of Defendant’s Constitutional Free Speech or Petition Rights?  24A.19
        • a.  Illegal Activity Is Not Protected Activity  24A.19A
        • b.  Is the Cause of Action Based on a Written or Oral Statement Made in a Legislative, Executive, Judicial, or Other Official Proceeding?  24A.20
        • c.  Is the Cause of Action Based on a Written or Oral Statement Made in Connection With an Issue Under Consideration or Review by a Legislative, Executive, or Judicial Body or Another Official Proceeding Authorized by Law?  24A.21
        • d.  Is the Cause of Action Based on a Written or Oral Statement Made in a Place Open to the Public or a Public Forum in Connection With a Public Issue?  24A.22
        • e.  Is the Cause of Action Based on Defendant’s Conduct in Furtherance of an Exercise of Constitutional Petition or Free Speech Rights in Connection With an Issue of Public Interest?  24A.23
      • 3.  Mixed Causes of Action  24A.23A
      • 4.  Causes of Action Frequently Challenged by Anti-SLAPP Motion  24A.23B
        • a.  Abuse of Process  24A.23C
        • b.  Breach of Fiduciary Duty  24A.23D
        • c.  Breach of Contract or Covenant of Good Faith and Fair Dealing  24A.23E
        • d.  Declaratory/Injunctive Relief  24A.23F
        • e.  Defamation  24A.23G
        • f.  Fraud  24A.23H
        • g.  Invasion of Privacy  24A.23I
        • h.  Malicious Prosecution  24A.23J
      • 5.  Defendant Need Not Show Intent or Chilling Result  24A.24
      • 6.  Defendant Should Present Evidence Supporting Any Affirmative Defenses  24A.25
    • C.  Plaintiff’s Burden of Proof (Part Two of Anti-SLAPP Test)  24A.26
      • 1.  Plaintiff Must Make Prima Facie Showing on Merits  24A.27
        • a.  Examples of Cases Holding That Plaintiff Met Its Burden  24A.28
        • b.  Examples of Cases Holding That Plaintiff Did Not Meet Its Burden  24A.29
      • 2.  Plaintiff Must Present Admissible Evidence  24A.30
      • 3.  Litigation Privilege May Preclude Plaintiff’s Ability to Prevail  24A.31
      • 4.  Plaintiff Must Support Opposition With Declarations  24A.32
  • V.  MOVING PARTY’S PROCEDURES  24A.33
    • A.  Evaluating the Pleadings  24A.34
    • B.  Determining Discovery Needs
      • 1.  Discovery Is Stayed  24A.35
        • a.  Moving Party Must File Motion for Additional Discovery  24A.36
        • b.  Moving Party Must Show Good Cause
          • (1)  Good Cause Defined  24A.37
          • (2)  Cases Addressing Good Cause  24A.38
      • 2.  Moving Party Should Seek Order Shortening Time  24A.39
    • C.  Timing Requirements for Anti-SLAPP Motion
      • 1.  When to File Anti-SLAPP Motion  24A.40
        • a.  Court May Permit Late Filing  24A.41
        • b.  Timing After Amended Complaint, Remand, or Transfer  24A.42
        • c.  Coordination With Answer  24A.43
      • 2.  When to Serve Anti-SLAPP Motion  24A.44
      • 3.  When to File Proof of Service  24A.45
      • 4.  When to Reserve Hearing Date  24A.46
    • D.  Moving Papers  24A.47
      • 1.  Notice of Motion and Motion to Strike  24A.48
        • a.  Format of Notice and Motion  24A.49
        • b.  Supporting Memorandum  24A.50
        • c.  Page Limits  24A.51
      • 2.  Supporting Documents  24A.52
      • 3.  Factual Declarations
        • a.  Declarations Identifying Witnesses  24A.53
        • b.  Declarations re Hearing Date Beyond 30 Days From Notice  24A.54
        • c.  Exhibits  24A.55
      • 4.  Requests for Judicial Notice  24A.56
      • 5.  Copies of Non-California and Recent Cases  24A.57
      • 6.  Proposed Order  24A.58
      • 7.  Anticipate Challenges Contained in Plaintiff’s Opposition Papers  24A.59
        • a.  Procedural Challenges  24A.60
        • b.  Evidentiary Challenges  24A.61
        • c.  Substantive Challenges  24A.62
    • E.  Report Filing of Motion to Judicial Council  24A.63
    • F.  Prepare Reply to Opposition Papers
      • 1.  Timing for Reply  24A.64
      • 2.  Content of Reply  24A.65
        • a.  Procedural Challenges to Opposition  24A.66
        • b.  Evidentiary Challenges to Opposition  24A.67
        • c.  Substantive Challenges to Opposition  24A.68
      • 3.  Moving for Additional Discovery  24A.69
      • 4.  Format of Reply Papers  24A.70
      • 5.  Filing and Service of Reply Papers  24A.71
  • VI.  OPPOSING PARTY’S PROCEDURES
    • A.  Gathering Evidence to Oppose Motion  24A.72
    • B.  Consider Challenges to Moving Papers  24A.73
    • C.  Prepare Opposition Papers  24A.74
      • 1.  Timing of Service and Filing of Opposition Papers  24A.75
      • 2.  Service Method for Opposition Papers  24A.76
    • D.  Consider Effect of Complaint’s Dismissal
      • 1.  If Before Hearing on Anti-SLAPP Motion  24A.77
      • 2.  If Before Filing of Anti-SLAPP Motion  24A.78
    • E.  Reporting Filing of Motion to Judicial Council  24A.79
  • VII.  RECOVERING ATTORNEY FEES ON ANTI-SLAPP MOTION
    • A.  Obtaining Attorney Fees
      • 1.  Who Is Entitled to Attorney Fees?
        • a.  Successful Defendant Has Mandatory Right to Attorney Fees  24A.80
          • (1)  When Challenged Cause of Action Is Dismissed Before Hearing  24A.81
          • (2)  When Complaint Is Dismissed Before Anti-SLAPP Motion Filed  24A.82
        • b.  Successful Plaintiff May Be Entitled to Attorney Fees as Sanction  24A.83
          • (1)  Example of Fees Awarded to Plaintiff  24A.84
          • (2)  Example of Fees Denied to Plaintiff  24A.85
        • c.  Prevailing Defendant Represented Pro Bono Is Entitled to Attorney Fees  24A.86
        • d.  Attorney Representing Self Is Not Entitled to Attorney Fees  24A.87
      • 2.  Methods for Recovering Attorney Fees  24A.88
        • a.  Requesting Fees in Moving Papers  24A.89
        • b.  Requesting Fees in Memorandum of Costs  24A.90
        • c.  Requesting Fees in a Separate Motion
          • (1)  Declaration Must Accompany Motion for Attorney Fees  24A.91
          • (2)  Motion for Attorney Fees Must Be Filed Within Time for Appeal  24A.92
    • B.  Determining Amount of Attorney Fees
      • 1.  Amount of Fees Must Be Reasonable  24A.93
      • 2.  Lodestar Adjustment Method Applies  24A.94
      • 3.  Fees Limited to Work on Anti-SLAPP Motion  24A.95
      • 4.  Fees Reduced for Lack of Complete Success on Motion  24A.96
      • 5.  Against Whom Attorney Fees Can Be Awarded  24A.97
    • C.  Appealing an Attorney Fee Award  24A.98
      • 1.  Appeal Does Not Automatically Stay Fee Award  24A.99
      • 2.  Appellate Fees Are Authorized  24A.100
  • VIII.  HEARING AND COURT RULING ON ANTI-SLAPP MOTION
    • A.  Before Hearing
      • 1.  Obtaining Hearing Date  24A.101
      • 2.  Arranging for Court Reporter  24A.102
      • 3.  Checking for Tentative Ruling  24A.103
      • 4.  Requesting Oral Argument  24A.104
      • 5.  Preparing for Oral Argument  24A.105
    • B.  Court’s Ruling
      • 1.  Obtaining Court’s Ruling  24A.106
      • 2.  No Leave to Amend  24A.107
    • C.  Prepare Court Order and Judgment After Hearing  24A.108
      • 1.  Timing and Procedure for Proposed Order
        • a.  Deadline for Prevailing Party to Mail or Deliver Proposed Order  24A.109
        • b.  Deadline for Opposing Party to Respond to Proposed Order  24A.110
      • 2.  Contents of Proposed Order  24A.111
        • a.  If Motion Is Granted  24A.112
          • (1)  If Granted for All Causes of Action  24A.113
          • (2)  If Granted for Some But Not All Causes of Action  24A.114
        • b.  If Motion Is Denied  24A.115
  • IX.  CHALLENGING THE RULING ON ANTI-SLAPP MOTION
    • A.  If Anti-SLAPP Motion Is Granted
      • 1.  Plaintiff May Move for Reconsideration  24A.116
      • 2.  Plaintiff May Seek Relief Under CCP §473  24A.117
      • 3.  Plaintiff May Appeal Ruling  24A.118
    • B.  If Anti-SLAPP Motion Is Denied
      • 1.  Defendant May Move for Reconsideration  24A.119
      • 2.  Defendant May Appeal Ruling  24A.120
      • 3.  Defendant May Seek Writ Relief  24A.121
  • X.  ANTI-SLAPP MOTIONS IN SLAPPBACK CASES
    • A.  SLAPPback Defined  24A.122
    • B.  When Anti-SLAPP Motion Is Available in SLAPPback  24A.123
      • 1.  In Malicious Prosecution Actions  24A.124
      • 2.  In Abuse of Process Actions  24A.125
    • C.  When Anti-SLAPP Motion Is Not Available in SLAPPback
      • 1.  When Underlying Cause of Action Is Illegal as Matter of Law  24A.126
      • 2.  When SLAPPback Is Filed by Public Entity  24A.127
    • D.  Special Rules Applicable to Anti-SLAPP Motions in SLAPPback  24A.128
      • 1.  Timing for Anti-SLAPP Motion in SLAPPback
        • a.  Time for Filing Motion  24A.129
        • b.  Time for Scheduling Hearing  24A.130
      • 2.  Recovering Attorney Fees on Anti-SLAPP Motion in SLAPPback
        • a.  Defendant May Not Recover Fees on Anti-SLAPP Motion in SLAPPback  24A.131
        • b.  Plaintiff May Recover Fees on Opposing Anti-SLAPP in SLAPPback as Sanction  24A.132
      • 3.  Challenging Ruling on Anti-SLAPP Motion in SLAPPback  24A.133
  • XI.  CHECKLIST TO DETERMINE IF ANTI-SLAPP STATUTE APPLIES  24A.134
  • XII.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Anti-SLAPP Motion and Supporting Papers  24A.135
    • B.  Form: Declaration Example 1  24A.136
    • C.  Form: Declaration Example 2  24A.137
    • D.  Form: Declaration Example 3  24A.138
    • E.  Form: Request for Judicial Notice  24A.139
    • F.  Form: Proposed Order  24A.140
    • G.  Form: Notice to Judicial Council  24A.141

25

Answers

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  25.1
    • B.  Governing Law  25.2
  • II.  DESCRIPTION AND USE
    • A.  Purpose and Function of Answer  25.3
      • 1.  Due Process Considerations  25.4
      • 2.  Corporate Defendants  25.5
    • B.  Effect of Failure to File Answer  25.6
    • C.  Effect of Particular Defects in Answer
      • 1.  Failure to Deny “Material” Allegation  25.7
        • a.  Material Allegations Not Denied Are Deemed Admitted  25.8
        • b.  Exception: Subject Matter Jurisdiction  25.9
      • 2.  Failure to Assert Defense  25.10
      • 3.  Defective Denial  25.11
      • 4.  Affirmative Admission  25.12
      • 5.  Failure to Verify Answer When Required  25.13
  • III.  FORMAT
    • A.  Drafting: Formal Aspects
      • 1.  Caption; Opening Paragraph  25.14
        • a.  Identification of Answering Party  25.15
        • b.  Multiple Party Litigation  25.16
      • 2.  Body of Answer  25.17
        • a.  Denials  25.18
        • b.  Defenses  25.19
        • c.  Prayer  25.20
        • d.  Date; Subscription  25.21
      • 3.  Incorporation by Reference  25.22
      • 4.  Verification  25.23
        • a.  Limited Civil Cases  25.24
        • b.  Corporate Defendant  25.25
        • c.  Public Entity  25.26
        • d.  Form  25.27
        • e.  Who Verifies  25.28
    • B.  Judicial Council Forms  25.29
  • IV.  DENIALS  25.30
    • A.  General Denial  25.31
      • 1.  Not Permitted if Complaint Verified  25.32
      • 2.  Exception for Limited Civil Cases  25.33
      • 3.  Judicial Council Form  25.34
        • a.  Mandatory When Disputed Amount Is Less Than $1000  25.35
        • b.  Limiting a General Denial  25.36
    • B.  Specific Denials
      • 1.  Required if Complaint Verified  25.37
        • a.  Denial of Specific Lines or Paragraphs  25.38
        • b.  Paragraph-by-Paragraph Denial  25.39
        • c.  Specifically Admitting Particular Allegations and Denying Others  25.40
        • d.  Denial by Affirmative Statement  25.41
      • 2.  Avoiding Ambiguous Denials
        • a.  “Negative Pregnant”  25.42
        • b.  Conjunctive Denial  25.43
    • C.  Denials on Information and Belief or Lack of Information or Belief
      • 1.  Limitation on Use  25.44
        • a.  Improper If Defendant Has Actual or Presumed Knowledge  25.45
        • b.  Improper in Matters of Public Record  25.46
      • 2.  Sample Language
        • a.  Denial Based on Information and Belief  25.47
        • b.  Denial Based on Lack of Information or Belief  25.48
  • V.  DEFENSES
    • A.  Description and Use
      • 1.  “New Matter”  25.49
      • 2.  Answer to Cross-Complaint  25.50
      • 3.  Defenses Pleaded in Answer Are Deemed Denied  25.51
      • 4.  Effect of Not Pleading Defense: Waiver  25.52
    • B.  Pleading Inconsistent Defenses
      • 1.  Right to Plead  25.53
      • 2.  Defenses Must Be Separately Stated  25.54
      • 3.  Truthful Pleading Limitation  25.55
    • C.  Defenses That Can Be Raised by Demurrer
      • 1.  Answer May Raise Demurrable Issues  25.56
      • 2.  Effect of Failure to Raise Objection in Answer or Demurrer  25.57
    • D.  Pleading Requirements
      • 1.  Fact Pleading Required  25.58
        • a.  Pleading Defenses on Official Forms  25.59
        • b.  Format  25.60
      • 2.  Identification of Defenses  25.61
    • E.  Particular Defenses
      • 1.  Statute of Limitations
        • a.  Pleading Requirements  25.62
          • (1)  Specific Reference to Appropriate Limitations Period  25.63
          • (2)  Effect of Defective Pleading of Limitations Defense  25.64
        • b.  As Defense to Cross-Complaint  25.65
      • 2.  Plaintiff’s Contributory Negligence or Comparative Negligence  25.66
      • 3.  Assumption of Risk  25.67
      • 4.  Mistake, Fraud, Duress, and Undue Influence  25.68
      • 5.  Estoppel, Waiver, Laches, and Unclean Hands  25.69
      • 6.  Statute of Frauds  25.70
      • 7.  Purported Contract: Illegal or Otherwise Void  25.71
        • a.  Contract Conditions Precedent or Subsequent  25.72
        • b.  Illegality of Contract  25.73
      • 8.  Payment Under Contract  25.74
      • 9.  Mitigation of Damages (Wrongful Termination Actions)  25.75
      • 10.  Defenses to Common Counts  25.76
      • 11.  Defense of Setoff
        • a.  Pleading Requirements  25.77
        • b.  Setoffs as Allegation of Cross-Complaint  25.78
      • 12.  Absence of Elements of a Claim for Negligence  25.79
      • 13.  Absence of Elements of Particular Intentional Torts  25.80
      • 14.  Defendant’s Title as Defense in Ejectment and Quiet Title Property Actions  25.81
      • 15.  Denying Plaintiff’s Possession in Actions for Recovery of Personal Property  25.82
      • 16.  Excuse for Nonperformance of Contract  25.83
      • 17.  Discharge of Liability: Release, Novation, and Accord and Satisfaction  25.84
      • 18.  Exclusive Remedy in Alternative Forum  25.85
      • 19.  Public Entity and Employee Defenses  25.86
  • VI.  FILING AND SERVICE
    • A.  Time for Filing  25.87
      • 1.  Filing After Ruling on Demurrer  25.88
      • 2.  Filing After Other Motions Challenging Action Are Heard  25.89
    • B.  Extending Time by Stipulation or Order  25.90
      • 1.  Ex Parte Application Seeking Extension  25.91
      • 2.  Filing Late Answer  25.92
      • 3.  Request for Entry of Default  25.93
        • a.  Default Judgment  25.94
        • b.  Application for Relief From Default Judgment  25.95
    • C.  Manner of Service  25.96
  • VII.  AMENDED AND SUPPLEMENTAL ANSWERS
    • A.  Amendment  25.97
      • 1.  Amended Answer  25.98
      • 2.  Amendment to Answer  25.99
    • B.  Procedures for Amendment
      • 1.  Amendment “Of Course”  25.100
      • 2.  Correcting Mistakes  25.101
      • 3.  After Demurrer Sustained  25.102
      • 4.  Oral Motion to Amend  25.103
      • 5.  Amendment on Noticed Motion With Leave of Court  25.104
      • 6.  By Stipulation of Parties  25.105
    • C.  Supplemental Answer  25.106
  • VIII.  CHECKLIST: DIAGNOSTIC QUESTIONS  25.107
  • IX.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Stipulation Extending Time to Respond to Complaint; Order  25.108
    • B.  Form: Ex Parte Application for Extension of Time to Respond to Complaint; Order  25.109
    • C.  Form: Unverified Answer  25.110
    • D.  Form: Verified Answer  25.111
    • E.  Form: Verification of Answer  25.112
    • F.  Form: Amendment to Answer  25.113
    • G.  Motion to File Amended Answer
      • 1.  Form: Notice of Motion  25.114
      • 2.  Form: Memorandum in Support of Motion  25.115
      • 3.  Form: Declaration  25.116
      • 4.  Form: Order  25.117
    • H.  Judicial Council Forms
      • 1.  Form: General Denial (Judicial Council Form PLD-050)  25.118
      • 2.  Form: Answer—Personal Injury, Property Damage, Wrongful Death (Judicial Council Form PLD-PI-003)  25.119
      • 3.  Form: Answer—Contract (Judicial Council Form PLD-C-010)  25.120
      • 4.  Form: Answer—Unlawful Detainer (Judicial Council Form UD-105)  25.121

26

Cross-Complaints

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  26.1
    • B.  Governing Law  26.2
  • II.  OVERVIEW
    • A.  Nature and Function of Cross-Complaint  26.3
      • 1.  Independent Cause of Action  26.4
      • 2.  Similarity to Complaint  26.5
    • B.  Who May File  26.6
  • III.  COMPULSORY AND PERMISSIVE CROSS-COMPLAINTS DISTINGUISHED
    • A.  Compulsory Cross-Complaint
      • 1.  Compulsory if Related Cause of Action  26.7
      • 2.  Exceptions  26.8
        • a.  No Personal Jurisdiction Over Defendant  26.9
        • b.  Nonappearing Defendant  26.10
        • c.  Actions Not Maintainable  26.11
        • d.  Another Action Pending  26.12
        • e.  Special Proceedings  26.13
        • f.  Small Claims  26.14
        • g.  Declaratory Relief  26.15
    • B.  Permissive Cross-Complaint
      • 1.  Against Complaining Party
        • a.  General Rule  26.16
        • b.  When Complaining Party Is Assignee  26.17
      • 2.  Against Noncomplaining Party  26.18
      • 3.  Joinder
        • a.  Parties  26.19
        • b.  Causes of Action  26.20
    • C.  When Court May Sever  26.21
  • IV.  RESTRICTIONS ON USE OF CROSS-COMPLAINTS
    • A.  Summary Proceedings  26.22
    • B.  Eminent Domain Proceedings  26.23
    • C.  Statute of Limitations; Setoff in Answer  26.24
  • V.  TACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
    • A.  Compulsory Cross-Complaint  26.25
    • B.  Permissive Cross-Complaint  26.26
    • C.  Cross-Complaint for Indemnity  26.27
    • D.  Cross-Complaint Changing Jurisdictional Classification of Case  26.28
    • E.  Limitation on Voluntary Dismissal of Action  26.29
  • VI.  PROCEDURES
    • A.  Drafting Cross-Complaint
      • 1.  Format  26.30
        • a.  Caption  26.31
        • b.  Form: Introductory Clause  26.32
        • c.  Allegations  26.33
        • d.  Demand for Relief (Prayer)  26.34
        • e.  Subscription  26.35
        • f.  Verification  26.36
      • 2.  Optional Judicial Council Forms  26.37
        • a.  Cross-Complaint: Personal Injury, Property Damage, Wrongful Death  26.38
        • b.  Cross-Complaint: Contract  26.39
        • c.  Causes of Action  26.40
        • d.  Exemplary Damages Attachment  26.41
        • e.  Attachment of Nonform Causes of Action  26.42
      • 3.  Special Rule: Small Claims Courts  26.43
    • B.  Filing
      • 1.  Time Requirements
        • a.  Cross-Complaint Against Plaintiff or Cross-Complainant  26.44
        • b.  Cross-Complaint Against Someone Other Than Plaintiff or Cross-Complainant  26.45
      • 2.  Where to File  26.46
      • 3.  Filing Fees  26.47
      • 4.  Motion for Leave to File Cross-Complaint  26.48
      • 5.  Effect of Statute of Limitations  26.49
    • C.  Service
      • 1.  Serve Existing Parties by Mail  26.50
      • 2.  Serve Summons and Other Pleadings on New Parties  26.51
      • 3.  Delay in Service Will Not Prevent Trial-Setting  26.52
    • D.  Defensive Procedures
      • 1.  Responses to Cross-Complaint  26.53
      • 2.  Special Answer by Third Party Defendant  26.54
      • 3.  Cross-Defendant’s Cross-Complaint  26.55
  • VII.  CHECKLIST: DIAGNOSTIC QUESTIONS  26.56
  • VIII.  CHECKLIST: PROCEDURE FOR PREPARING CROSS-COMPLAINT  26.57
  • IX.  FORMS
    • A.  Motion for Leave to File Cross-Complaint
      • 1.  Form: Notice of Motion for Leave to File Cross-Complaint  26.58
      • 2.  Form: Sample Declaration Supporting Motion for Leave to File Cross-Complaint  26.59
    • B.  Form: Order Granting Leave to File Cross-Complaint  26.60
    • C.  Form: Summons—Cross-Complaint (Judicial Council Form SUM-110)  26.60A
    • D.  Form: Cross-Complaint—Personal Injury, Property Damage, Wrongful Death (Judicial Council Form PLD-PI-002)  26.61
    • E.  Form: Complaint—Contract (Judicial Council Form PLD-C-001)  26.62

27

Motions for Judgment on the Pleadings

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  27.1
    • B.  Governing Law  27.2
  • II.  DETERMINING WHETHER TO MAKE THE MOTION
    • A.  Description  27.3
    • B.  Other Procedures Compared
      • 1.  General Demurrer
        • a.  Time Limitations for Motion  27.4
        • b.  When Demurrer Should Be Filed  27.5
      • 2.  Motion to Strike  27.6
      • 3.  Summary Judgment  27.7
    • C.  Effect of Motion; Timing
      • 1.  Before Trial  27.8
      • 2.  During Trial  27.9
  • III.  PROCEDURES
    • A.  Meet and Confer Requirement  27.9A
    • B.  Drafting the Motion
      • 1.  Grounds  27.10
      • 2.  Supporting Papers  27.11
        • a.  Declaration Regarding Meet and Confer  27.11A
      • 3.  Request for Judicial Notice  27.12
      • 4.  Filing and Service  27.13
    • C.  Responsive Procedures
      • 1.  Amending Pleading Before Hearing  27.13A
      • 2.  Opposing the Motion  27.13B
    • D.  Reply Papers  27.14
    • E.  Attending the Hearing  27.15
  • IV.  COURT RULING
    • A.  Guiding Principles
      • 1.  Generally Only Allegations in Pleading or Matters Judicially Noticed May Be Considered  27.16
      • 2.  Allegations Must Be Taken to Be True  27.17
      • 3.  Leave to Amend Is Routinely Granted: Failure to Grant Considered Abuse of Discretion  27.18
      • 4.  Right to Amend Is Not Unlimited  27.19
    • B.  Order  27.20
  • V.  PROCEDURES AFTER COURT RULING
    • A.  Denial of Motion for Judgment on Pleadings  27.21
    • B.  Motion for Judgment on Pleadings Granted  27.22
    • C.  Issues on Appeal  27.23
    • D.  Effect of Judgment: Res Judicata  27.24
  • VI.  CHECKLIST: DIAGNOSTIC QUESTIONS  27.25
  • VII.  CHECKLIST: PROCEDURE FOR PREPARING MOTION FOR JUDGMENT ON THE PLEADINGS  27.26
  • VIII.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Notice of Motion for Judgment on Pleadings  27.27
    • B.  Form: Order for Judgment on Pleadings  27.28
    • C.  Form: Judgment on Pleadings  27.29
    • D.  Form: Memorandum Supporting Motion for Judgment on Pleadings  27.30

28

Interpleader

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter; Terminology  28.1
    • B.  Governing Law  28.2
  • II.  OVERVIEW
    • A.  Federal Interpleader  28.3
    • B.  Traditional Requirements Eliminated  28.4
    • C.  Two-Stage Procedure  28.5
      • 1.  Stakeholder’s Right to Interplead  28.6
      • 2.  Litigation Between Claimants  28.7
    • D.  Typical Uses of Interpleader
      • 1.  Insurance Policy Proceeds  28.8
      • 2.  Resolving Claims to Escrowed Property  28.9
      • 3.  Determining Right to Bank Deposits  28.10
      • 4.  Rents  28.11
      • 5.  Properties Subject to Levy  28.12
      • 6.  Miscellaneous Uses  28.13
    • E.  Other Procedures Compared
      • 1.  Declaratory Relief  28.14
      • 2.  Summary Judgment  28.15
      • 3.  Deposit in Court  28.16
      • 4.  Consolidation; Severance  28.17
      • 5.  Bill of Peace  28.18
      • 6.  Contractual Indemnity  28.19
      • 7.  Alternative Dispute Resolution; Settlement Conferences  28.20
    • F.  Statutory Features
      • 1.  Special Situations  28.21
      • 2.  Attorney Fees and Costs  28.22
      • 3.  Staying Other Proceedings  28.23
  • III.  STAKEHOLDERS’ PROCEDURES
    • A.  Tactical Considerations
      • 1.  Choosing State or Federal Jurisdiction, Venue  28.24
      • 2.  Effect of Insurer’s Deposit of Policy Proceeds on Obligation to Defend  28.25
    • B.  Meeting Threshold Requirements
      • 1.  Showing Double Vexation  28.26
      • 2.  Jurisdiction
        • a.  Over Interpleader Suits  28.27
        • b.  Over Claimants  28.28
      • 3.  Applicability of Joinder Statutes  28.29
      • 4.  Applicability of Cross-Complaint Statute  28.30
    • C.  Alternative Procedures When Stakeholder Is Defendant in Pending Action  28.31
      • 1.  Motion for Discharge and Substitution or Dismissal  28.32
        • a.  Timing of Motion  28.33
        • b.  Drafting Moving Papers  28.34
      • 2.  Cross-Complaint  28.35
      • 3.  Complaint  28.36
    • D.  Procedures When Stakeholder Is Plaintiff in Interpleader
      • 1.  Complaint in Interpleader  28.37
      • 2.  Service and Filing  28.38
  • IV.  CLAIMANTS’ PROCEDURES
    • A.  Alternative Procedures for Opposing Interpleader  28.39
    • B.  Effect of Failure to Object to Discharge of Stakeholder  28.40
  • V.  JOINED DEFENDANTS’ PROCEDURES  28.41
  • VI.  TRIAL
    • A.  First Stage  28.42
    • B.  Second Stage
      • 1.  Right to Jury Trial  28.43
      • 2.  Trial Between Conflicting Claimants; Final Judgment  28.44
  • VII.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Notice of Motion for Discharge and Substitution or Dismissal  28.45
    • B.  Form: Declaration Supporting Motion for Discharge and Substitution or Dismissal  28.46
    • C.  Form: Order Discharging Defendant and Substituting Claimant as Defendant  28.47
    • D.  Form: Complaint in Interpleader  28.48
    • E.  Form: Interlocutory Order in Interpleader by Cross-Complaint  28.49
    • F.  Form: Final Judgment in Interpleader  28.50

29

Security for Costs

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  29.1
    • B.  Governing Law  29.2
  • II.  DESCRIPTION AND USE
    • A.  Rationale; Definitions  29.3
      • 1.  Failure to Post Security: Grounds for Mandatory Dismissal  29.4
      • 2.  Order Requiring Security: No Effect on Merits of Case  29.5
      • 3.  Plaintiff’s Indigency: Court’s Discretion to Waive Security  29.6
      • 4.  Demand for Judgment (CCP §998) Compared With Security for Costs Statutes  29.7
    • B.  Constitutionality
      • 1.  Due Process Requirements  29.8
      • 2.  California Security for Costs Statutes Repealed
        • a.  Public Entities and Employees  29.9
        • b.  Defamation and Other Actions  29.10
    • C.  Chart: California Actions That May Require Security  29.11
  • III.  NONRESIDENT OR FOREIGN CORPORATION PLAINTIFFS
    • A.  Scope of Statute  29.12
    • B.  Constitutionality  29.13
    • C.  Defendant’s Procedures
      • 1.  Motion for Security
        • a.  Grounds; Papers  29.14
        • b.  Timing: Any Time Before Trial  29.15
        • c.  Amount: Costs and Attorney Fees Not Limited by Statute  29.16
        • d.  Service  29.17
      • 2.  Motion to Stay Proceedings; Timing  29.18
    • D.  Plaintiff’s Procedures
      • 1.  Opposition to Motion; Grounds  29.19
      • 2.  Posting Security
        • a.  Amount May Be Modified During Proceedings  29.20
        • b.  Timing: Undertaking Must Be Filed No Later Than 30 Days After Service of Court’s Order  29.21
        • c.  Filing Undertaking; Service  29.22
      • 3.  Failure to Post Security; Effect of Dismissal of Action  29.23
    • E.  Defendant’s Subsequent Procedures
      • 1.  Motion for Additional Security  29.24
      • 2.  Motion to Dismiss for Failure to File Undertaking; Sample Language  29.25
  • IV.  SHAREHOLDER DERIVATIVE ACTIONS
    • A.  Scope of Statute  29.26
    • B.  Constitutionality  29.27
    • C.  Procedures
      • 1.  Motion to Require Security
        • a.  Who May Move: Corporation, Association, Individually Named Officer or Director  29.28
        • b.  Against Whom Motion May Be Made: Plaintiffs Pleading Derivative Causes of Action (Corp C §800(b))  29.29
        • c.  Effect of Motion: Automatically Stays Proceedings  29.30
        • d.  Motion Preserves Right to Recover Attorney Fees  29.31
        • e.  Grounds  29.32
        • f.  Timing: Motion for Security Must Be Made Within 30 Days After Service of Summons  29.33
      • 2.  Hearing
        • a.  Burden of Proof on Defendant to Show Grounds  29.34
        • b.  Defendant’s “Business Judgment” Argument  29.35
        • c.  Plaintiff’s Responses to “Business Judgment” Argument  29.36
        • d.  Presentation of Evidence on Appropriate Amount of Security
          • (1)  Expenses to Be Considered; $50,000 Limit  29.37
          • (2)  Expenses Arising From Indemnification of Corporation’s Agents (Corp C §317)  29.38
      • 3.  Court Ruling
        • a.  Decision Is Discretionary  29.39
        • b.  Effect of Noncompliance With Order: Mandatory Dismissal  29.40
        • c.  Alternative to Compliance With Order: Voluntarily Posting $50,000 Bond  29.41
        • d.  Modification of Order  29.42
        • e.  Appealability  29.43
  • V.  ACTIONS AGAINST ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS
    • A.  Scope of Statute  29.44
    • B.  Procedures
      • 1.  Noticed Motion; Showing Required  29.45
      • 2.  Hearing  29.46
    • C.  Failure to File Undertaking: Mandatory Dismissal  29.47
    • D.  Effect of Final Judgment or Dismissal; Costs  29.48
  • VI.  ACTIONS AGAINST DOCTORS AND OTHER MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS
    • A.  Scope of Statute  29.49
    • B.  Constitutionality  29.50
    • C.  Procedures
      • 1.  Noticed Motion; Timing  29.51
      • 2.  Hearing; Showing Required  29.52
      • 3.  Maximum Amount; No Effect on Merits  29.53
    • D.  Mandatory Dismissal If Security Not Posted; Costs  29.54
  • VII.  VEXATIOUS LITIGANTS
    • A.  Scope of Statute; Rationale  29.55
    • B.  Constitutionality  29.56
    • C.  Procedures
      • 1.  Noticed Motion; Timing  29.57
      • 2.  Proceedings Automatically Stayed  29.58
      • 3.  Grounds; Hearing  29.59
      • 4.  Court Ruling; Amount of Security  29.60
      • 5.  Lifting of Prefiling Order  29.60A
    • D.  Failure to Furnish Security: Mandatory Dismissal  29.61
  • VIII.  CHECKLIST: PROCEDURE FOR MOTION FOR SECURITY FOR COSTS  29.62
  • IX.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Notice of Motion for Order Requiring Security  29.63
    • B.  Form: Undertaking (CCP §995.330)  29.64
    • C.  Motion for Security for Costs and Attorney Fees Under CCP §1030
      • 1.  Form: Notice of Motion for Security for Costs and Attorney Fees (CCP §1030)  29.65
      • 2.  Form: Declaration Supporting Motion for Order Requiring Security (CCP §1030)  29.66

30

Bill of Particulars

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  30.1
    • B.  Governing Law  30.2
  • II.  DESCRIPTION AND USES  30.3
    • A.  Advantages; Limitations
      • 1.  Right to Itemization of Total Sum Alleged  30.4
      • 2.  Applies to Contract and Quasi-Contract Actions Only  30.5
      • 3.  Using Bill for Discovery Purposes  30.6
    • B.  Other Procedures Compared
      • 1.  Demurrer for Uncertainty  30.7
      • 2.  Discovery Methods  30.8
    • C.  When Available
      • 1.  Actions on Account; Examples  30.9
      • 2.  Actions on Account Stated; Compared  30.10
    • D.  Effect on Pleading and Proof
      • 1.  Amplifies Pleading  30.11
      • 2.  Limits Evidence and Recovery  30.12
      • 3.  Bill and Evidence Distinguished  30.13
  • III.  PROCEDURES
    • A.  Defendant’s Demand
      • 1.  Who May Make Demand  30.14
      • 2.  Statutory Requirements; Timing  30.15
      • 3.  Service; Not Filed With Court  30.16
      • 4.  Effect on Time to Respond to Complaint  30.17
    • B.  Plaintiff’s Response
      • 1.  Contents of Bill; Detail Required  30.18
      • 2.  Timing; Service  30.19
  • IV.  ENFORCING DEMAND AND PRECLUDING EVIDENCE
    • A.  Motion for Further Bill
      • 1.  Waiver of Defects When Motion Not Made  30.20
      • 2.  Timing  30.21
      • 3.  Procedure  30.22
      • 4.  Plaintiff’s Failure to Comply With Order for Further Bill  30.23
    • B.  Motion to Preclude Evidence
      • 1.  Statutory Penalty  30.24
      • 2.  Timing  30.25
      • 3.  Procedures  30.26
      • 4.  When Motion Granted; Effect  30.27
      • 5.  If Motion Denied  30.28
  • V.  RELIEF FROM NONCOMPLIANCE
    • A.  Amending Erroneous or Incomplete Bill  30.29
    • B.  Bill Delivered Late  30.30
    • C.  Motion Under CCP §473  30.31
  • VI.  CHECKLIST: DIAGNOSTIC QUESTIONS  30.32
  • VII.  CHECKLIST: PROCEDURE FOR DEMAND FOR BILL OF PARTICULARS (CCP §454)  30.33
  • VIII.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Demand for Bill of Particulars  30.34
    • B.  Form: Bill of Particulars (Book or Ledger Account)  30.35
    • C.  Form: Bill of Particulars (Common Counts)  30.36
    • D.  Form: Letter Demanding Further Bill of Particulars  30.37
    • E.  Motion for Further Bill of Particulars
      • 1.  Form: Notice of Motion for Further Bill of Particulars  30.38
      • 2.  Form: Declaration Supporting Motion for Further Bill of Particulars  30.39
      • 3.  Form: Order for Further Bill of Particulars  30.40
    • F.  Form: Letter Demanding Bill of Particulars After Party’s Failure to Deliver  30.41
    • G.  Motion to Preclude Evidence
      • 1.  Form: Notice of Motion to Preclude Introduction of Evidence at Trial  30.42
      • 2.  Form: Declaration Supporting Motion to Preclude Introduction of Evidence at Trial  30.43
      • 3.  Form: Order Precluding Introduction of Evidence at Trial  30.44

31

Intervention

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  31.1
    • B.  Governing Law  31.2
  • II.  NATURE OF INTERVENTION
    • A.  Description of Intervention; General Statute (CCP §387)  31.3
    • B.  Discretionary Intervention  31.4
    • C.  Mandatory Intervention
      • 1.  Description  31.5
      • 2.  Statutes That Grant Unconditional Right to Intervene  31.6
    • D.  Related Procedures Similar to Intervention
      • 1.  Indispensable Party’s Application for Joinder (CCP §389)
        • a.  Requirements for Joinder Under CCP §389  31.7
        • b.  Comparison of CCP §389 and CCP §387  31.8
        • c.  Effect on Case If Indispensable Person Cannot Be Made a Party  31.9
      • 2.  Application for Joinder by Person Claiming Interest in Real or Personal Property (CCP §389.5)  31.10
      • 3.  Judgment Creditor’s Lien on Cause of Action and Judgment  31.11
      • 4.  Third Party Claim Against Levied-on Property  31.12
      • 5.  Petitioning for Coordination of Actions Sharing Common Question  31.13
      • 6.  Applying to Appear as Amicus Curiae  31.14
    • E.  Examples of Persons Permitted to Intervene
      • 1.  Real Parties in Interest  31.15
      • 2.  Successors in Interest  31.16
      • 3.  Insurers and Sureties  31.17
      • 4.  Judgment Creditors  31.18
      • 5.  Owners of Property Levied on  31.19
      • 6.  Limited Partners  31.20
      • 7.  Husband or Wife  31.21
      • 8.  Claimant to Property in Marital Dissolution  31.22
      • 9.  Person Claiming Interest in Real Property
        • a.  Foreclosure  31.23
        • b.  Quiet Title  31.24
        • c.  Action for Possession  31.25
        • d.  Condemnation  31.26
        • e.  Action to Impress a Trust  31.27
      • 10.  Will Contests and Heirship Proceedings  31.28
      • 11.  Adjoining Property Owners: Zoning and Trespass Actions  31.29
      • 12.  Voters  31.30
    • F.  Examples of Persons Denied Permission to Intervene
      • 1.  Shareholders  31.31
      • 2.  Attorneys  31.32
      • 3.  Taxpayers; Persons Interested in Legal Precedent  31.33
      • 4.  Adjoining Property Owners: Actions Other Than Zoning  31.34
      • 5.  General Creditors  31.35
      • 6.  Owners of Property Used as Evidence  31.36
  • III.  APPLYING FOR AND OPPOSING INTERVENTION
    • A.  Applying for Leave to Intervene
      • 1.  Timing  31.37
        • a.  Motions to Set Aside Default and to Set Aside Judgment Under CCP §473  31.38
        • b.  No Intervention After Action Dismissed  31.39
        • c.  Intervention Before New Trial or Retrial  31.40
        • d.  Effect of Intervenor’s Delay After Learning of Action  31.41
        • e.  Statute of Limitations  31.42
      • 2.  Application: Ex Parte or Noticed Motion
        • a.  Ex Parte Application  31.43
        • b.  Noticed Motion  31.44
      • 3.  Meeting Intervenor’s Burden of Proof  31.45
    • B.  Opposing Leave to Intervene
      • 1.  Procedure for Presenting Opposition  31.46
      • 2.  Grounds for Opposition  31.47
      • 3.  Waiver of Objections  31.48
    • C.  Appellate Review
      • 1.  When Leave to Intervene Denied  31.49
      • 2.  When Leave to Intervene Granted  31.50
  • IV.  PROCEDURES ONCE INTERVENTION GRANTED
    • A.  Complaint or Answer in Intervention
      • 1.  Requirements  31.51
      • 2.  Service  31.52
      • 3.  Intervenor’s Rights and Remedies  31.53
    • B.  Responses to Complaint in Intervention; Timing  31.54
    • C.  Cross-Complaint Against Intervenor  31.55
    • D.  Dismissal of Action After Intervention
      • 1.  By Original Plaintiff  31.56
      • 2.  By Intervenor  31.57
  • V.  CHECKLIST: DIAGNOSTIC QUESTIONS  31.58
  • VI.  CHECKLIST: PROCEDURE FOR INTERVENTION  31.59
  • VII.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Declaration for Order Granting Leave to Intervene  31.60
    • B.  Form: Order Granting Leave to Intervene (Ex Parte)  31.61
    • C.  Form: Declaration for Order to Show Cause re Intervention  31.62
    • D.  Form: Order to Show Cause Why Leave to Intervene Should Not Be Granted  31.63
    • E.  Form: Notice of Motion for Leave to Intervene  31.64
    • F.  Form: Order Granting Leave to Intervene (After Hearing)  31.65
    • G.  Form: Complaint in Intervention  31.66

32

Injunctions and Other Provisional Remedies

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  32.1
    • B.  Governing Law  32.2
  • II.  NATURE OF INDIVIDUAL PROVISIONAL REMEDIES
    • A.  Characteristics of Provisional Remedies  32.3
    • B.  Injunction  32.4
    • C.  Attachment  32.5
    • D.  Claim and Delivery  32.6
    • E.  Receivership  32.7
    • F.  Deposit in Court  32.8
    • G.  Related Procedures
      • 1.  Interpleader  32.9
      • 2.  Declaratory Relief  32.10
  • III.  INJUNCTIONS GENERALLY
    • A.  Purpose of Injunction  32.11
    • B.  Types of Injunctions  32.12
      • 1.  Mandatory Injunction
        • a.  Changes Relative Position of Parties  32.13
        • b.  Rarely Issued  32.14
        • c.  Look For Effect, Not Form, of Order  32.15
      • 2.  Prohibitory Injunction
        • a.  Prohibits Party From Engaging in Certain Acts  32.16
        • b.  Preserves Status Quo  32.17
        • c.  Minor Mandatory Characteristics Not Important  32.18
    • C.  Prerequisites to Injunctive Relief
      • 1.  Jurisdiction
        • a.  Subject Matter Jurisdiction  32.19
        • b.  Personal Jurisdiction  32.20
      • 2.  Standing
        • a.  General Rules on Standing  32.21
        • b.  Class Actions  32.22
        • c.  Specific Statute  32.23
      • 3.  Venue  32.24
      • 4.  Statutory Requirements  32.25
        • a.  Provisional Injunctions  32.26
        • b.  Permanent Injunctions  32.27
        • c.  Specific Statutes Authorizing Injunctive Relief  32.28
      • 5.  Equitable Considerations  32.29
        • a.  Inadequacy of Legal Remedy  32.30
        • b.  Threat of Irreparable Injury  32.31
        • c.  Likelihood of Success on Merits  32.32
        • d.  Balance of Equities
          • (1)  Court Balances Two Factors  32.33
          • (2)  Federal Law on Balancing Equities  32.34
        • e.  Multiplicity of Judicial Actions  32.35
        • f.  Public Interest and Balance of Conveniences in Favor of Moving Party  32.36
        • g.  Injunctive Relief Sought by Government Entity Under Statute  32.37
  • IV.  APPLICATION FOR ORDER TO SHOW CAUSE AND TEMPORARY RESTRAINING ORDER
    • A.  When Appropriate  32.38
    • B.  Moving Party’s Procedures
      • 1.  By Complaint or by Verified Affidavit or Declaration  32.39
      • 2.  Special Requirements for Ex Parte Relief  32.40
      • 3.  Verification  32.41
      • 4.  Affidavits or Declarations
        • a.  Which to Use  32.42
        • b.  Contents
          • (1)  Showing Required  32.43
          • (2)  Ex Parte Relief  32.44
          • (3)  Attachments  32.45
          • (4)  Statement of Prior Application  32.46
      • 5.  Supporting Memorandum  32.47
      • 6.  Form of Temporary Restraining Order and Order to Show Cause  32.48
      • 7.  Filing Complaint  32.49
      • 8.  Notice  32.50
        • a.  Declaration Regarding Notice  32.51
        • b.  Time of Notice  32.52
        • c.  Contents of Notice  32.53
        • d.  Effect on Filing of Failure to Comply With Time of Notice Requirement  32.54
        • e.  Failure to Notify Adverse Party in First Amendment Cases  32.55
      • 9.  Presenting the Application  32.56
      • 10.  Setting Hearing Date  32.57
      • 11.  Bond or Undertaking  32.58
      • 12.  Service of TRO and OSC  32.59
    • C.  Responding Party’s Procedures
      • 1.  Before Order Issues; Procedures  32.60
      • 2.  After Temporary Restraining Order Issues; Alternatives  32.61
    • D.  Checklist: Temporary Restraining Order (TRO)  32.62
  • V.  MOTION FOR PRELIMINARY INJUNCTION
    • A.  When Appropriate  32.63
    • B.  Moving Party’s Procedures
      • 1.  Notice of Motion or Order to Show Cause  32.64
      • 2.  Complaint, Declarations, Supporting Memorandum, Order, Undertaking  32.65
      • 3.  Filing and Service
        • a.  Order to Show Cause  32.66
        • b.  Notice of Motion  32.67
      • 4.  Preparing for Hearing  32.68
    • C.  Responding Party’s Procedures
      • 1.  Papers to Prepare  32.69
        • a.  Motion to Disqualify Judge  32.70
        • b.  Demurrer  32.71
        • c.  Answer
          • (1)  When to File  32.72
          • (2)  Verification  32.73
        • d.  Affidavits or Declarations  32.74
        • e.  Memorandum  32.75
      • 2.  Filing and Service  32.76
      • 3.  Evidentiary Objections; Motions to Strike  32.77
    • D.  Hearing on Preliminary Injunction
      • 1.  Request for Continuance
        • a.  By Applicant  32.78
        • b.  By Respondent  32.79
        • c.  By Stipulation  32.80
        • d.  On Court’s Own Motion  32.81
      • 2.  Procedures at Hearing
        • a.  Ruling on Demurrer  32.82
        • b.  Initial Receipt of Evidence  32.83
        • c.  Plaintiff’s Oral Argument  32.84
        • d.  Defendant’s Procedures  32.85
        • e.  Argument on Undertaking  32.86
        • f.  Restrictions on Oral Testimony  32.87
      • 3.  Court’s Ruling  32.88
      • 4.  Court’s Order of Injunction
        • a.  Prepared by Moving Party’s Attorney  32.89
        • b.  Filing and Service  32.90
        • c.  Persons Bound  32.91
    • E.  Responding Party’s Alternatives When Preliminary Injunction Issues  32.92
    • F.  Checklist: Diagnostic Questions  32.93
    • G.  Checklist: Preliminary Injunction  32.94
  • VI.  UNDERTAKING (OR BOND)
    • A.  Purpose and Requirements  32.95
      • 1.  Exceptions  32.96
      • 2.  Jurisdictional Nature of Undertaking  32.97
      • 3.  Summary of Bond and Undertaking Law  32.98
      • 4.  Amount of Undertaking  32.99
      • 5.  When Bond Becomes Effective  32.100
    • B.  Filing and Service  32.101
    • C.  Challenging Sufficiency of Sureties
      • 1.  Notice of Motion  32.102
      • 2.  Grounds  32.103
      • 3.  Waiver  32.104
      • 4.  Hearing  32.105
      • 5.  Effect of Court’s Ruling  32.106
    • D.  Recovery on Undertaking
      • 1.  When Right of Recovery Arises  32.107
      • 2.  Procedures
        • a.  Use of Independent Action or Summary Procedure  32.108
        • b.  Motion After Judgment  32.109
        • c.  Pleading and Proof  32.110
        • d.  Measure of Damages  32.111
  • VII.  PERMANENT INJUNCTION AFTER TRIAL ON MERITS  32.112
  • VIII.  DEFENSES TO INJUNCTIVE RELIEF
    • A.  Jurisdictional Limitations  32.113
      • 1.  Constitutional Limitations  32.114
      • 2.  Statutory Limitations  32.115
      • 3.  Judicial Restraint Limitation  32.116
    • B.  Equitable Defenses
      • 1.  Laches  32.117
      • 2.  Unclean Hands  32.118
      • 3.  Repetition Unlikely  32.119
      • 4.  Contrary to Public Interest or Statute  32.120
      • 5.  Balance of Conveniences in Favor of Responding Party  32.121
  • IX.  ENFORCEMENT BY CONTEMPT
    • A.  What Constitutes Contempt  32.122
    • B.  Initiating Proceedings  32.123
    • C.  Enjoined Party’s Response; Defenses  32.124
    • D.  Hearing  32.125
    • E.  Punishment  32.126
  • X.  REVIEW OF ORDERS
    • A.  In Trial Court
      • 1.  Motion to Modify, Vacate, or Dissolve Injunctive Order
        • a.  Who May Move  32.127
        • b.  When Available  32.128
        • c.  Procedures  32.129
      • 2.  Staying or Issuing Injunction Pending Appeal  32.130
    • B.  In Appellate Courts
      • 1.  By Appeal  32.131
        • a.  Stay Pending Appeal  32.132
        • b.  Standard of Review  32.133
      • 2.  By Writ  32.134
  • XI.  INJUNCTIONS AND ORDERS AGAINST HARASSMENT UNDER CCP §527.6
    • A.  When Available  32.135
      • 1.  Examples  32.136
      • 2.  Purpose  32.137
      • 3.  Normal Injunctive Procedures Contrasted  32.138
    • B.  Procedure
      • 1.  Temporary Restraining Order  32.139
      • 2.  Hearing on Petition; Duration of Order; Renewal of Order  32.140
      • 3.  Representation by Counsel  32.141
      • 4.  Use of Support Person  32.142
      • 5.  Service and Delivery to Law Enforcement Agencies
        • a.  Service on Defendant
          • (1)  Service of Petition, Temporary Restraining Order, and Notice of Hearing   32.142A
          • (2)  Service of Order After Hearing  32.142B
        • b.  Delivery to Law Enforcement Agencies  32.143
        • c.  Notification of Department of Justice  32.144
      • 6.  Possession of Firearm by Person Subject to Order  32.145
    • C.  Protected Person’s Production of Certified Copy of Order  32.146
    • D.  Fees and Costs
      • 1.  Costs and Attorney Fees  32.147
      • 2.  Filing Fees  32.148
      • 3.  Service Fees  32.149
    • E.  Disobedience of Order  32.150
    • F.  Judicial Council Forms  32.151
  • XII.  FORMS
    • A.  Injunctive Relief
      • 1.  Form: Complaint for Injunctive Relief  32.152
      • 2.  Form: Declaration Supporting Temporary Restraining Order and Preliminary Injunction  32.153
      • 3.  Form: Order to Show Cause and Temporary Restraining Order  32.154
      • 4.  Form: Notice of Motion for Preliminary Injunction  32.155
      • 5.  Form: Preliminary Injunction and Order for Undertaking  32.156
      • 6.  Form: Order Denying Preliminary Injunction  32.157
      • 7.  Form: Undertaking by Surety on Preliminary Injunction  32.158
      • 8.  Form: Declaration of Personal Surety’s Qualifications  32.159
    • B.  Injunctions Against Harassment Under CCP §527.6
      • 1.  Form: Request for Civil Harassment Restraining Orders (Civil Harassment Prevention) (Judicial Council Form CH-100)   32.160
      • 2.  Form: Confidential CLETS Information (Judicial Council Form CLETS-001)  32.161
      • 3.  Form: Notice of Court Hearing (Civil Harassment Prevention) (Judicial Council Form CH-109)  32.162
      • 4.  Form: Temporary Restraining Order (CLETS-TCH) (Civil Harassment Prevention) (Judicial Council Form CH-110)   32.163
      • 5.  Form: Response to Request for Civil Harassment Restraining Orders (Civil Harassment Prevention) (Judicial Council Form CH-120)   32.164
      • 6.  Form: Proof of Personal Service (Civil Harassment Prevention) (Judicial Council Form CH-200)  32.165
      • 7.  Form: Proof of Service of Response by Mail (Civil Harassment Prevention) (Judicial Council Form CH-250)   32.166
      • 8.  Form: Civil Harassment Restraining Order After Hearing (CLETS-CHO) (Civil Harassment Prevention) (Judicial Council Form CH-130)   32.167
      • 9.  Form: Request to Continue Court Hearing(Civil Harassment Prevention) (Judicial Council Form CH-115)   32.168
      • 10.  Form: Can a Civil Harassment Restraining Order Help Me? (Civil Harassment Prevention) (Judicial Council Form CH-100-INFO)  32.169

33

Receivership

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  33.1
    • B.  Governing Law  33.2
  • II.  DECIDING TO SEEK RECEIVERSHIP
    • A.  Understanding Nature of Receivership
      • 1.  The Remedy  33.3
      • 2.  The Job Description  33.4
    • B.  Availability of Alternatives  33.5
    • C.  Cost Factors  33.6
    • D.  Effect of Court Applying Equity Principles  33.7
  • III.  JURISDICTION TO APPOINT RECEIVER
    • A.  In General  33.8
    • B.  In Limited Civil Cases  33.9
  • IV.  ACTIONS IN WHICH PRETRIAL RECEIVERSHIPS AUTHORIZED
    • A.  Actions to Prevent Loss of Specific Property or Funds
      • 1.  Statutory Authority  33.10
      • 2.  Showing Required  33.11
      • 3.  Illustrative Cases
        • a.  Vendor  33.12
        • b.  Creditor  33.13
        • c.  Partner  33.14
    • B.  Actions to Foreclose Mortgages
      • 1.  Statutory Authority  33.15
      • 2.  Showing Required  33.16
      • 3.  Illustrative Cases
        • a.  Commercial Property  33.17
        • b.  Residential Property  33.18
    • C.  Actions Involving Corporations
      • 1.  Statutory Authority  33.19
      • 2.  Illustrative Cases
        • a.  Insolvency Proceedings  33.20
        • b.  Fraud or Mismanagement  33.21
        • c.  Attorney General’s Action Against Nonprofit Corporation  33.22
        • d.  Corporate Dissolution Proceedings  33.23
    • D.  Unlawful Detainer Actions
      • 1.  Statutory Authority  33.24
      • 2.  Illustrative Cases
        • a.  Landlord  33.25
        • b.  Purchaser  33.26
    • E.  Actions Involving Public Utilities Commission  33.27
    • F.  When Necessary to Preserve Property or Rights and Miscellaneous Other Actions
      • 1.  Statutory Authority; Judicial Limitation  33.28
      • 2.  Illustrative Cases
        • a.  Actions for Partition  33.29
        • b.  Family Law Cases  33.30
        • c.  Escheat Proceedings  33.31
    • G.  Actions Under Health & S C §129173  33.32
    • H.  Action for Assignment of Rents  33.33
  • V.  PROCEDURES FOR APPOINTMENT OF RECEIVER
    • A.  Significance of California Rules of Court  33.34
    • B.  Evidentiary Showing Required in All Cases  33.35
    • C.  Noticed Motion for Appointment of Receiver
      • 1.  Preferred Procedure  33.36
      • 2.  Who May Apply  33.37
      • 3.  Court’s Own Motion  33.38
      • 4.  Hearing on Noticed Motion  33.39
    • D.  Order to Show Cause  33.40
    • E.  Ex Parte Application  33.41
      • 1.  Application Outside Business Hours  33.42
      • 2.  Showing Required  33.43
      • 3.  Notice of Ex Parte Application  33.44
      • 4.  Hearing to Confirm Appointment; Timing  33.45
    • F.  Supporting Papers  33.46
    • G.  Order Appointing Receiver  33.47
    • H.  Required Undertakings
      • 1.  By Applicant  33.48
      • 2.  By Receiver  33.49
    • I.  Receiver’s Oath  33.50
    • J.  Selecting the Receiver  33.51
      • 1.  Persons Not Eligible  33.52
      • 2.  Court-Approved Lists of Receivers  33.53
      • 3.  Undertaking, Oath, and Order  33.54
    • K.  Review If Appointment Denied  33.55
  • VI.  PROCEDURES OPPOSING OR CHALLENGING APPOINTMENT
    • A.  Opposition to Appointment of Receiver  33.56
    • B.  Review After Appointment Ordered
      • 1.  Appealable Order  33.57
      • 2.  Standard of Review  33.58
    • C.  Motion to Vacate Appointment  33.59
    • D.  Collateral Attack on Appointment of Receiver  33.60
  • VII.  ADMINISTRATION OF RECEIVERSHIP
    • A.  Receiver’s Powers and Duties  33.61
      • 1.  General Powers Under Court Supervision  33.62
      • 2.  Deposit of Securities  33.63
      • 3.  Sale of Property  33.64
      • 4.  Investment of Funds  33.65
      • 5.  Employment of Counsel and Other Experts  33.66
      • 6.  Abandonment of Worthless Property  33.67
    • B.  Other Duties
      • 1.  Notices  33.68
      • 2.  Inventory; Accounts; Real Property Taxes  33.69
    • C.  Other Receivership Matters  33.70
  • VIII.  TERMINATION OF RECEIVERSHIP
    • A.  Receiver’s Accounts  33.71
    • B.  Receiver’s and Attorney’s Compensation  33.72
    • C.  Discharge of Receiver  33.73
  • IX.  RECEIVER’S CHECKLIST  33.74
  • X.  FORMS
    • A.  Motion Forms
      • 1.  Form: Notice of Motion for Order Appointing Receiver  33.75
      • 2.  Form: Order Appointing Receiver  33.76
    • B.  Ex Parte Forms
      • 1.  Form: Application for Ex Parte Order Appointing Receiver and for Order to Show Cause re Confirmation of Appointment  33.77
      • 2.  Form: Order Appointing Receiver and Order to Show Cause Why Ex Parte Appointment Should Not Be Confirmed; Temporary Restraining Order  33.78
      • 3.  Form: Order Confirming Ex Parte Appointment of Receiver  33.79
    • C.  Miscellaneous Forms
      • 1.  Form: Oath of Receiver  33.80
      • 2.  Form: Declaration of Receiver Supporting Order Authorizing Employment of Counsel  33.81
      • 3.  Form: Order Authorizing Receiver to Employ General Counsel  33.82

34

Deposit in Court

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  34.1
    • B.  Governing Law  34.2
  • II.  OVERVIEW
    • A.  Deposit in Court as Provisional Remedy  34.3
    • B.  Other Procedures Compared
      • 1.  Interpleader  34.4
      • 2.  Attachment  34.5
      • 3.  Claim and Delivery  34.6
      • 4.  Defendant’s Deposit of Previously Tendered Amount  34.7
      • 5.  Offer of Judgment Under CCP §998  34.8
  • III.  STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS; CONSTITUTIONALITY  34.9
  • IV.  PROCEDURE
    • A.  Timing  34.10
    • B.  Need for Noticed Motion  34.11
    • C.  Moving Party’s Papers  34.12
      • 1.  Notice of Motion  34.13
      • 2.  Declaration Supporting Motion  34.14
      • 3.  Exhibits  34.15
      • 4.  Supporting Memorandum  34.16
    • D.  Opposition to Motion  34.17
    • E.  Evidentiary Showing Required  34.18
    • F.  Effect of Order; Court’s Duties  34.19
    • G.  Procedure for Deposit or Delivery  34.20
    • H.  Application for Enforcement Order Under CCP §574 After Party’s Refusal to Deposit or Deliver  34.21
    • I.  Notice and Order for Obtaining Disbursement of Funds  34.22
  • V.  CHECKLIST: PROCEDURE FOR DEPOSIT IN COURT  34.23
  • VI.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Notice of Motion for Deposit in Court or Delivery of Property  34.24
    • B.  Form: Declaration Supporting Motion for Deposit in Court or Delivery of Property  34.25
    • C.  Form: Order for Deposit in Court or Delivery of Property  34.26
    • D.  Form: Declaration for CCP §574 Enforcement Order  34.27
    • E.  Form: Enforcement Order Under CCP §574  34.28

35

Declaratory Relief

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  35.1
    • B.  Governing Law: The Declaratory Judgment Act  35.2
  • II.  OVERVIEW
    • A.  Purpose of Declaratory Judgment Procedure  35.3
    • B.  Applicability of Equitable Principles  35.4
    • C.  Advantages of the Declaratory Judgment Procedure  35.5
    • D.  Other Statutory Authority Providing for Some Type of Declaratory Relief  35.6
      • 1.  Government Code  35.7
      • 2.  Other Statutes  35.8
  • III.  REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  Who May Obtain Relief
      • 1.  Standing Generally; Class Actions  35.9
      • 2.  Challenges Concerning Governmental Action: Statutes, Ordinances, Charters, Regulations  35.10
    • B.  Actual Controversy Requirement  35.11
      • 1.  No Redress for Only Past Wrongs  35.12
      • 2.  Effect When Probability of Future Controversy Exists  35.13
      • 3.  Examples of Actual Controversy  35.14
      • 4.  Examples of No Actual Controversy  35.15
  • IV.  FACTORS TO CONSIDER BEFORE SEEKING DECLARATORY RELIEF
    • A.  Effect of Other Available Remedies
      • 1.  Remedies Cumulative  35.16
      • 2.  Availability of Another Remedy May Preclude Relief  35.17
      • 3.  Exclusivity of Certain Other Remedies or Forums  35.18
    • B.  What Limitation Period Applies  35.19
    • C.  Applicability of Doctrine of Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies  35.20
    • D.  Judicial Discretion to Deny Relief
      • 1.  When Not Necessary or Proper  35.21
      • 2.  Whether Court Must Declare Rights If Facts Alleged Do Not Entitle Plaintiff to Favorable Declaration  35.22
  • V.  TYPICAL USES
    • A.  Oral or Written Contracts
      • 1.  In General  35.23
      • 2.  Insurance Contracts  35.24
        • a.  Liability Insurance (Third Party)  35.25
        • b.  First-Party Coverage  35.26
    • B.  Other Instruments  35.27
    • C.  Other Uses Under CCP §1060 and Govt C §§11350, 11350.3  35.28
    • D.  Penal Statutes  35.29
  • VI.  PROCEDURE
    • A.  Commencing Action
      • 1.  Determining Proper Court
        • a.  Jurisdiction  35.30
        • b.  Venue  35.31
      • 2.  Determining Appropriate Parties  35.32
      • 3.  Drafting Complaint
        • a.  Allegations  35.33
        • b.  Joinder of Causes of Action  35.34
    • B.  Filing Response
      • 1.  Responsive Pleadings
        • a.  Demurrer  35.35
          • (1)  In General  35.36
          • (2)  Another Action Pending  35.37
        • b.  Answer  35.38
        • c.  Cross-Complaint  35.39
      • 2.  Motions
        • a.  Judgment on the Pleadings  35.40
        • b.  Summary Judgment  35.41
        • c.  Other Motions; Bifurcation  35.42
    • C.  Particular Trial Aspects
      • 1.  Precedence on Calendar  35.43
      • 2.  Right to Jury Trial  35.44
      • 3.  Burden of Proof  35.45
      • 4.  Statement of Decision  35.46
      • 5.  Declaratory Judgment
        • a.  Trial Court’s Duty to Render Full and Complete Declaration  35.47
        • b.  Judgment; Effect  35.48
    • D.  Appellate Review  35.49
  • VII.  CHECKLIST: PROCEDURE FOR DECLARATORY RELIEF  35.50
  • VIII.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Complaint for Declaratory Relief on Contract  35.51
    • B.  Form: Complaint for Declaratory Relief on Statute or Ordinance  35.52
    • C.  Form: Judgment for Declaratory Relief  35.53

36

Summary Judgment

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  36.1
  • II.  AVAILABILITY OF SUMMARY JUDGMENT OR SUMMARY ADJUDICATION
    • A.  Law Governing Motions for Summary Judgment or Summary Adjudication  36.2
    • B.  When Summary Judgment or Summary Adjudication Is Available
      • 1.  When There Is No Triable Issue of Material Fact  36.3
      • 2.  Available in Any Form of Action  36.4
    • C.  When Summary Judgment and Summary Adjudication Are Not Available  36.5
    • D.  Summary Judgment Versus Summary Adjudication  36.6
    • E.  Comparison Of California and Federal Law on Motions for Summary Judgment  36.7
    • F.  Alternate Methods for Narrowing Issues
      • 1.  Alternatives to Motions for Summary Judgment or Summary Adjudication  36.8
      • 2.  Chart: Comparison of Summary Judgment and Adjudication Motion to Alternative Dispositive Motions  36.9
  • III.  STRATEGIC CONSIDERATIONS
    • A.  Weigh Advantages and Disadvantages of Making a Motion for Summary Judgment or Summary Adjudication  36.10
      • 1.  Advantages of Making a Motion for Summary Judgment or Summary Adjudication  36.11
      • 2.  Disadvantages of Making a Motion for Summary Judgment or Summary Adjudication  36.12
    • B.  Checklist: Diagnostic Questions: Determining Whether to Make Motion  36.13
  • IV.  EVIDENTIARY BURDENS AND PRESUMPTIONS
    • A.  Principal Authority: CCP §437c and Aguilar  36.14
    • B.  Summary of Required Burdens
      • 1.  Moving Party  36.15
      • 2.  Opposing Party  36.16
    • C.  Applicable Burdens in Summary Judgment Motions  36.17
      • 1.  Burden of Production  36.18
        • a.  Initial Burden; Prima Facie Showing  36.19
        • b.  Shifting Burden; Triable Issue of Fact  36.20
      • 2.  Burden of Persuasion  36.21
      • 3.  Burden of Proof  36.22
        • a.  How Trial Burden of Proof Standard Affects Motion  36.23
        • b.  Effect of Trial Standard of Proof on Prima Facie Case  36.24
        • c.  How Trial Court Reviews Evidence  36.25
  • V.  TIMING REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  Motion for Summary Adjudication Under CCP §437c(t)  36.25A
      • 1.  Joint Stipulation and Application For Court Permission Required  36.25B
      • 2.  Objection by Nonstipulating Parties  36.25C
      • 3.  Court’s Ruling on Application  36.25D
    • B.  Moving Papers
      • 1.  Earliest Date to Move for Summary Judgment or Summary Adjudication
        • a.  60 Days After General Appearance  36.26
        • b.  Exception: Unlawful Detainer  36.27
        • c.  Judicial Attitude Regarding Early Motions  36.28
      • 2.  Latest Date to Make Motion Is 30 Days Before Trial Date  36.29
      • 3.  Notice Required: 75 Days  36.30
        • a.  Manner of Service Extends Required Notice  36.31
        • b.  Notice Must Be Accompanied by All Supporting Papers  36.32
        • c.  Good Cause Required for Late Motion  36.33
      • 4.  Time for Filing Motion for Summary Judgment or Summary Adjudication in Court
        • a.  When to File  36.34
        • b.  What to File  36.35
    • C.  Opposition Papers
      • 1.  File and Serve Opposition Papers 14 Days Before Hearing  36.36
      • 2.  No Extension if Service by Mail  36.37
    • D.  Reply Papers
      • 1.  File and Serve Reply Papers 5 Days Before Hearing  36.38
      • 2.  No Extension if Service by Mail  36.39
    • E.  Filing Cross-Motion for Summary Judgment or Summary Adjudication
      • 1.  When Appropriate to File Cross-Motions  36.40
      • 2.  Timing of Cross-Motions  36.41
      • 3.  Checklist: Cross-Motions  36.42
    • F.  Requesting a Continuance  36.43
      • 1.  Continuance to Amend Pleadings
        • a.  Timing of Motion to Amend Pleadings  36.44
        • b.  Oral Motion to Continue Hearing  36.45
        • c.  Oral Motion to Amend Pleadings  36.46
        • d.  Diligence Required  36.47
      • 2.  Continuance to Conduct Further Discovery
        • a.  Grounds for Continuance  36.48
        • b.  Declaration Supporting Continuance for Further Discovery  36.49
        • c.  Diligence Required
          • (1)  Party Seeking Continuance Must Establish It Could Not Have Found Evidence Earlier  36.50
          • (2)  Court Has Limited Discretion to Grant Continuance in Absence of Diligence  36.51
  • VI.  REQUIRED DOCUMENTS
    • A.  Moving Papers  36.52
      • 1.  Special Requirements for Motion for Summary Adjudication Under CCP §437c(t)  36.52A
      • 2.  Notice of Motion
        • a.  Contents of Notice  36.53
          • (1)  When Seeking Summary Adjudication Under CCP §437c(f)  36.54
          • (2)  When Seeking Summary Adjudication Under CCP §437c(t)  36.54A
          • (3)  When Requesting Judicial Notice  36.55
        • b.  Format of Notice  36.56
      • 3.  Supporting Memorandum  36.57
        • a.  Contents of Supporting Memorandum  36.58
        • b.  Optional Summary of Issues and Evidence  36.59
        • c.  Other Requirements  36.60
        • d.  Memorandum Limited to 20 Pages  36.61
      • 4.  Separate Statement of Undisputed Facts
        • a.  Purpose of Separate Statement  36.62
        • b.  Effect of Failure to File Separate Statement  36.63
        • c.  Separate Statement Content Requirements  36.64
        • d.  Separate Statement Format Requirements
          • (1)  Two-Column Requirement  36.65
          • (2)  Electronic Version Requirement  36.66
      • 5.  Request for Judicial Notice  36.67
      • 6.  Evidence in Support of Motion  36.68
        • a.  Format of Evidence in Support of Motion  36.69
        • b.  Prepare Deposition as Exhibit  36.70
      • 7.  Checklist for Preparing Moving Papers  36.71
    • B.  Opposition Papers
      • 1.  Documents in Opposition to the Motion  36.72
      • 2.  Opposing Memorandum
        • a.  Contents of Opposing Memorandum  36.73
        • b.  Format for Opposing Memorandum  36.74
      • 3.  Opposing Party’s Separate Statement  36.75
        • a.  Failure of Opposing Party to Submit Separate Statement  36.76
        • b.  Contents of Separate Statement  36.77
        • c.  Format of Separate Statement  36.78
          • (1)  Two-Column Format  36.79
          • (2)  Request Electronic Copy of Moving Party’s Separate Statement  36.80
      • 4.  Objections to Moving Party’s Evidence  36.81
        • a.  Written Objections to Evidence
          • (1)  Timing for Written Objections  36.82
          • (2)  Format for Written Objections  36.83
        • b.  Waiver if No Objection Made  36.84
        • c.  Proposed Order  36.85
        • d.  Oral Objections  36.86
      • 5.  Evidence in Opposition to Motion  36.87
        • a.  Format for Opposition Evidence  36.88
        • b.  Opposition by Claiming Privilege Against Self-Incrimination  36.89
      • 6.  Proposed Order  36.90
      • 7.  Checklist: Preparing Opposition  36.91
    • C.  Reply Papers
      • 1.  Reply Memorandum
        • a.  Purpose of Reply Memorandum  36.92
        • b.  Format of Reply Memorandum  36.93
      • 2.  No Supplemental Separate Statement  36.94
      • 3.  Objections to Opposing Party’s Evidence  36.95
      • 4.  Responses to Opposing Party’s Objections to Evidence  36.96
      • 5.  No Affirmative Evidence Submitted with Reply Papers  36.97
      • 6.  Proposed Order  36.98
      • 7.  Checklist for Preparing Reply Papers  36.99
  • VII.  PREPARING EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT OR OPPOSE MOTION FOR SUMMARY JUDGMENT OR SUMMARY ADJUDICATION
    • A.  Evidence Is Required  36.100
      • 1.  Evidence Must Be Admissible  36.101
        • a.  No Ultimate Facts  36.102
        • b.  Sources of Evidence
          • (1)  Permissible Source of Evidence  36.103
          • (2)  Impermissible Sources of Evidence  36.104
      • 2.  Evidence Must Be Directed to Issues Raised by Pleadings  36.105
    • B.  Declarations and Affidavits  36.106
      • 1.  Differences Between Declarations and Affidavits  36.107
      • 2.  When to Use Declaration or Affidavit  36.108
      • 3.  When Not to Use Declaration or Affidavit
        • a.  When State of Mind Is at Issue  36.109
        • b.  When Declarant Is Sole Witness  36.110
      • 4.  Substantive Requirements for Declarations and Affidavits  36.111
        • a.  Must Be Presented in Good Faith  36.112
        • b.  Must Be Based on Personal Knowledge  36.113
        • c.  Must Establish Competence to Testify  36.114
      • 5.  Opinion Evidence
        • a.  Lay Opinion Evidence  36.115
        • b.  Expert Opinion Evidence  36.116
          • (1)  Include Statement of Expert Qualifications  36.117
          • (2)  Include Factual Basis for Opinion  36.118
          • (3)  Must Not Be Based on Speculation or Conjecture  36.119
          • (4)  Must Not Be Merely Conclusory  36.120
      • 6.  Common Defects in Affidavits and Declarations  36.121
    • C.  Evidence Obtained Through Discovery  36.122
      • 1.  Deposition Testimony  36.123
        • a.  Accompany Transcript With Authenticating Declaration  36.124
        • b.  Obtain Signed Deposition Transcript  36.125
        • c.  Use of Party’s Own Deposition Testimony  36.126
      • 2.  Interrogatories and Requests for Admission  36.127
      • 3.  Documents Produced in Response to Demands for Inspection  36.128
      • 4.  Results of Physical and Mental Examinations  36.129
    • D.  Judicial Admissions and Stipulations  36.130
      • 1.  Admissions in Pleadings  36.131
        • a.  Judicial Admissions Cannot Be Controverted  36.132
        • b.  Judicial Admissions May Be Implied  36.133
      • 2.  Stipulations of Fact  36.134
    • E.  Judicial Notice  36.135
    • F.  Laying the Foundation for Evidence  36.136
      • 1.  Authentication of Documents  36.137
      • 2.  The Secondary Evidence Rule  36.138
      • 3.  Hearsay Rule  36.139
        • a.  Exceptions to Hearsay Rule  36.140
        • b.  Exceptions Commonly Arising in Summary Judgment Context  36.141
          • (1)  Business Records Exception  36.142
          • (2)  Official Records Exception  36.143
      • 4.  Incorporation of Documents by Reference in Declaration  36.144
  • VIII.  OBJECTING TO EVIDENCE  36.145
    • A.  Raise Objections or Waive Them  36.146
      • 1.  Trial Court Rules on Material Objections  36.147
      • 2.  Obtain Express Ruling on Each Objection [Deleted]  36.148
      • 3.  Methods of Objecting  36.149
    • B.  Common Objections to Evidence  36.150
      • 1.  Attacking Form and Sufficiency of Evidence  36.151
      • 2.  Attacking Expert Qualifications  36.152
      • 3.  Attacking Expert Opinion  36.153
      • 4.  Attacking Lay Opinion  36.154
      • 5.  Attacking Speculative Evidence  36.155
      • 6.  Attacking Business and Official Records  36.156
      • 7.  Attacking Secondary Evidence  36.157
      • 8.  Attacking Moving Party’s Credibility  36.158
      • 9.  Evidence of State of Mind  36.159
  • IX.  THE HEARING AND ORAL ARGUMENT
    • A.  Hearing Requirement  36.160
    • B.  Tentative Ruling  36.161
    • C.  Oral Argument  36.162
      • 1.  Evidentiary Objections at Hearing  36.163
        • a.  Procedure for Making Oral Objections to Evidence  36.163A
      • 2.  Preserving Issues for Appeal [Deleted]
        • a.  Ask for Express Ruling on Evidentiary Objections [Deleted]  36.164
          • (1)   [Deleted/Moved]  36.165
          • (2)  [Deleted/Moved]  36.166
          • (3)  Court Rules on Only Material Objections  36.167
      • 3.  Specific Findings for Order  36.168
    • D.  Requesting Sanctions  36.169
    • E.  Checklist: Diagnostic Questions: Preparing for Hearing  36.170
  • X.  COURT DECISION
    • A.  Statutory Test  36.171
      • 1.  Court Applies Three-Step Analysis  36.172
      • 2.  When Facts Essential to Motion Exist But Cannot Be Presented  36.173
      • 3.  Supplemental Declarations and Late Papers  36.174
    • B.  Consideration of Proffered Evidence  36.175
      • 1.  Court Must Construe Evidence in Favor of Party Opposing Motion  36.176
        • a.  Exception: When Opposing Party Repudiates Earlier Admission  36.177
        • b.  When Opposing Party Adequately Explains Conflict  36.178
      • 2.  Inferences Drawn From Evidence Presented  36.179
      • 3.  Uncontroverted Evidence  36.180
        • a.  Exception: When Only Proof of Fact Is Declaration of Sole Witness  36.181
        • b.  Exception: When Fact Is Individual’s State of Mind Established by Affirmation Only  36.182
      • 4.  Court Discretion to Consider Evidence Not Presented in Moving Party’s Separate Statement  36.183
  • XI.  COURT ORDER
    • A.  Preparation and Approval of Court Order
      • 1.  Prevailing Party Usually Prepares Order  36.184
      • 2.  Timing  36.185
    • B.  Contents of Court Order
      • 1.  When Summary Judgment Motion Is Granted  36.186
      • 2.  When Summary Judgment Motion Is Denied  36.187
      • 3.  When Summary Adjudication Motion Is Granted  36.188
      • 4.  When Summary Adjudication Motion Is Denied  36.189
      • 5.  Obtaining Attorney Fees and Sanctions
        • a.  Contractual Attorney Fees  36.190
        • b.  Sanctions for Bad Faith Affidavits  36.191
  • XII.  CHALLENGING THE COURT’S ORDER  36.192
    • A.  When Motion for Summary Judgment Is Granted
      • 1.  Trial Court Options  36.193
      • 2.  Appellate Court Review
        • a.  Judgment on Motion for Summary Judgment Is Appealable  36.194
        • b.  Time to File Notice of Appeal  36.195
        • c.  Scope of Review  36.196
        • d.  Standard of Review  36.197
        • e.  Review of Evidence  36.198
          • (1)  Limited to Separate Statement  36.199
          • (2)  Waiver of Evidentiary Objections
            • (a)  Failure to Appeal Trial Court’s Ruling Sustaining Objections  36.200
            • (b)  Failure to Object to Admission in Trial Court  36.201
            • (c)  Failure to Obtain Express Ruling by Trial Court [Deleted]  36.202
            • (d)  Objections Are Preserved Even if Not Expressly Ruled On  36.203
            • (e)  Implied Overruling of Objections Not Specifically Sustained [Deleted]  36.204
        • f.  Supplemental Briefing  36.205
    • B.  When Summary Adjudication Is Granted  36.206
      • 1.  Trial Court Options  36.207
      • 2.  Appellate Court Review  36.208
    • C.  When Motion for Summary Judgment or Summary Adjudication Is Denied
      • 1.  Trial Court Options  36.209
      • 2.  Appellate Court Review  36.210
    • D.  Charts: Challenges to Granting or Denial of Motions for Summary Judgment or Summary Adjudication
      • 1.  Trial Court Procedures  36.211
      • 2.  Appellate Court Review  36.212
    • E.  Diagnostic Questions: Challenging the Ruling
      • 1.  Checklist: Opposing Party  36.213
      • 2.  Checklist: Moving Party: If Summary Judgment or Summary Adjudication Denied  36.214
  • XIII.  FORMS
    • A.  Moving Party’s Forms
      • 1.  Form: Sample Defendant’s Notice of Motion for Summary Judgment or Summary Adjudication  36.215
      • 2.  Form: Sample Defendant’s Memorandum in Support of Motion for Summary Judgment or Summary Adjudication  36.216
      • 3.  Form: Sample Declaration Supporting Defendant’s Motion for Summary Judgment or Summary Adjudication  36.217
      • 4.  Form: Sample Defendant’s Separate Statement of Undisputed Material Facts  36.218
      • 5.  Form: Sample Defendant’s Proposed Order Granting Summary Judgment  36.219
      • 6.  Form: Sample Defendant’s Proposed Order Granting Summary Adjudication  36.220
    • B.  Opposing Party’s Forms
      • 1.  Form: Sample Plaintiff’s Response to Separate Statement of Disputed and Undisputed Facts  36.221
      • 2.  Form: Sample Plaintiff’s Proposed Order Denying Summary Judgment and Summary Adjudication  36.222
    • C.  Orders and Judgments
      • 1.  Form: Order for Entry of Summary Judgment  36.223
      • 2.  Form: Judgment by Court Under CCP §437c  36.224
      • 3.  Form: Order Denying Motion for Summary Judgment  36.225
    • D.  Postjudgment Forms
      • 1.  Form: Notice of Motion for Reconsideration of Order Granting Motion for Summary Judgment  36.226
      • 2.  Form: Notice of Intention to Move for New Trial  36.227

37

Judicial Arbitration

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  37.1
    • B.  Governing Law  37.2
    • C.  Judicial Arbitration Defined  37.3
    • D.  Actions Subject to Judicial Arbitration  37.4
    • E.  Actions Not Subject to Judicial Arbitration  37.5
  • II.  PLACING ACTION ON ARBITRATION HEARING LIST  37.6
    • A.  Arbitration by Stipulation  37.7
    • B.  Plaintiff’s Election to Arbitrate
      • 1.  Use of Election  37.8
      • 2.  Motions Opposing Plaintiff’s Election to Arbitrate  37.9
    • C.  Arbitration by Court Order
      • 1.  Requirements  37.10
        • a.  Amount-in-Controversy Determination  37.11
        • b.  When Determination Is Made  37.12
        • c.  “Frivolous or Insubstantial” Equitable Relief  37.13
      • 2.  Scheduling of Arbitration Hearing  37.14
  • III.  THE ARBITRATOR
    • A.  Selection of Arbitrator
      • 1.  By Stipulation  37.15
      • 2.  By Appointment From Arbitration Panel
        • a.  Panels of Arbitrators  37.16
        • b.  Local Selection Procedures  37.17
        • c.  Selection Absent Stipulation or Local Procedures  37.18
        • d.  Procedure if Arbitrator Declines to Serve  37.19
    • B.  Rejection or Disqualification of Arbitrator
      • 1.  Rejection  37.20
      • 2.  Disqualification
        • a.  Disqualification by Arbitrator  37.21
        • b.  Disqualification by Party  37.22
    • C.  Communication With Arbitrator  37.23
  • IV.  PREHEARING PREPARATION
    • A.  Discovery  37.24
    • B.  Using Documentary Evidence
      • 1.  Admissibility  37.25
      • 2.  Requirement of Delivery Before Hearing  37.26
      • 3.  Reports, Records, and Bills
        • a.  Admission Into Evidence  37.27
        • b.  Opponent’s Procedures  37.28
      • 4.  Written Statements of Witnesses
        • a.  Admission Into Evidence  37.29
        • b.  Opponent’s Procedures  37.30
      • 5.  Depositions
        • a.  Admission Into Evidence  37.31
        • b.  Opponent’s Procedures  37.32
    • C.  Settlement  37.33
  • V.  THE HEARING
    • A.  Setting the Hearing  37.34
    • B.  Continuances  37.35
    • C.  Subpoenas  37.36
    • D.  Conduct of Hearing
      • 1.  Civil Trial Concept  37.37
      • 2.  Arbitrator Powers  37.38
      • 3.  Evidence  37.39
      • 4.  Record of Proceedings  37.40
      • 5.  Representation by Counsel  37.41
      • 6.  Absence or Nonparticipation of Party  37.42
  • VI.  THE AWARD
    • A.  Formal Aspects of Award  37.43
    • B.  Entry as Judgment  37.44
    • C.  Arbitrator Fees  37.45
  • VII.  TRIAL AFTER ARBITRATION
    • A.  Requesting Trial After Arbitration  37.46
    • B.  Postarbitration Discovery  37.47
    • C.  The Trial De Novo  37.48
    • D.  Costs and Fees After Trial De Novo  37.49
  • VIII.  SEEKING TO VACATE JUDGMENT  37.50
  • IX.  CHECKLIST: PROCEDURES FOR JUDICIAL ARBITRATION  37.51
  • X.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Stipulation to Submit to Judicial Arbitration  37.52
    • B.  Form: Plaintiff’s Election of Judicial Arbitration  37.53
    • C.  Form: Stipulation to Judicial Arbitrator  37.54
    • D.  Form: Rejection of Arbitrator  37.55
    • E.  Form: Plaintiff’s Notice of Intention to Introduce Documents and Depositions Into Evidence  37.56
    • F.  Form: Demand That Witness Appear and Testify in Person  37.57
    • G.  Form: Request for Trial De Novo After Judicial Arbitration (Alternative Dispute Resolution) (Judicial Council Form ADR-102)  37.58

38

Default

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  38.1
    • B.  Governing Law  38.2
  • II.  WHAT IS DEFAULT?
    • A.  Defining Terms
      • 1.  Default  38.3
      • 2.  Entry of Default  38.4
      • 3.  Default Judgment  38.5
    • B.  Differentiating Default From Other Court Proceedings
      • 1.  Dismissal  38.6
      • 2.  Uncontested Trials  38.7
      • 3.  Default as Discovery Sanction  38.8
  • III.  WHEN TO USE DEFAULT
    • A.  Reasons to Seek Entry of Default and Default Judgment
      • 1.  Default Cuts Off Defendant’s Ability to Respond  38.9
      • 2.  Res Judicata Effect of Default Judgment  38.10
    • B.  Restrictions on Default Judgments
      • 1.  No Relief in Excess of Amount Demanded  38.11
        • a.  Judgment Cannot Award Attorney Fees Unless Requested in Complaint  38.12
        • b.  Court May Modify Judgment to Strike Excess Damages  38.13
        • c.  In Limited Civil Cases, Amount-in-Controversy Limit Does Not Relieve Demand Requirement  38.14
        • d.  No Default in Certain Proceedings  38.15
      • 2.  No Default Against Certain Defendants  38.16
    • C.  Standards of Ethical Conduct in Using Default  38.17
  • IV.  SEEKING ENTRY OF DEFAULT
    • A.  Prerequisites for Seeking Entry of Default  38.18
      • 1.  Defendant Must Be Served  38.19
      • 2.  Time for Response Must Be Expired  38.20
      • 3.  Defendant Must Not Have Responded  38.21
        • a.  Answer or Demurrer  38.22
          • (1)  If Plaintiff Amends Complaint  38.23
          • (2)  If Defendant’s Demurrer Is Sustained  38.24
          • (3)  If Defendant’s Demurrer Is Overruled  38.25
          • (4)  If Plaintiff Successfully Demurs to the Answer  38.26
        • b.  Motion to Strike  38.27
          • (1)  If Defendant’s Motion to Strike Is Granted  38.28
          • (2)  If Defendant’s Motion to Strike Is Denied  38.29
          • (3)  If Plaintiff’s Motion to Strike Answer Is Granted  38.30
        • c.  Motion to Change Venue Under CCP §396b  38.31
          • (1)  If Defendant’s Motion to Transfer Is Denied  38.32
          • (2)  If Defendant’s Motion to Transfer Is Granted  38.33
          • (3)  If Party Appeals Order Granting or Denying Motion to Transfer  38.34
        • d.  Motion to Dismiss for Delay in Prosecution  38.35
        • e.  Motion to Quash Service of Summons or Stay or Dismiss for Inconvenient Forum  38.36
          • (1)  Defendant May Also Answer, Demur, or Move to Strike  38.37
          • (2)  If Motion Is Denied, Defendant May Petition for Writ Of Mandate  38.38
        • f.  Petition to Compel Arbitration  38.39
      • 4.  Additional Requirements in Certain Cases
        • a.  Statement of Damages in Personal Injury or Wrongful Death Cases  38.40
          • (1)  Plaintiff Must Serve Mandatory Form  38.41
          • (2)  Plaintiff Should Wait at Least 30 Days to Seek Default  38.42
        • b.  Statement Reserving Right to Seek Punitive Damages  38.43
    • B.  Timing: When to Request Entry of Default
      • 1.  Within 10 Days After Deadline for Responsive Paper Passes  38.44
      • 2.  No Default if Responsive Paper Is Filed Late but Before Entry of Default  38.45
    • C.  Procedure: How to Obtain Entry of Default
      • 1.  Plaintiff Files Request for Entry of Default Form  38.46
        • a.  Request Must Include Venue Declaration  38.47
        • b.  Request Must Include Declaration of Mailing  38.48
        • c.  Other Papers That Should Accompany Request  38.49
      • 2.  Clerk Must Enter Default if Request Shows Conditions Exist  38.50
    • D.  Effect of Amended Complaint
      • 1.  No Effect if Change Is Only as to Form  38.51
      • 2.  Default Ineffective if Change Is Substantive  38.52
  • V.  SEEKING DEFAULT JUDGMENT  38.53
    • A.  Default Judgment by Clerk
      • 1.  Default Judgment by Clerk Is Available Only in Certain Actions  38.54
        • a.  Clerk May Enter Default Judgment for Fixed or Scheduled Attorney Fees Only  38.55
        • b.  Clerk Can Enter Default Judgment on Cross-Complaint if Proper and Will Not Cause Delay  38.56
        • c.  Clerk May Enter Default in Unlawful Detainer Cases Only for Restitution of Premises  38.57
        • d.  Clerk May Enter Default on Fewer Than All Causes of Action  38.58
        • e.  Clerk May Enter Default of Jointly Liable Defendants  38.59
      • 2.  Clerk Must Enter Default Judgment When Requirements Are Met  38.60
        • a.  Remedies for Clerk’s Failure to Enter Default Judgment  38.61
        • b.  Court Must Set Aside Judgment by Clerk Lacking Authority  38.62
      • 3.  Timing: When to Request Entry of Clerk’s Judgment
        • a.  Request Is Generally Made at Time of Request for Entry of Default  38.63
        • b.  Default Judgment Must Be Obtained Within 45 Days After Entry of Default  38.64
      • 4.  Procedure: How to Obtain Default Judgment by Clerk
        • a.  Plaintiff Files Request for Entry of Default Form  38.65
          • (1)  Request Must Include a Memorandum of Costs  38.66
          • (2)  Request Must Include Declaration of Nonmilitary Status  38.67
        • b.  Plaintiff Files Other Papers With Request  38.68
          • (1)  Written Contract  38.69
          • (2)  Request for Dismissal of Unserved Defendants  38.70
          • (3)  Additional Papers Required by Local Rules  38.71
    • B.  Default Judgment by Court
      • 1.  When to Use Default Judgment by Court
        • a.  Default Judgment By Court Is Available in Any Case  38.72
        • b.  Default Judgment By Court Is Required in Certain Cases  38.73
      • 2.  Timing: When to Request Default Judgment by Court  38.74
      • 3.  Procedure: How to Obtain Default Judgment by Court
        • a.  Plaintiff Files Request for Entry of Default Form  38.75
        • b.  Plaintiff Files Other Papers With Request  38.76
          • (1)  If Summons Was Served by Publication  38.77
          • (2)  If Action Affects Real Property  38.78
          • (3)  If Action Seeks Attorney Fees  38.79
      • 4.  Plaintiff Requests Hearing  38.80
        • a.  Evidence Must Be Sufficient to Support Claims  38.81
        • b.  Plaintiff May Use Hearsay Testimony  38.82
        • c.  Evidence May Be by Affidavits or Declarations  38.83
    • C.  Entry of Default Judgment  38.84
  • VI.  SEEKING RELIEF FROM DEFAULT OR DEFAULT JUDGMENT  38.85
    • A.  Who May Seek Relief?  38.86
    • B.  Relief in Cases of Mistake, Inadvertence, Surprise, or Neglect Under CCP §473(b)  38.87
      • 1.  When Relief Is Discretionary Under CCP §473(b)  38.88
        • a.  What Constitutes a Mistake?  38.89
        • b.  What Constitutes Excusable Neglect?  38.90
          • (1)  Excusable Neglect Found  38.91
          • (2)  Excusable Neglect Not Found  38.92
      • 2.  When Relief Is Mandatory Under CCP §473(b)  38.93
      • 3.  Timing: When to Request Relief Under CCP §473(b)
        • a.  Within 6 Months After Entry of Default or Default Judgment  38.94
          • (1)  Time Limit Computation  38.95
          • (2)  6-Month Limitation Is Jurisdictional  38.96
        • b.  Within “Reasonable” Time  38.97
    • C.  Equitable Relief in Cases of Extrinsic Fraud or Mistake  38.98
      • 1.  What Constitutes Extrinsic Fraud?  38.99
      • 2.  What Constitutes Extrinsic Mistake?  38.100
      • 3.  No Time Limitation for Relief Based on Extrinsic Fraud or Mistake  38.101
      • 4.  Same Rules Apply to Limited Civil Cases  38.102
    • D.  Relief if Default Judgment Is Void  38.103
      • 1.  What Constitutes a Void Judgment?  38.104
      • 2.  Timing: Relief for Void Judgment May Be Requested at Any Time  38.105
    • E.  Relief if No Actual Notice to Defendant
      • 1.  Statutory Authority to Grant Relief if No Actual Notice to Defendant  38.106
      • 2.  Equitable Authority to Grant Relief if No Actual Notice to Defendant  38.107
      • 3.  Timing: When to Request Relief if No Actual Notice to Defendant
        • a.  Under CCP §473.5  38.108
        • b.  Under Court’s Equitable Powers  38.109
    • F.  Relief When Court Has Assumed Jurisdiction of Attorney’s Practice  38.110
    • G.  Court May Condition Relief  38.111
    • H.  Procedure: How to Obtain Relief From Default or Default Judgment
      • 1.  Motion Under CCP §473(b)  38.112
        • a.  Defendant May Seek a Stay of Execution  38.113
        • b.  Plaintiff May Oppose Motion for Relief  38.114
        • c.  Court May Conduct Hearing on Motion for Relief  38.115
      • 2.  Motion Under CCP §473.5  38.116
      • 3.  Reconsideration if Motion Denied  38.117
    • I.  Appellate Review  38.118
  • VII.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Procedure for Entry of Default and Default Judgment  38.119
    • B.  Checklist: Procedure for Relief From Default  38.120
  • VIII.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Request for Entry of Default (Application to Enter Default) (Judicial Council Form CIV-100)  38.121
    • B.  Form: Declaration on Open Book Account  38.122
    • C.  Form: Default Judgment by Court  38.123
    • D.  Form: Notice of Motion to Set Aside Default and Default Judgment  38.124
    • E.  Form: Declaration Supporting Motion to Set Aside Entry of Default and Default Judgment  38.125
    • F.  Form: Order Staying Execution and Shortening Time  38.126
    • G.  Form: Order Setting Aside Entry of Default and Default Judgment  38.127

39

Dismissal

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  39.1
    • B.  Governing Law  39.2
  • II.  DESCRIPTION AND USE OF INVOLUNTARY DISMISSAL
    • A.  Scope of Dismissal Statutes  39.3
    • B.  Purpose of Dismissal Statutes  39.4
    • C.  Effect of Trial Court Delay Reduction Act  39.5
    • D.  Involuntary Dismissal Is Not Res Judicata  39.6
    • E.  Chart: Comparison of General Involuntary Dismissal Statutes  39.7
  • III.  FAILURE TO SERVE SUMMONS WITHIN 3 YEARS: MANDATORY DISMISSAL
    • A.  When Appropriate
      • 1.  Three Years to Serve Summons  39.8
      • 2.  Additional 60 Days to File Proof of Service of the Summons  39.9
    • B.  When 3-Year Period Begins  39.10
      • 1.  Fictitious Defendants Named in Complaint  39.11
      • 2.  Federal Removal After Period Expires for Serving Summons on Doe Defendants  39.12
      • 3.  When New Parties Added to Action  39.13
      • 4.  Cases With Multiple Defendants  39.14
      • 5.  Intervenor or Cross-Complainant  39.15
      • 6.  Conditions That Toll Period for Service  39.16
        • a.  Defendant Not Amenable to Service  39.17
        • b.  Service Impossible, Impracticable, or Futile  39.18
    • C.  Statutory Exceptions to 3-Year Period
      • 1.  Written Stipulation Extends Period  39.19
      • 2.  Oral Stipulation in Court Extends Period  39.20
      • 3.  Defendant’s General Appearance  39.21
        • a.  Matters Constituting General Appearance  39.22
        • b.  Matters Not Constituting General Appearance  39.23
    • D.  When Defendant Is Estopped From Dismissal  39.24
  • IV.  FAILURE TO BRING ACTION TO TRIAL WITHIN 5 YEARS: MANDATORY DISMISSAL
    • A.  When Available  39.25
      • 1.  When Action “Commenced”  39.26
      • 2.  When Action “Brought to Trial”  39.27
        • a.  When Jury Impaneled  39.28
        • b.  Motions in Limine  39.29
        • c.  Summary Judgment Motions  39.30
        • d.  Binding Arbitrations  39.31
        • e.  Demurrers  39.32
        • f.  Hearings to Enter Default Judgments  39.33
        • g.  Preliminary Injunctions  39.34
    • B.  Statutory Extensions, Excuses, and Exceptions  39.35
      • 1.  Written Stipulation  39.36
        • a.  Drafting Stipulation  39.37
        • b.  Effect of Agreement Extending Time to Answer  39.38
      • 2.  Oral Agreement in Court  39.39
      • 3.  Court’s Jurisdiction Suspended, or Trial of Action Stayed or Enjoined  39.40
        • a.  Appeal Pending  39.41
        • b.  Writ Pending  39.42
        • c.  Automatic Stay in Bankruptcy Proceedings  39.43
        • d.  Defendant in Default  39.44
        • e.  Period Between Party’s Death and Appointment of Personal Representative  39.45
      • 4.  Impossibility, Impracticability, or Futility  39.46
        • a.  Burden on Plaintiff to Prove Excuse  39.47
          • (1)  Excuse Conditional on Plaintiff’s Diligence  39.48
          • (2)  Plaintiff’s Duty to Inform Court of Statutory Deadline; Motion for Trial Preference  39.49
        • b.  Court Not Under Mandatory Duty to Set Case Within 5-Year Period  39.50
        • c.  Examples of Impossibility, Impracticability, or Futility
          • (1)  Motion to Disqualify Judge (CCP §170.6)  39.51
          • (2)  Counsel’s Illness or Death  39.52
          • (3)  Related Action Pending; Criteria  39.53
          • (4)  Multiple Defendants; Severable Actions  39.54
          • (5)  Settlement Agreement  39.55
          • (6)  Other Examples  39.56
        • d.  Examples of Nonexcuse  39.57
      • 5.  Judicial Arbitration
        • a.  When Tolling Occurs  39.58
        • b.  Plaintiff’s Diligence Required  39.59
      • 6.  Waiver and Estoppel  39.60
        • a.  Conduct Resulting in Estoppel  39.61
        • b.  Conduct Insufficient for Finding of Estoppel  39.62
  • V.  FAILURE TO BRING ACTION TO NEW TRIAL WITHIN 3 YEARS: MANDATORY DISMISSAL
    • A.  When Applicable; Statutory Measurement  39.63
    • B.  Exceptions and Tolling of Statutory Period  39.64
  • VI.  OTHER GROUNDS FOR INVOLUNTARY DISMISSAL
    • A.  Inherent Authority of Court  39.65
    • B.  Failure to Pay Transfer Fees and Costs  39.66
    • C.  Failure to Appear for Trial  39.67
    • D.  Failure to Amend After Demurrer Sustained or Motion to Strike Granted  39.68
    • E.  Failure to Comply With Discovery  39.69
    • F.  Failure to Comply With Trial Court Delay Reduction Act  39.70
  • VII.  PROCEDURES FOR DISMISSAL UNDER MANDATORY STATUTES
    • A.  Motion to Dismiss  39.71
      • 1.  Who May Make Motion  39.72
      • 2.  Notice; Grounds  39.73
      • 3.  Supporting Papers  39.74
      • 4.  Opposing Papers; Reply  39.75
    • B.  Order of Dismissal; Notice of Entry  39.76
    • C.  Attorney Fees  39.77
    • D.  Procedures After Court Ruling
      • 1.  Defendant’s Remedies When Dismissal Denied  39.78
      • 2.  Plaintiff’s Remedies When Dismissal Granted  39.79
    • E.  Appellate Review: Abuse of Discretion Test  39.80
  • VIII.  DELAY IN PROSECUTION: DISCRETIONARY DISMISSAL
    • A.  Who Makes Motion; Court’s Authority; Grounds  39.81
      • 1.  Failure to Serve Summons Within 2 Years  39.82
      • 2.  Failure to Bring Action to Trial or Conditionally Settle It Within 2 Years  39.83
      • 3.  Failure to Bring Action to Retrial Within 2 Years of Previous Disposition  39.84
    • B.  Applicable Procedures
      • 1.  Motion for Discretionary Dismissal  39.85
        • a.  Serve Notice 45 Days Before Hearing  39.86
        • b.  File Supporting Papers  39.87
        • c.  No Stay in Proceedings  39.88
      • 2.  Opposition and Reply Papers; Timing  39.89
      • 3.  Court’s Ruling
        • a.  Criteria Court Must Consider  39.90
        • b.  Burden of Proof on Defendant  39.91
        • c.  Is Prejudice to Defendant Required?  39.92
    • C.  Effect of Denial: Motion May Be Made Again  39.93
    • D.  Appellate Review  39.94
  • IX.  VOLUNTARY DISMISSAL
    • A.  Description and Use
      • 1.  Applicability
        • a.  When Dismissal Applicable  39.95
        • b.  When Dismissal Inapplicable  39.96
      • 2.  Effect of Trial Court Delay Reduction Act Rules  39.97
      • 3.  Tactical Considerations  39.98
    • B.  Voluntary Dismissal Before Trial Commenced
      • 1.  Dismissal as Matter of Right  39.99
      • 2.  Limitations on Right to Dismiss
        • a.  Cross-Complaint Seeking Affirmative Relief  39.100
        • b.  Complaint in Intervention  39.101
        • c.  Motion for Change of Venue Pending  39.102
        • d.  Plaintiff Not Sole Party in Interest  39.103
      • 3.  When “Trial Commenced”  39.104
        • a.  Demurrer Sustained Without Leave to Amend  39.105
        • b.  Demurrer Sustained With Leave to Amend  39.106
        • c.  Summary Judgment  39.107
        • d.  Partial Summary Adjudication  39.108
        • e.  After Unfavorable Judicial Arbitration Award  39.109
    • C.  Voluntary Dismissal During Trial
      • 1.  With Prejudice  39.110
      • 2.  Without Prejudice
        • a.  By Stipulation  39.111
        • b.  By Court Order  39.112
    • D.  Procedures
      • 1.  Request for Dismissal; Attorney’s Written Consent  39.113
      • 2.  Court Order of Dismissal  39.114
      • 3.  Entry of Dismissal  39.115
      • 4.  Setting Aside Dismissal  39.116
    • E.  Effect of Dismissal
      • 1.  Without Prejudice  39.117
        • a.  Action Not Res Judicata  39.118
        • b.  Collateral Estoppel May Be Applicable  39.119
      • 2.  With Prejudice  39.120
      • 3.  Costs and Fees
        • a.  Costs Recoverable After Voluntary Dismissal  39.121
        • b.  Attorney Fees After Voluntary Dismissal  39.122
      • 4.  Sanctions on Dismissal
        • a.  When Imposed  39.123
        • b.  Procedures for Recovering Sanctions  39.124
    • F.  Review on Appeal  39.125
  • X.  FORMS
    • A.  Mandatory Dismissal
      • 1.  Form: Notice of Motion to Dismiss  39.126
      • 2.  Form: Declaration Supporting Motion to Dismiss  39.127
      • 3.  Form: Order of Dismissal  39.128
      • 4.  Form: Notice of Entry of Dismissal  39.129
    • B.  Voluntary Dismissal
      • 1.  Form: Request for Dismissal (Judicial Council Form CIV-110)  39.130
      • 2.  Form: Notice of Entry of Dismissal and Proof of Service (Judicial Council Form CV-120)  39.131
      • 3.  Form: Judgment of Dismissal  39.132

40

Case Management Conferences

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  40.1
    • B.  Governing Law
      • 1.  Statutes  40.2
      • 2.  California Rules of Court  40.3
      • 3.  Local Rules  40.4
  • II.  DIFFERENTIAL CASE MANAGEMENT RULES
    • A.  Purpose  40.5
    • B.  Effect of Local Practice  40.6
    • C.  Court’s Role in Case Management
      • 1.  Monitoring Case Progress  40.7
      • 2.  Internal Court Management Procedures  40.8
    • D.  Time Standards for Disposing of Cases
      • 1.  Guidelines for Disposing of Case  40.9
      • 2.  General Civil Cases Defined; Exemptions  40.10
      • 3.  Cases Removed From Court’s Control  40.11
    • E.  Differentiation of Cases to Achieve Goals
      • 1.  Evaluation and Assignment  40.12
      • 2.  Case Management Plans  40.13
      • 3.  Exemption of Exceptional Cases  40.14
      • 4.  Local Case Management Plans  40.15
    • F.  Case Evaluation Factors  40.16
  • III.  PROCEDURES FOR ASSIGNMENT TO CASE MANAGEMENT PLAN
    • A.  Case Assignment Procedure  40.17
    • B.  Filing and Service
      • 1.  Documents to Be Filed With Complaint and Summons
        • a.  Civil Case Cover Sheet  40.18
        • b.  Case Questionnaire  40.19
        • c.  Time for Filing  40.20
        • d.  Unnamed Doe Defendants  40.21
        • e.  Cross-Complaints  40.22
        • f.  Improper Refiling of Case  40.23
      • 2.  Responsive Pleadings
        • a.  Time for Response  40.24
        • b.  Stipulated Single Continuance Policy  40.25
      • 3.  Other Papers  40.26
    • C.  Assignment of Related Cases  40.27
    • D.  Coordination, Consolidation, and Severance
      • 1.  Coordination  40.28
      • 2.  Consolidation  40.29
      • 3.  Severance or Bifurcation  40.30
    • E.  Discovery  40.31
    • F.  Peremptory Challenges [Deleted]  40.32
    • G.  Case Removed to Federal Court  40.33
    • H.  Checklist: Diagnostic Questions  40.34
    • I.  Suggestions for Handling Delay Reduction Cases  40.35
  • IV.  SPECIAL RULES FOR MANAGEMENT OF COMPLEX CASES
    • A.  Definition  40.36
      • 1.  Factors  40.37
      • 2.  Provisional Designation  40.38
      • 3.  Court’s Discretion  40.39
    • B.  Complex Case Designation  40.40
    • C.  Complex Case Counterdesignations
      • 1.  Noncomplex Counterdesignation  40.41
      • 2.  Complex Counterdesignation  40.42
      • 3.  Joint Complex Designation  40.43
    • D.  Action by Court
      • 1.  Decision on Complex Designation  40.44
      • 2.  Court’s Continuing Power  40.45
    • E.  Electronic Service  40.46
  • V.  CASE MANAGEMENT CONFERENCE
    • A.  Background  40.47
    • B.  Initial Case Management Review; Exemptions  40.48
    • C.  Referral to Arbitration  40.49
    • D.  Subjects Considered at Case Management Conference  40.50
    • E.  Meet-and-Confer Requirement  40.51
    • F.  Setting the Conference; Notice  40.52
    • G.  Attending Case Management Conference
      • 1.  Who Must Attend  40.53
      • 2.  Familiarity With Case  40.54
      • 3.  Order Without Appearance  40.55
      • 4.  Excuse From Attendance in Limited Civil Cases  40.56
    • H.  Additional Case Management Conference  40.57
    • I.  Conducting the Conference  40.58
  • VI.  CASE MANAGEMENT STATEMENT AND ORDER
    • A.  Background: Former At-Issue Memorandum  40.59
    • B.  Case Management Statement
      • 1.  Service and Filing  40.60
      • 2.  Use of Judicial Council Form  40.61
      • 3.  Effect of Local Rules  40.62
      • 4.  Content of Case Management Statement  40.63
      • 5.  Effect of Failure to Request Jury Trial  40.64
    • C.  Responsive Statement  40.65
      • 1.  Motion to Strike  40.66
      • 2.  Motion for Advisory Jury  40.67
    • D.  Case Management Order  40.68
    • E.  Setting Trial Date  40.69
    • F.  Checklist: Procedure for Case Management Statement  40.70
  • VII.  COURT SETTLEMENT CONFERENCES
    • A.  Mandatory Settlement Conference
      • 1.  Authority and Purpose  40.71
      • 2.  Procedure to Set  40.72
      • 3.  Settlement Conference Statements
        • a.  Requirements  40.73
        • b.  Example for Personal Injury Case  40.74
      • 4.  Attendance at Conference
        • a.  Attorneys  40.75
        • b.  Attorney Familiarity With Case  40.76
        • c.  Parties, Representatives of Insurers and Other Entities  40.77
        • d.  Telephone Appearance  40.78
        • e.  Excuses From Attendance  40.79
      • 5.  Continuances  40.80
      • 6.  Conduct of Conference
        • a.  Judge’s Role  40.81
        • b.  Presentation by Plaintiff’s Attorney  40.82
        • c.  Presentation by Defendant’s Attorney  40.83
      • 7.  Duty to Notify Court of Settlement  40.84
      • 8.  Sanctions for Failure to Attend or Participate  40.85
    • B.  Voluntary Settlement Conference  40.86
    • C.  Informal Chambers Conference  40.87
  • VIII.  FINAL STATUS CONFERENCE  40.88
  • IX.  SANCTIONS  40.89
  • X.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Civil Case Cover Sheet (Judicial Council Form CM-010) [Deleted]  40.90
    • B.  Form: Civil Case Cover Sheet Addendum and Statement of Location (Los Angeles County Form CIV-109)  40.91
    • C.  Form: Case Questionnaire—For Limited Civil Cases (Under $25,000) (Judicial Council Form DISC-010)  40.92
    • D.  Form: Case Management Statement (Judicial Council Form CM-110)  40.93

41

Jury Trial Demands

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  41.1
    • B.  Governing Law  41.2
  • II.  RIGHT TO JURY
    • A.  When Mandated; Legal Versus Equitable Actions  41.3
    • B.  Specific Actions
      • 1.  Legal Actions  41.4
      • 2.  Equitable Actions  41.5
      • 3.  Hybrid Actions  41.6
    • C.  Use of Advisory Jury  41.7
    • D.  Deciding Whether to Demand or Retain Jury; Factors  41.8
  • III.  PROCEDURES
    • A.  Necessity and Time for Demand; Effect  41.9
    • B.  Form of Demand  41.10
    • C.  Deposit of Fees and Expenses; Refunds  41.11
    • D.  Waiver of Jury Trial
      • 1.  Acts Resulting in Waiver  41.12
      • 2.  Relief From Waiver
        • a.  When Available  41.13
        • b.  Procedures for Relief From Jury Waiver  41.14
  • IV.  EXPEDITED JURY TRIALS
    • A.  Voluntary Expedited Jury Trial   41.14A
      • 1.  Pretrial Procedures for Voluntary Expedited Jury Trials
        • a.  Proposed Consent Order  41.14B
          • (1)  Consent Order Timing  41.14C
          • (2)  Consent Order Mandatory Provisions  41.14D
          • (3)  Consent Order Optional Provisions  41.14E
          • (4)  High/Low Agreement  41.14F
          • (5)  Court Action on Proposed Consent Order  41.14G
          • (6)  Binding Agreement  41.14H
        • b.  Pretrial Submissions  41.14I
          • (1)  Pretrial Exchange  41.14J
          • (2)  Supplemental Exchange  41.14K
          • (3)  Court Submissions  41.14L
        • c.  Pretrial Conference  41.14M
      • 2.  Trial Procedures
        • a.  Jury and Jury Selection  41.14N
        • b.  Case Presentation  41.14O
        • c.  Verdict  41.14P
      • 3.  Posttrial Motions and Appeal  41.14Q
        • a.  Motion for New Trial  41.14R
        • b.  Other Posttrial Motions  41.14S
        • c.  Appeal  41.14T
    • B.   Mandatory Expedited Jury Trial  41.14U
  • V.  JUDICIAL COUNCIL OFFICIAL JURY INSTRUCTIONS (CACI)
    • A.  Purpose  41.15
    • B.  Accuracy  41.16
    • C.  Public Access  41.17
    • D.  Updating and Amendments  41.18
    • E.  Use of Instructions  41.19

42

Trial Preference and Continuance Motions

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  42.1
    • B.  Governing Law  42.2
  • II.  MOTIONS TO ADVANCE, SPECIALLY SET, OR RESET
    • A.  Grounds for Motion for Trial Preference
      • 1.  Avoiding 5-Year Dismissal  42.3
      • 2.  Party Over Age 70  42.4
      • 3.  Party Under Age 14 in Wrongful Death or Personal Injury Action  42.5
      • 4.  Illness or Medical Condition  42.6
      • 5.  Party Seeking Damages Related to Commission of Felony  42.7
      • 6.  Other Grounds  42.8
    • B.  Motions to Reset  42.9
    • C.  Procedure
      • 1.  Noticed Motion or Ex Parte Application  42.10
      • 2.  Showing Required  42.11
      • 3.  Service  42.12
      • 4.  Setting Matter for Trial  42.13
      • 5.  To Whom Motion Is Made  42.14
    • D.  Court’s Discretion  42.15
  • III.  MOTIONS FOR CONTINUANCE
    • A.  Court’s Reluctance to Grant Continuances  42.16
    • B.  Grounds  42.17
      • 1.  Basic Requirement of Good Cause  42.18
      • 2.  Examples of Good Cause  42.19
      • 3.  Other Factors to Consider  42.20
      • 4.  Local Variations  42.21
      • 5.  Statutory Grounds  42.22
      • 6.  Inherent Power of Court to Continue  42.23
    • C.  Court Discretion; Factors Considered  42.24
    • D.  Procedure
      • 1.  Noticed Motion, Ex Parte Application, and Declaration  42.25
      • 2.  Payment of Expenses as Condition for Granting Motion  42.26
      • 3.  Procedures When Motion Denied; Severance  42.27
    • E.  Appellate Review  42.28
  • IV.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Notice of Motion to Advance, Specially Set, or Reset Case for Trial  42.29
    • B.  Form: Declaration Supporting Motion to Advance, Specially Set, or Reset Case for Trial  42.30
    • C.  Form: Notice of Motion for Continuance of Trial  42.31
    • D.  Form: Declaration Supporting Motion for Continuance of Trial  42.32

43

Consolidation and Severance

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  43.1
    • B.  Governing Law  43.2
  • II.  CONSOLIDATION; GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
    • A.  Overview of Procedure
      • 1.  Consolidation Defined  43.3
      • 2.  Purposes of Consolidation  43.4
      • 3.  Tactical Considerations in Seeking or Opposing Consolidation  43.5
        • a.  Settlement  43.6
        • b.  Effect on Trial Date  43.7
        • c.  Plaintiff’s Considerations  43.8
        • d.  Defendant’s Considerations  43.9
    • B.  Related Procedures  43.10
      • 1.  Cross-Complaint  43.11
      • 2.  Joinder  43.12
      • 3.  Interpleader  43.13
      • 4.  Class Action  43.14
      • 5.  Intervention  43.15
      • 6.  Coordination  43.16
      • 7.  Equitable Bill of Peace  43.17
      • 8.  Stay or Abatement  43.18
      • 9.  Res Judicata and Issue Preclusion  43.19
    • C.  Constitutionality
      • 1.  Trial by Jury  43.20
      • 2.  Due Process  43.21
  • III.  MANDATORY CONSOLIDATION  43.22
    • A.  Actions to Recover for Child’s Injury and Death  43.23
    • B.  Wrongful Death Actions and Survival Actions  43.24
    • C.  Actions for Injuries to Employee  43.25
  • IV.  PERMISSIVE CONSOLIDATION
    • A.  Principal Statute (CCP §1048(a))  43.26
    • B.  Actions Pending in Same Court  43.27
    • C.  Effect of Trial Court Unification  43.28
    • D.  Factors Favoring Permissive Consolidation
      • 1.  Judicial Attitude  43.29
      • 2.  Trial Court Discretion  43.30
      • 3.  Basic Factor: Common Question of Law or Fact  43.31
      • 4.  Other Factors  43.32
        • a.  Promote Efficiency, Accuracy, and Consistency  43.33
        • b.  Avoid Prejudice  43.34
        • c.  Respect Legislative Policy  43.35
      • 5.  Coordination Standards  43.36
    • E.  Special Statutes Permitting Consolidation  43.37
      • 1.  Relationship Between CCP §1048(a) and Special Statutes  43.38
      • 2.  Contract Arbitration  43.39
      • 3.  Lien Foreclosure  43.40
      • 4.  Enforcement of Payment of Claims After Stop Notices  43.41
      • 5.  Condemnation Proceedings  43.42
      • 6.  Recovery of Assessments  43.43
      • 7.  Challenging Contractor’s Performance  43.44
    • F.  Relationship Between California Statutes and Fed R Civ P 42(a)  43.45
  • V.  PROCEDURE FOR CONSOLIDATION
    • A.  Timing  43.46
    • B.  Consolidation on Court’s Own Motion  43.47
    • C.  Stipulation for Consolidation  43.48
    • D.  Noticed Motion for Consolidation  43.49
    • E.  Opposing Consolidation  43.50
    • F.  Order for Consolidation  43.51
    • G.  Lead Case  43.52
    • H.  Checklist: Diagnostic Questions  43.53
  • VI.  CONSEQUENCES OF CONSOLIDATION
    • A.  Distinction Between Complete and Partial Consolidation  43.54
      • 1.  Complete Consolidation  43.55
      • 2.  Consolidation of Related Issues for Trial  43.56
      • 3.  Consolidation for Pretrial Proceedings  43.57
    • B.  Orders Regulating Consequences of Consolidation
      • 1.  Avoiding Unnecessary Cost, Delay, or Prejudice  43.58
      • 2.  Appointment of Lead Counsel  43.59
  • VII.  APPELLATE REVIEW OF ORDERS REGARDING CONSOLIDATION
    • A.  Method of Review  43.60
    • B.  Scope of Review  43.61
    • C.  Consolidation on Appeal  43.62
  • VIII.  SEVERANCE; GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
    • A.  Definition and Purpose of Severance
      • 1.  Definition of Severance
        • a.  Severance Separates Claims, Issues, or Parties  43.63
        • b.  Terms: Severance, Separate Trial, and Bifurcation  43.64
      • 2.  Purposes of Severance  43.65
      • 3.  Constitutional Limits on Severance  43.66
    • B.  Alternative Procedural Devices
      • 1.  Demurrer  43.67
      • 2.  Regulation of Order of Proof  43.68
  • IX.  MANDATORY SEVERANCE
    • A.  Distinction Between Mandatory and Permissive Severance  43.69
    • B.  Particular Statutes That Require Severance
      • 1.  Limitations Defense in Medical Malpractice Actions (CCP §597.5)  43.70
      • 2.  Right to Recover Punitive Damages (CC §§3294–3295)  43.71
      • 3.  Issues of Law in Certain Cases (CCP §592)  43.72
      • 4.  Unconscionability of Contract (CC §1670.5)  43.73
      • 5.  Compatibility of Public Uses in Consolidated Eminent Domain Proceedings (CCP §1260.020)  43.74
      • 6.  Child Custody and Support Issues (CC §4600.6)  43.75
  • X.  PERMISSIVE SEVERANCE
    • A.  Principal Statute (CCP §1048(b))  43.76
    • B.  Other Statutes That Permit Severance  43.77
      • 1.  Any Issue May Be Tried Before Any Other Issue (CCP §598)  43.78
      • 2.  Special Defenses Not Involving Merits (CCP §597)  43.79
      • 3.  Proper But Improvident Joinder of Parties (CCP §379.5)  43.80
    • C.  Relationship Between CCP §§1048(b) and 598  43.81
    • D.  Relationship Between California Statutes and Federal Rules  43.82
    • E.  Judicial Attitude Toward Severance
      • 1.  General Considerations  43.83
      • 2.  Other Factors Affecting Severance  43.84
        • a.  Promote Efficiency  43.85
        • b.  Avoid Prejudice  43.86
        • c.  Simplify Case  43.87
  • XI.  PROCEDURE FOR SEVERANCE
    • A.  Timing  43.88
    • B.  Motion Made by Party or on Court’s Own Motion  43.89
    • C.  Stipulation to Severance and Proposed Order  43.90
    • D.  Preparing Motion for Severance  43.91
    • E.  Opposing Severance  43.92
    • F.  Checklist: Diagnostic Questions  43.93
    • G.  Checklist: Procedure for Motion for Severance  43.94
  • XII.  CONSEQUENCES OF SEVERANCE
    • A.  Priority of Severed Actions, Claims, or Issues  43.95
    • B.  Stay of Discovery  43.96
    • C.  Same Jury or Different Juries  43.97
    • D.  When Posttrial Motions May Be Made on Severed Actions and Issues  43.98
  • XIII.  APPELLATE REVIEW OF SEVERANCE ORDERS
    • A.  Review of Orders Granting or Denying Severance
      • 1.  Prejudgment (Writ)  43.99
      • 2.  Postjudgment (Appeal)  43.100
      • 3.  Scope of Review  43.101
    • B.  Appeal of Judgment on Merits of Less Than All Claims  43.102
  • XIV.  FORMS
    • A.  Consolidation
      • 1.  Form: Notice of Motion to Consolidate Actions or Issues  43.103
      • 2.  Form: Declaration Supporting Motion to Consolidate Actions or Issues  43.104
      • 3.  Form: Order Consolidating Actions or Issues  43.105
    • B.  Severance
      • 1.  Form: Stipulation to Sever; Order  43.106
      • 2.  Form: Notice of Motion to Sever Actions or Issues  43.107
      • 3.  Form: Order Severing Actions or Issues  43.108

44

Coordination

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  44.1
    • B.  Governing Law
      • 1.  Coordination Statutes  44.2
      • 2.  California Rules of Court  44.3
      • 3.  Local Rules  44.4
  • II.  OVERVIEW  44.5
    • A.  Cases That Have Been Coordinated  44.6
    • B.  Standards for Coordination
      • 1.  Threshold Requirement  44.7
      • 2.  Test for Appropriateness
        • a.  General Rule  44.8
        • b.  Factors to Consider  44.9
    • C.  Declaration of Complexity  44.10
  • III.  PROCEDURES IN NONCOMPLEX CASES
    • A.  Motion to Transfer Action for Coordination
      • 1.  Filing Motion  44.11
      • 2.  Findings and Order  44.12
    • B.  Conflicting Court Orders  44.13
  • IV.  PROCEDURES IN COMPLEX CASES
    • A.  Petition for Coordination
      • 1.  Practical Considerations  44.14
      • 2.  Motion in Trial Court  44.15
      • 3.  Contents of Petition  44.16
      • 4.  Notice of Submission of Coordination Petition  44.17
      • 5.  Filing and Service of Documents  44.18
    • B.  Proceedings After Petition Submitted
      • 1.  Order Assigning Coordination Motion Judge  44.19
        • a.  Stay of Proceedings  44.20
        • b.  Peremptory Challenge of Coordination Motion Judge  44.21
      • 2.  Responding to Petition  44.22
      • 3.  Summary Denial of Petition  44.23
      • 4.  Hearing of Petition
        • a.  When Hearing Required  44.24
        • b.  Notice of Hearing  44.25
        • c.  Who May Appear  44.26
        • d.  Judge May Hear Specified Issues First  44.27
        • e.  Limited Evidence Permitted  44.28
      • 5.  Filing and Service of Order  44.29
      • 6.  When Petition Granted
        • a.  Continuing Authority of Coordination Motion Judge  44.30
        • b.  Stay of Further Proceedings  44.31
        • c.  Designation of Appellate Court  44.32
      • 7.  Denial of Petition in Whole or in Part  44.33
      • 8.  Review by Writ  44.34
    • C.  Pretrial Proceedings
      • 1.  Appointment of Coordination Trial Judge  44.35
      • 2.  Peremptory Challenge of Coordination Trial Judge  44.36
      • 3.  Preliminary Trial Conference  44.37
      • 4.  Remand of Action or Claim  44.38
      • 5.  Transfer of Action or Claim  44.39
      • 6.  Add-on Cases  44.40
  • V.  CHECKLIST: PROCEDURE FOR PETITION FOR COORDINATION IN COMPLEX CASES  44.41
  • VI.  FORMS
    • A.  Coordination in Noncomplex Case
      • 1.  Form: Motion to Transfer Action for Coordination  44.42
      • 2.  Form: Declaration in Support of Motion to Transfer for Coordination  44.43
    • B.  Coordination in Complex Cases
      • 1.  Form: Petition for Coordination  44.44
      • 2.  Form: Declaration in Support of Petition for Coordination  44.45
      • 3.  Form: Notice of Submission of Coordination Petition  44.46
      • 4.  Stay Order
        • a.  Form: Application for Stay Order  44.47
        • b.  Form: Statement Opposing Application for Stay Order  44.48
      • 5.  Other Parties’ Support or Opposition
        • a.  Form: Statement Opposing Petition for Coordination  44.49
        • b.  Form: Statement Supporting Petition for Coordination  44.50
      • 6.  Preliminary Trial Conference
        • a.  Form: Proposed Preliminary Trial Conference Agenda  44.51
        • b.  Form: Proposed Preliminary Trial Conference Order  44.52
      • 7.  Remand or Transfer Motions
        • a.  Form: Motion for Remand of Action or Claim  44.53
        • b.  Form: Motion for Transfer of Action or Claim  44.54
      • 8.  Form: Petition to Coordinate Add-on Case  44.55

45

Alternative Dispute Resolution

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  45.1
    • B.  Governing Law  45.2
  • II.  ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS  45.3
  • III.  WHEN TO CONSIDER ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION
    • A.  Before a Dispute Arises  45.4
      • 1.  Contracts  45.5
      • 2.  Internal Grievance Procedures  45.6
    • B.  After a Dispute Arises  45.7
  • IV.  DISCUSSING ADR WITH CLIENT AND OPPOSING COUNSEL
    • A.  Client  45.8
    • B.  Opposing Counsel  45.9
  • V.  METHODS OF ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION
    • A.  Negotiation  45.10
      • 1.  Initial Process
        • a.  The Opening  45.11
        • b.  Information Exchange  45.12
      • 2.  Tactics
        • a.  Bargaining  45.13
        • b.  Breaking Through Impasse  45.14
    • B.  Mediation  45.15
      • 1.  Process
        • a.  Mediation Confidentiality Disclosure  45.15A
        • b.  Mediator Selection  45.16
        • c.  Mediation Session  45.17
        • d.  Preparation  45.18
        • e.  Mediation Styles  45.19
      • 2.  Types of Mediation
        • a.  Limited Mediation  45.20
        • b.  Hybrid Mediation-Arbitration  45.21
    • C.  Arbitration by Contractual Agreement  45.22
      • 1.  Contractual Provisions
        • a.  General Clause  45.23
        • b.  Drafting Considerations  45.24
        • c.  Negotiated Submission Agreement  45.25
      • 2.  Enforceability of Arbitration Agreement  45.26
        • a.  Issues Affecting Enforceability  45.27
          • (1)  Who Decides Issue of Enforceability—The Court or the Arbitrator?  45.27A
          • (2)  Did Parties Agree to Arbitrate?  45.27B
          • (3)  Was Arbitration Provision Obtained by Fraud or Duress?  45.27C
          • (4)  Did Party Waive Right to Compel Arbitration?  45.27D
          • (5)  Is Party Estopped to Assert Right to Compel Arbitration?  45.27E
          • (6)  Do Other Principles Prevent Enforcement of Arbitration Provision?  45.27F
        • b.  Unconscionability  45.28
          • (1)  Two Aspects of Unconscionability  45.28A
            • (a)  Procedural Unconscionability  45.28B
            • (b)  Substantive Unconscionability  45.28C
          • (2)  Class Action Waivers  45.28D
        • c.  Nonwaivable Public Rights  45.29
        • d.  Severability  45.30
      • 3.  Arbitration Procedures
        • a.  Enforcement of Right to Arbitrate  45.31
        • b.  Petition to Compel Arbitration  45.32
        • c.  Petition to Appoint Arbitrator  45.33
        • d.  Response to Petitions  45.34
        • e.  Order Compelling or Denying Arbitration  45.35
        • f.  Appeal from Order Compelling or Denying Arbitration  45.36
        • g.  Removal of Arbitrator After Appointment  45.37
      • 4.  Arbitration Process  45.38
        • a.  Arbitrator Selection  45.39
        • b.  Discovery  45.40
        • c.  Witness and Document Lists  45.41
        • d.  Involuntary Dismissal  45.42
        • e.  Arbitration Hearing  45.43
      • 5.  Effect of Arbitration on Other Proceedings  45.44
      • 6.  Arbitration Awards and Remedies
        • a.  Award  45.45
        • b.  Remedies  45.46
        • c.  Fees and Costs  45.47
        • d.  Award Finality  45.48
        • e.  Incremental or Partial Final Awards  45.48A
        • f.  Confirming, Correcting, or Vacating Award  45.49
        • g.  Appeal  45.50
      • 7.  Neutral Arbitrator Ethics Rules  45.51
    • D.  Judicial Arbitration  45.52
    • E.  Settlement Conference
      • 1.  Process  45.53
      • 2.  Court-Sponsored Conferences
        • a.  Mandatory Settlement Conference  45.54
        • b.  Voluntary Settlement Conference  45.55
      • 3.  Private Settlement Conference  45.56
    • F.  Mini-Trial  45.57
    • G.  Trial by Private Judge  45.58
      • 1.  Trial by Referee
        • a.  Procedure  45.59
        • b.  Advantages and Disadvantages  45.60
      • 2.  Trial by Temporary Judge
        • a.  Appointment  45.61
        • b.  Authority  45.62
        • c.  Differences Between Temporary Judges and Referees  45.63
    • H.  Summary Jury Trial  45.64
  • VI.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Sample Dispute Resolution Agreement  45.65
    • B.  Form: Negotiated Submission Agreement  45.66
    • C.  Form: Petition to Confirm, Correct, or Vacate Contractual Arbitration Award (Alternative Dispute Resolution) (Judicial Council Form ADR-106)  45.67

46

Negotiation and Case Settlement

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  46.1
    • B.  Terminology  46.2
    • C.  The Purpose of Settlement  46.3
  • II.  PREPARING FOR SETTLEMENT NEGOTIATION  46.4
    • A.  Reviewing Facts and Law
      • 1.  Investigate Facts  46.5
        • a.  Pleadings, Discovery, and Other Documents  46.6
        • b.  Other Sources of Information  46.7
      • 2.  Research Law  46.8
    • B.  Counseling the Client: Pre-Negotiation Meetings  46.9
    • C.  Developing Negotiation Strategy  46.10
    • D.  Finalizing Authority  46.11
  • III.  ENGAGING IN SETTLEMENT NEGOTIATION
    • A.  Opening the Negotiation  46.12
      • 1.  Set the Right Tone  46.13
      • 2.  Introduce Problem-Solving Orientation  46.14
      • 3.  Convey Your Client’s Perspective and Aspirations for Settlement  46.15
      • 4.  Agree on Agenda, Goals, and Process  46.16
      • 5.  Negotiation Styles  46.17
    • B.  Exchanging Information  46.18
      • 1.  The Information-Sharing Process  46.19
      • 2.  Listening and Questioning Techniques  46.20
        • a.  Active Listening Techniques  46.21
        • b.  Effective Questioning Techniques  46.22
      • 3.  Managing the Exchange of Information  46.23
    • C.  The Numbers Game: Opening Offers and Demands, Concessions, and Hard-Bargaining Tactics  46.24
      • 1.  Knowing Your Reference Points  46.25
      • 2.  Making Opening Offers and Demands  46.26
      • 3.  Concessions  46.27
      • 4.  Hard-Bargaining Tactics  46.28
    • D.  Problem-Solving Approaches to Negotiation  46.29
      • 1.  Focus on Interests More Than Positions  46.30
      • 2.  Expand the Settlement Pie  46.31
      • 3.  Develop Creative Settlement Options  46.32
      • 4.  Tips for Breaking Through Impasse
        • a.  Use Your Leverage  46.33
        • b.  Use Objective Standards  46.34
        • c.  Use Objective Procedures  46.35
        • d.  Name the Dynamic  46.36
        • e.  Exchange More Information  46.37
        • f.  Take a Break and Reiterate Problem-Solving  46.38
        • g.  Carve Out Issues That Cannot Be Negotiated  46.39
        • h.  Reexamine Your Position  46.40
    • E.  Checklist: Negotiation  46.41
  • IV.  PREPARING THE SETTLEMENT AGREEMENT  46.42
    • A.  Common Terms of a Settlement Agreement  46.43
      • 1.  Parties  46.43A
      • 2.  Claims Being Settled  46.43B
      • 3.  Statement That Settlement Is Voluntary  46.43C
      • 4.  Consideration  46.43D
      • 5.  When Performance Will Occur  46.43E
      • 6.  Release  46.43F
      • 7.  Covenant Not to Execute  46.43G
      • 8.  Dismissal of Pending Claims or Actions  46.43H
      • 9.  Choice of Law  46.43I
      • 10.  Restricted Disclosure  46.43J
      • 11.  Nonassignment of Claims  46.43K
      • 12.  No Admission of Fault  46.43L
      • 13.  No Interpretation Against Drafting Party  46.43M
      • 14.  Remedies for Breach  46.43N
      • 15.  Indemnification  46.43O
    • B.  Executing a Settlement Agreement  46.44
  • V.  ENFORCING THE SETTLEMENT AGREEMENT  46.45
    • A.  Statutory Enforcement  46.46
    • B.  Nonstatutory Enforcement  46.47
  • VI.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Sample Demand Letter—Wrongful Death Case  46.48
    • B.  Form: Sample Demand Letter—Personal Injury Case  46.49
    • C.  Form: Notice of Settlement of Entire Case (Judicial Council Form CM-200)  46.50

47

Offers to Allow Judgment (CCP §998)

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  47.1
    • B.  Governing Law  47.2
  • II.  NATURE OF OFFER
    • A.  What Is a CCP §998 Offer?  47.3
    • B.  Actions in Which Offer May Be Made  47.4
    • C.  Consequences of Refusing Offer  47.5
      • 1.  Plaintiff Refuses Defendant’s Offer  47.6
      • 2.  Defendant Refuses Plaintiff’s Offer  47.7
      • 3.  Defining “More Favorable Judgment”  47.8
    • D.  Use of Offer as Evidence at Trial  47.9
  • III.  PROCEDURES FOR MAKING AND ACCEPTING OFFER
    • A.  Time for Offer  47.10
    • B.  Format of Offer  47.11
    • C.  Terms of Offer
      • 1.  Defendant’s Offer to Plaintiff  47.12
      • 2.  Plaintiff’s Offer to Defendant  47.13
      • 3.  Nonmonetary Terms of Offer  47.14
      • 4.  Good Faith Requirement  47.15
    • D.  Joint Offers  47.16
      • 1.  One Defendant Making Offer to Multiple Plaintiffs  47.17
      • 2.  Multiple Defendants Making Offer to One Plaintiff  47.18
      • 3.  One Plaintiff Making Offer to Multiple Defendants  47.19
      • 4.  Multiple Plaintiffs Making Offer to One Defendant  47.20
    • E.  When to Accept Offer  47.21
    • F.  How to Accept Offer  47.22
    • G.  Revocation of Offer  47.23
    • H.  Counteroffer and Rejection  47.24
    • I.  Multiple Offers  47.24A
    • J.  Effect of Death of Offeror or Offerees  47.25
  • IV.  ENTRY OF JUDGMENT AND RELIEF FROM JUDGMENT
    • A.  Entry of Judgment Based on Accepted Offer  47.26
    • B.  Finality of Judgment  47.27
    • C.  Motion for Relief From Judgment  47.28
    • D.  Appellate Review  47.29
  • V.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Defendant’s CCP §998 Offer to Compromise, Plaintiff’s Acceptance, and Request to Enter Judgment  47.30
    • B.  Form: Plaintiff’s CCP §998 Offer to Compromise, Defendant’s Acceptance, and Request to Enter Judgment  47.31

48

Submitted Case and Consent Judgment

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  48.1
    • B.  Governing Law  48.2
  • II.  SUBMISSION OF AGREED CASE
    • A.  Submission Without Filing Action
      • 1.  Prerequisites
        • a.  Controversies That May Be Submitted  48.3
        • b.  Matters Should Merit Settlement in Public Interest  48.4
        • c.  Declaration of Good Faith  48.5
        • d.  Agreed Statement  48.6
        • e.  Jurisdiction  48.7
      • 2.  Examples of Agreed Case  48.8
      • 3.  Comparison With Declaratory Relief  48.9
      • 4.  Judgment and Appeal  48.10
    • B.  Submission After Filing Action
      • 1.  Nature and Characteristics  48.11
      • 2.  Comparison With Motion for Judgment on Pleadings  48.12
      • 3.  Stipulation  48.13
      • 4.  Procedural Considerations  48.14
    • C.  Checklist: Procedure for Submission of Case  48.15
  • III.  CONSENT JUDGMENTS
    • A.  General Principles
      • 1.  When to Use Consent Judgment
        • a.  Settlement Calls for Future Performance  48.16
        • b.  Using Conditional or Delayed Entry  48.17
      • 2.  Effects of Consent Judgment
        • a.  Res Judicata  48.18
        • b.  Appealability  48.19
        • c.  Bankruptcy Discharge  48.20
      • 3.  Attorney’s Authority to Consent  48.21
    • B.  Drafting Agreement or Stipulation  48.22
      • 1.  Suggested Terms  48.23
        • a.  Claims and Actions Covered  48.24
        • b.  Terms of Payment  48.25
        • c.  Terms of Entry of Judgment  48.26
      • 2.  Interpretation as Contract  48.27
    • C.  Entry of Judgment
      • 1.  Procedure
        • a.  Required Papers  48.28
        • b.  Entry by Clerk  48.29
        • c.  Local Variations  48.30
      • 2.  Function of Judge  48.31
      • 3.  Vacating Consent Judgment  48.32
  • IV.  FORMS
    • A.  Submission of Agreed Case
      • 1.  Form: Submission of Agreed Case  48.33
      • 2.  Form: Declaration Supporting Submission of Agreed Case  48.34
      • 3.  Form: Stipulation to Agreed Facts in Pending Action  48.35
    • B.  Consent Judgment
      • 1.  Form: Stipulation for Judgment  48.36
      • 2.  Form: Judgment Pursuant to Stipulation  48.37

49

Sliding Scale and Structured Settlements

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  49.1
    • B.  Governing Law  49.2
  • II.  SLIDING SCALE SETTLEMENTS
    • A.  Defined  49.3
    • B.  Effect of Good Faith Sliding Scale Agreement  49.4
    • C.  Good Faith Standards: Tech-Bilt and Abbott Ford  49.5
      • 1.  Value of Consideration Given  49.6
      • 2.  Conduct of Nonsettling Defendants  49.7
      • 3.  Factors Considered in Determining Good Faith  49.8
    • D.  Entering Into Sliding Scale Settlement
      • 1.  Types of Cases  49.9
      • 2.  Timing  49.10
      • 3.  Impact of Fair Responsibility Act of 1986 (Proposition 51)  49.11
    • E.  Terms of Sliding Scale Settlement Agreement  49.12
      • 1.  Amount of Guaranty  49.13
      • 2.  Value of Consideration Given  49.14
      • 3.  Minimum Unconditional Payment  49.15
      • 4.  Veto and Settlement Sharing Provisions  49.16
      • 5.  No-Interest Loans  49.17
      • 6.  Good Faith Requirement  49.18
      • 7.  Other Provisions  49.19
    • F.  Procedural Requirements
      • 1.  Notify Opposing Counsel and Court  49.20
      • 2.  Motion for Good Faith Determination  49.21
      • 3.  Burden of Proof  49.22
      • 4.  Discovery  49.23
      • 5.  Review of Good Faith Determination  49.24
    • G.  Trial Considerations  49.25
  • III.  STRUCTURED SETTLEMENTS
    • A.  Defined  49.26
    • B.  When Structured Settlement Used; Parties’ Objectives  49.27
    • C.  Economic Characteristics
      • 1.  Settlement Annuities  49.28
      • 2.  Independent Settlement Annuity Marketplace  49.29
        • a.  Structured Settlement Brokers  49.30
        • b.  Economists and Valuation Services  49.31
        • c.  Affiliated Life Insurance Company Programs  49.32
      • 3.  Common Payment Formats
        • a.  Lifetime Benefits  49.33
        • b.  Annuity Certain  49.34
        • c.  Providing for Inflation  49.35
        • d.  Future Lump Sums  49.36
        • e.  Deferred Payments  49.37
        • f.  Other Funding Vehicles  49.38
      • 4.  Economic Advantages of Structured Settlements  49.39
        • a.  Conservation of Funds  49.40
        • b.  Tax Savings  49.41
        • c.  Age-Rated Annuities  49.42
        • d.  Yields on Minors’ Compromises  49.43
        • e.  Elasticity of Lifetime Benefits  49.44
      • 5.  Economic Limitations of Structured Settlements  49.45
        • a.  Inflation  49.46
        • b.  Financial Emergencies  49.47
      • 6.  Other Considerations  49.48
    • D.  Tax Treatment of Structured Settlements
      • 1.  Basic Authorities  49.49
      • 2.  Assignments Under IRC §130  49.50
      • 3.  Tax Issues in Settling Employment Disputes  49.51
      • 4.  Constructive Receipt and Economic Benefit Doctrines  49.52
    • E.  Reliability of the Guaranty of Future Payment
      • 1.  Reliance on Initial Promisor  49.53
      • 2.  Reliance on Assignee  49.54
      • 3.  Independent Ratings of Insurance Companies  49.55
    • F.  Estate and Benefits Planning; Trusts
      • 1.  Estate and Government Benefits Planning  49.56
      • 2.  Trusts  49.57
    • G.  Attorney Fees
      • 1.  Primacy of Present Value  49.58
      • 2.  Periodic Payment of Attorney Fee  49.59

50

Good Faith Settlement

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  50.1
    • B.  Governing Law  50.2
  • II.  OVERVIEW
    • A.  Impact of Good Faith Determination  50.3
    • B.  Equitable Nature of Proceeding  50.4
    • C.  Parties That May Move for Good Faith Ruling  50.5
    • D.  Procedural Overview  50.6
    • E.  Impact of Fair Responsibility Act of 1986 on Good Faith Determinations  50.7
  • III.  OBTAINING GOOD FAITH DETERMINATION
    • A.  Notice of Motion
      • 1.  Content  50.8
      • 2.  Service  50.9
    • B.  Factors Affecting Good Faith Determinations
      • 1.  Burden of Proof  50.10
      • 2.  Reasonable Range Test of Tech-Bilt  50.11
      • 3.  Rough Approximation of Plaintiff’s Total Recovery  50.12
      • 4.  Rough Approximation of Settling Defendant’s Proportion of Liability  50.13
      • 5.  Amount Paid in Settlement  50.14
      • 6.  Allocation of Proceeds Among Plaintiffs  50.15
      • 7.  Recognition That Settling Defendants Should Pay Less in Settlement Than After Trial  50.16
      • 8.  Financial Condition of Settling Defendant  50.17
      • 9.  Insurance Coverage and Policy Limits of Settling Defendant  50.18
      • 10.  Fraud, Collusion, or Misconduct of Settling Parties  50.19
    • C.  Declarations and Evidence Supporting Tech-Bilt Factors  50.20
    • D.  Alternative Method: Notice of Settlement
      • 1.  Notice of Settlement
        • a.  Content  50.21
        • b.  Service  50.22
      • 2.  Opposing Application for Determination of Good Faith Settlement: Motion to Contest Good Faith
        • a.  Content  50.23
        • b.  Service  50.24
  • IV.  OPPOSITION TO MOTION FOR GOOD FAITH DETERMINATION  50.25
  • V.  REPLY PAPERS  50.26
  • VI.  THE HEARING  50.27
  • VII.  POSTHEARING  50.28
  • VIII.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Notice of Motion to Determine Good Faith of Settlement  50.29
    • B.  Form: Declaration Supporting Motion to Determine Good Faith of Settlement  50.30
    • C.  Form: Notice of Settlement  50.31
    • D.  Form: Application for Determination of Good Faith of Settlement  50.32
    • E.  Form: Proposed Order Determining Good Faith of Settlement  50.33
    • F.  Form: Declaration Supporting Application for Determination of Good Faith of Settlement  50.34

CALIFORNIA CIVIL PROCEDURE BEFORE TRIAL

(4th Edition)

June 2019

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

File Name

Book Section

Title

CH01

Chapter 1

Accepting Cases and Implementing Office Procedures

01-048

§1.48

Questionnaire: Client Interview (Individuals)

01-049

§1.49

Questionnaire: Client Interview (Businesses)

CH02

Chapter 2

Avoiding Conflicts of Interest

02-061

§2.61

Sample Letter to Client: Adverse Representation

02-062

§2.62

Sample Letter to Corporate Officer: Dual Representation

CH03

Chapter 3

Representation Agreements

03-044

§3.44

Sample Contingent Fee Agreement

03-045

§3.45

Sample Fee Agreement Based on Hourly Rate for Services

03-046

§3.46

Disclosure and Consent on Fee Splitting (Referral)

03-047

§3.47

Disclosure and Consent on Fee Splitting (Association)

03-048

§3.48

Attorney’s Lien Agreement

CH04

Chapter 4

Changing Representation During Suit

04-055

§4.55

Notice and Substitution of Attorney

04-057

§4.57

Notice of Motion for Substitution of Attorney

04-058

§4.58

Declaration of Client Supporting Motion for Substitution of Attorney

04-059

§4.59

Declaration of Attorney Supporting Motion for Substitution of Attorney

04-060

§4.60

Order Substituting Attorney

04-061

§4.61

Association of Attorney

04-062

§4.62

Application to Appear as Counsel Pro Hac Vice; Notice of Hearing

04-063

§4.63

Consent by Client to Continued Representation (Cal Rules of Prof Cond 3.7)

04-067

§4.67

Notice of Attorney’s Withdrawal Under CCP §285.1 (Dissolution of Marriage Case)

04-068

§4.68

Demand for Appointment of Attorney or Personal Appearance

CH06

Chapter 6

California Jurisdiction

06-111

§6.111

CHECKLIST: DIAGNOSTIC QUESTIONS

CH09

Chapter 9

Prelitigation Claims, Notices, and Petitions for Guardians Ad Litem

09-076

§9.76

Claim Against Public Entity

09-077

§9.77

Application for Leave to Present Late Claim

09-078

§9.78

Petition for Leave to File Civil Action

09-079

§9.79

Order Permitting Suit to Be Filed

09-080

§9.80

Allegation in Complaint: Compliance With Claim Requirement

09-081

§9.81

Notice of Intention to Sue Health Care Provider

09-082

§9.82

Certificate of Merit

09-083

§9.83

Certificate of Reliance on Res Ipsa Loquitur or Failure to Inform

09-084

§9.84

Certificate of Impending Impairment

09-085

§9.85

Certificate of Inability to Obtain Consultation

09-086

§9.86

Allegation in Complaint: Compliance With Claim Requirement

09-088

§9.88

Petition for Appointment of Guardian Ad Litem for Plaintiff

09-089

§9.89

Petition for Appointment of Guardian Ad Litem for Defendant

09-090

§9.90

Order Appointing Guardian Ad Litem

09-091

§9.91

Petition by Guardian Ad Litem for Authorization to Employ Attorney and for Approval of Fee; Order

09-092

§9.92

Petition for Order Authorizing Compromise of Claim

09-093

§9.93

Order Approving Compromise of Claim of Minor or Person with a Disability

09-094

§9.94

Petition for Order Terminating Appointment of Guardian Ad Litem

09-095

§9.95

Order Terminating Appointment of Guardian Ad Litem

CH11

Chapter 11

Pleadings and Court Papers

11-034

§11.34

CHECKLIST: PROCEDURE FOR PREPARING COURT PAPERS

CH12

Chapter 12

Noticed Motions

12-043

§12.43

Checklist: Procedures for Motions and Hearings

12-109

§12.109

Checklist: Procedure for Responding to Noticed Motion

12-170

§12.170

Notice of Motion

12-171

§12.171

Memorandum in Support of Motion

12-172

§12.172

Declaration Supporting Motion

12-173

§12.173

Request for Judicial Notice

12-174

§12.174

Application for Order Shortening Time; Order

12-175

§12.175

Proposed Order Shortening Time

12-176

§12.176

Stipulation Extending Time

12-177

§12.177

Memorandum in Opposition to Motion

12-178

§12.178

Declaration Opposing Motion

12-179

§12.179

Notice of Ruling on Motion

12-180

§12.180

Proposed Order

12-181

§12.181

Application for Order Extending Time

12-182

§12.182

Proposed Order Extending Time

12-183

§12.183

Order

CH13

Chapter 13

Ex Parte Motions and Orders to Show Cause

13-014

§13.14

Checklist: Procedure for Application for Ex Parte Order

13-017

§13.17

Checklist: Procedure for Application for Order to Show Cause

13-018

§13.18

Application for Ex Parte Order

13-019

§13.19

Proposed Ex Parte Order

13-020

§13.20

Application for Order to Show Cause and Order

CH15

Chapter 15

Complaints

15-020

§15.20

Other Person

15-035

§15.35

Sample Complaint

CH16

Chapter 16

Amending Complaints

16-019

§16.19

Amendment to Complaint

16-020

§16.20

Stipulation for Filing Amended Complaint or Amendment to Complaint; Order

16-021

§16.21

Request for Order Allowing Amendment to Complaint

16-022

§16.22

Order Allowing Amendment to Complaint

16-023

§16.23

Amendment Substituting True Name for Fictitious Name; Order

16-024

§16.24

Notice of Motion to Amend Complaint

16-025

§16.25

Order Allowing Amendment of Complaint

CH17

Chapter 17

Service of Summons

17-077

§17.77

CHECKLIST: PROCEDURE FOR SERVING SUMMONS ON PARTIES

CH18

Chapter 18

Service of Papers

18-045

§18.45

Declaration of Service by Mail (Documents Deposited in Mail)

18-046

§18.46

Declaration of Service by Mail (Documents Placed for Collection and Mailing)

18-047

§18.47

Attorney Certification of Service by Mail (Documents Deposited in Mail)

CH19

Chapter 19

Motions to Quash

19-030

§19.30

CHECKLIST: PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING JURISDICTION

CH20

Chapter 20

Motions to Change Venue

20-036

§20.36

CHECKLIST: PROCEDURE FOR MOTION FOR CHANGE OF VENUE

20-037

§20.37

Notice of Motion for Change of Venue

20-038

§20.38

Notice of Motion to Retain Venue

20-039

§20.39

Declaration Supporting Motion for Change of Venue on Wrong Court Grounds

20-040

§20.40

Declaration by Defendant’s Attorney When Motion Made on Wrong Court Grounds

20-041

§20.41

Declaration Supporting Motion for Change of Venue for Convenience of Witnesses and Ends of Justice

20-042

§20.42

Stipulation and Order Changing Venue

CH21

Chapter 21

Motions to Stay or Dismiss for Inconvenient Forum

21-024

§21.24

CHECKLIST: DIAGNOSTIC QUESTIONS

21-025

§21.25

CHECKLIST: PROCEDURE FOR MOTION TO DISMISS OR STAY FOR INCONVENIENT FORUM

21-026

§21.26

Notice of Motion to Dismiss or Stay Action

21-027

§21.27

Declaration Supporting Motion to Dismiss or Stay Action

21-028

§21.28

Request to Take Judicial Notice to Support or Oppose Motion to Dismiss or Stay Action

21-029

§21.29

Order Dismissing or Staying Action

CH22

Chapter 22

Removal to Federal Court

22-097

§22.97

CHECKLIST: PROCEDURE FOR EVALUATING REMOVAL OF ACTION TO FEDERAL COURT

22-098

§22.98

Notice of Removal

22-099

§22.99

Joinder in Notice of Removal

CH23

Chapter 23

Demurrers

23-037

§23.37

No Certificate of Merit in Action for Malpractice of Architect, Professional Engineer, or Land Surveyor

23-072

§23.72

Checklist: Defendant’s Diagnostic Questions

23-073

§23.73

Checklist: Plaintiff’s Diagnostic Questions

23-074

§23.74

CHECKLIST: PROCEDURE FOR DEMURRER TO COMPLAINT

23-075

§23.75

Notice of Hearing on Demurrer to Complaint

23-076

§23.76

Demurrer to Complaint

23-077

§23.77

Demurrer to Cross-Complaint

23-078

§23.78

Demurrer to Answer

23-079

§23.79

Notice of Decision Sustaining or Overruling Demurrer to Complaint

CH24

Chapter 24

Motions to Strike

24-021

§24.21

CHECKLIST: DIAGNOSTIC QUESTIONS

24-022

§24.22

CHECKLIST: PROCEDURE FOR MOTION TO STRIKE

24-023

§24.23

Notice of Motion to Strike

24-024

§24.24

Order Granting Motion to Strike

CH24A

Chapter 24A

Anti-SLAPP Motions

24A-134

§24A.134

CHECKLIST TO DETERMINE IF ANTI-SLAPP STATUTE APPLIES

24A-135

§24A.135

Anti-SLAPP Motion and Supporting Papers

24A-136

§24A.136

Declaration Example 1

24A-137

§24A.137

Declaration Example 2

24A-138

§24A.138

Declaration Example 3

24A-139

§24A.139

Request for Judicial Notice

24A-140

§24A.140

Proposed Order

24A-141

§24A.141

Notice to Judicial Council

CH25

Chapter 25

Answers

25-107

§25.107

CHECKLIST: DIAGNOSTIC QUESTIONS

25-108

§25.108

Stipulation Extending Time to Respond to Complaint; Order

25-109

§25.109

Ex Parte Application for Extension of Time to Respond to Complaint; Order

25-110

§25.110

Unverified Answer

25-111

§25.111

Verified Answer

25-112

§25.112

Verification of Answer

25-113

§25.113

Amendment to Answer

25-114

§25.114

Notice of Motion

25-115

§25.115

Memorandum in Support of Motion

25-116

§25.116

Declaration

25-117

§25.117

Order

CH26

Chapter 26

Cross-Complaints

26-056

§26.56

CHECKLIST: DIAGNOSTIC QUESTIONS

26-057

§26.57

CHECKLIST: PROCEDURE FOR PREPARING CROSS-COMPLAINT

26-058

§26.58

Notice of Motion for Leave to File Cross-Complaint

26-059

§26.59

Sample Declaration Supporting Motion for Leave to File Cross-Complaint

26-060

§26.60

Order Granting Leave to File Cross-Complaint

CH27

Chapter 27

Motions for Judgment on the Pleadings

27-025

§27.25

CHECKLIST: DIAGNOSTIC QUESTIONS

27-026

§27.26

CHECKLIST: PROCEDURE FOR PREPARING MOTION FOR JUDGMENT ON THE PLEADINGS

27-027

§27.27

Notice of Motion for Judgment on Pleadings

27-028

§27.28

Order for Judgment on Pleadings

27-029

§27.29

Judgment on Pleadings

27-030

§27.30

Memorandum Supporting Motion for Judgment on Pleadings

CH28

Chapter 28

Interpleader

28-045

§28.45

Notice of Motion for Discharge and Substitution or Dismissal

28-046

§28.46

Declaration Supporting Motion for Discharge and Substitution or Dismissal

28-047

§28.47

Order Discharging Defendant and Substituting Claimant as Defendant

28-048

§28.48

Complaint in Interpleader

28-049

§28.49

Interlocutory Order in Interpleader by Cross-Complaint

28-050

§28.50

Final Judgment in Interpleader

CH29

Chapter 29

Security for Costs

29-062

§29.62

CHECKLIST: PROCEDURE FOR MOTION FOR SECURITY FOR COSTS

29-063

§29.63

Notice of Motion for Order Requiring Security

29-064

§29.64

Undertaking (CCP §995.330)

29-065

§29.65

Notice of Motion for Security for Costs and Attorney Fees (CCP §1030)

29-066

§29.66

Declaration Supporting Motion for Order Requiring Security (CCP §1030)

CH30

Chapter 30

Bill of Particulars

30-032

§30.32

CHECKLIST: DIAGNOSTIC QUESTIONS

30-033

§30.33

CHECKLIST: PROCEDURE FOR DEMAND FOR BILL OF PARTICULARS (CCP §454)

30-034

§30.34

Demand for Bill of Particulars

30-035

§30.35

Bill of Particulars (Book or Ledger Account)

30-036

§30.36

Bill of Particulars (Common Counts)

30-037

§30.37

Letter Demanding Further Bill of Particulars

30-038

§30.38

Notice of Motion for Further Bill of Particulars

30-039

§30.39

Declaration Supporting Motion for Further Bill of Particulars

30-040

§30.40

Order for Further Bill of Particulars

30-041

§30.41

Letter Demanding Bill of Particulars After Party’s Failure to Deliver

30-042

§30.42

Notice of Motion to Preclude Introduction of Evidence at Trial

30-043

§30.43

Declaration Supporting Motion to Preclude Introduction of Evidence at Trial

30-044

§30.44

Order Precluding Introduction of Evidence at Trial

CH31

Chapter 31

Intervention

31-058

§31.58

CHECKLIST: DIAGNOSTIC QUESTIONS

31-059

§31.59

CHECKLIST: PROCEDURE FOR INTERVENTION

31-060

§31.60

Declaration for Order Granting Leave to Intervene

31-061

§31.61

Order Granting Leave to Intervene (Ex Parte)

31-062

§31.62

Declaration for Order to Show Cause re Intervention

31-063

§31.63

Order to Show Cause Why Leave to Intervene Should Not Be Granted

31-064

§31.64

Notice of Motion for Leave to Intervene

31-065

§31.65

Order Granting Leave to Intervene (After Hearing)

31-066

§31.66

Complaint in Intervention

CH32

Chapter 32

Injunctions and Other Provisional Remedies

32-062

§32.62

Checklist: Temporary Restraining Order (TRO)

32-093

§32.93

Checklist: Diagnostic Questions

32-094

§32.94

Checklist: Preliminary Injunction

32-152

§32.152

Complaint for Injunctive Relief

32-153

§32.153

Declaration Supporting Temporary Restraining Order and Preliminary Injunction

32-154

§32.154

Order to Show Cause and Temporary Restraining Order

32-155

§32.155

Notice of Motion for Preliminary Injunction

32-156

§32.156

Preliminary Injunction and Order for Undertaking

32-157

§32.157

Order Denying Preliminary Injunction

32-158

§32.158

Undertaking by Surety on Preliminary Injunction

32-159

§32.159

Declaration of Personal Surety’s Qualifications

CH33

Chapter 33

Receivership

33-074

§33.74

RECEIVER’S CHECKLIST

33-075

§33.75

Notice of Motion for Order Appointing Receiver

33-076

§33.76

Order Appointing Receiver

33-077

§33.77

Application for Ex Parte Order Appointing Receiver and for Order to Show Cause re Confirmation of Appointment

33-078

§33.78

Order Appointing Receiver and Order to Show Cause Why Ex Parte Appointment Should Not Be Confirmed; Temporary Restraining Order

33-079

§33.79

Order Confirming Ex Parte Appointment of Receiver

33-080

§33.80

Oath of Receiver

33-081

§33.81

Declaration of Receiver Supporting Order Authorizing Employment of Counsel

33-082

§33.82

Order Authorizing Receiver to Employ General Counsel

CH34

Chapter 34

Deposit in Court

34-023

§34.23

CHECKLIST: PROCEDURE FOR DEPOSIT IN COURT

34-024

§34.24

Notice of Motion for Deposit in Court or Delivery of Property

34-025

§34.25

Declaration Supporting Motion for Deposit in Court or Delivery of Property

34-026

§34.26

Order for Deposit in Court or Delivery of Property

34-027

§34.27

Declaration for CCP §574 Enforcement Order

34-028

§34.28

Enforcement Order Under CCP §574

CH35

Chapter 35

Declaratory Relief

35-050

§35.50

CHECKLIST: PROCEDURE FOR DECLARATORY RELIEF

35-051

§35.51

Complaint for Declaratory Relief on Contract

35-052

§35.52

Complaint for Declaratory Relief on Statute or Ordinance

35-053

§35.53

Judgment for Declaratory Relief

CH36

Chapter 36

Summary Judgment

36-013

§36.13

Checklist: Diagnostic Questions: Determining Whether to Make Motion

36-042

§36.42

Checklist: Cross-Motions

36-071

§36.71

Checklist for Preparing Moving Papers

36-091

§36.91

Checklist: Preparing Opposition

36-099

§36.99

Checklist for Preparing Reply Papers

36-170

§36.170

Checklist: Diagnostic Questions: Preparing for Hearing

36-213

§36.213

Checklist: Opposing Party

36-214

§36.214

Checklist: Moving Party: If Summary Judgment or Summary Adjudication Denied

36-215

§36.215

Sample Defendant’s Notice of Motion for Summary Judgment or Summary Adjudication

36-216

§36.216

Sample Defendant’s Memorandum in Support of Motion for Summary Judgment or Summary Adjudication

36-217

§36.217

Sample Declaration Supporting Defendant’s Motion for Summary Judgment or Summary Adjudication

36-218

§36.218

Sample Defendant’s Separate Statement of Undisputed Material Facts

36-219

§36.219

Sample Defendant’s Proposed Order Granting Summary Judgment

36-220

§36.220

Sample Defendant’s Proposed Order Granting Summary Adjudication

36-221

§36.221

Sample Plaintiff’s Response to Separate Statement of Disputed and Undisputed Facts

36-222

§36.222

Sample Plaintiff’s Proposed Order Denying Summary Judgment and Summary Adjudication

36-223

§36.223

Order for Entry of Summary Judgment

36-224

§36.224

Judgment by Court Under CCP §437c

36-225

§36.225

Order Denying Motion for Summary Judgment

36-226

§36.226

Notice of Motion for Reconsideration of Order Granting Motion for Summary Judgment

36-227

§36.227

Notice of Intention to Move for New Trial

CH37

Chapter 37

Judicial Arbitration

37-051

§37.51

CHECKLIST: PROCEDURES FOR JUDICIAL ARBITRATION

37-052

§37.52

Stipulation to Submit to Judicial Arbitration

37-053

§37.53

Plaintiff’s Election of Judicial Arbitration

37-054

§37.54

Stipulation to Judicial Arbitrator

37-055

§37.55

Rejection of Arbitrator

37-056

§37.56

Plaintiff’s Notice of Intention to Introduce Documents and Depositions Into Evidence

37-057

§37.57

Demand That Witness Appear and Testify in Person

CH38

Chapter 38

Default

38-119

§38.119

Checklist: Procedure for Entry of Default and Default Judgment

38-120

§38.120

Checklist: Procedure for Relief From Default

38-122

§38.122

Declaration on Open Book Account

38-123

§38.123

Default Judgment by Court

38-124

§38.124

Notice of Motion to Set Aside Default and Default Judgment

38-125

§38.125

Declaration Supporting Motion to Set Aside Entry of Default and Default Judgment

38-126

§38.126

Order Staying Execution and Shortening Time

38-127

§38.127

Order Setting Aside Entry of Default and Default Judgment

CH39

Chapter 39

Dismissal

39-126

§39.126

Notice of Motion to Dismiss

39-127

§39.127

Declaration Supporting Motion to Dismiss

39-128

§39.128

Order of Dismissal

39-129

§39.129

Notice of Entry of Dismissal

39-132

§39.132

Judgment of Dismissal

CH40

Chapter 40

Case Management Conferences

40-034

§40.34

Checklist: Diagnostic Questions

40-070

§40.70

Checklist: Procedure for Case Management Statement

CH42

Chapter 42

Trial Preference and Continuance Motions

42-029

§42.29

Notice of Motion to Advance, Specially Set, or Reset Case for Trial

42-030

§42.30

Declaration Supporting Motion to Advance, Specially Set, or Reset Case for Trial

42-031

§42.31

Notice of Motion for Continuance of Trial

42-032

§42.32

Declaration Supporting Motion for Continuance of Trial

CH43

Chapter 43

Consolidation and Severance

43-053

§43.53

Checklist: Diagnostic Questions

43-093

§43.93

Checklist: Diagnostic Questions

43-094

§43.94

Checklist: Procedure for Motion for Severance

43-103

§43.103

Notice of Motion to Consolidate Actions or Issues

43-104

§43.104

Declaration Supporting Motion to Consolidate Actions or Issues

43-105

§43.105

Order Consolidating Actions or Issues

43-106

§43.106

Stipulation to Sever; Order

43-107

§43.107

Notice of Motion to Sever Actions or Issues

43-108

§43.108

Order Severing Actions or Issues

CH44

Chapter 44

Coordination

44-041

§44.41

CHECKLIST: PROCEDURE FOR PETITION FOR COORDINATION IN COMPLEX CASES

44-042

§44.42

Motion to Transfer Action for Coordination

44-043

§44.43

Declaration in Support of Motion to Transfer for Coordination

44-044

§44.44

Petition for Coordination

44-045

§44.45

Declaration in Support of Petition for Coordination

44-046

§44.46

Notice of Submission of Coordination Petition

44-047

§44.47

Application for Stay Order

44-048

§44.48

Statement Opposing Application for Stay Order

44-049

§44.49

Statement Opposing Petition for Coordination

44-050

§44.50

Statement Supporting Petition for Coordination

44-051

§44.51

Proposed Preliminary Trial Conference Agenda

44-052

§44.52

Proposed Preliminary Trial Conference Order

44-053

§44.53

Motion for Remand of Action or Claim

44-054

§44.54

Motion for Transfer of Action or Claim

44-055

§44.55

Petition to Coordinate Add-on Case

CH45

Chapter 45

Alternative Dispute Resolution

45-065

§45.65

Sample Dispute Resolution Agreement

45-066

§45.66

Negotiated Submission Agreement

CH46

Chapter 46

Negotiation and Case Settlement

46-041

§46.41

Checklist: Negotiation

46-048

§46.48

Sample Demand Letter—Wrongful Death Case

46-049

§46.49

Sample Demand Letter—Personal Injury Case

CH47

Chapter 47

Offers to Allow Judgment (CCP §998)

47-030

§47.30

Defendant’s CCP §998 Offer to Compromise, Plaintiff’s Acceptance, and Request to Enter Judgment

47-031

§47.31

Plaintiff’s CCP §998 Offer to Compromise, Defendant’s Acceptance, and Request to Enter Judgment

CH48

Chapter 48

Submitted Case and Consent Judgment

48-015

§48.15

Checklist: Procedure for Submission of Case

48-033

§48.33

Submission of Agreed Case

48-034

§48.34

Declaration Supporting Submission of Agreed Case

48-035

§48.35

Stipulation to Agreed Facts in Pending Action

48-036

§48.36

Stipulation for Judgment

48-037

§48.37

Judgment Pursuant to Stipulation

CH50

Chapter 50

Good Faith Settlement

50-029

§50.29

Notice of Motion to Determine Good Faith of Settlement

50-030

§50.30

Declaration Supporting Motion to Determine Good Faith of Settlement

50-031

§50.31

Notice of Settlement

50-032

§50.32

Application for Determination of Good Faith of Settlement

50-033

§50.33

Proposed Order Determining Good Faith of Settlement

50-034

§50.34

Declaration Supporting Application for Determination of Good Faith of Settlement

 

Selected Developments

June 2019 Update

New and Amended Rules of Professional Conduct. On May 10, 2018, the California Supreme Court issued an order approving new and amended Rules of Professional Conduct. The new rules became effective on November 1, 2018. The contents of this publication have been updated to incorporate the new rules.

  • Accepting Cases and Implementing Office Procedures

    • Litigation of Matter Unwarranted by Law—Sanctions Under CCP §128.5. A motion for sanctions may be denied for failure to provide a safe harbor opportunity to withdraw the objectionable pleadings. Nutrition Distribution, LLC v S. SARMs, Inc. (2018) 20 CA5th 117, 130 (both former CCP §128.5(f) and CCP §128.5(f) as amended in 2017 require party moving for sanctions to comply with safe harbor waiting provisions). See also CPF Vaseo Assocs., LLC v Gray (2018) 29 CA5th 997, 1007 (informal notice of intent to seek sanctions in future cannot serve as substitute for formal noticed motion required by safe harbor provisions of CCP §128.5). See §1.6A.

    • Litigation of Matter Unwarranted by Law—Sanctions Under CCP §128.7. The improper purpose and frivolous filing clauses of CCP §128.7(b)(1)–(2) are not independent. A nonfrivolous claim cannot, as a matter of law, be asserted for an improper purpose. Ponce v Wells Fargo Bank (2018) 21 CA5th 253, 265 (motion for terminating and monetary sanctions under CCP §128.7 improper when plaintiff’s claim that lender was not “predecessor in interest” within meaning of stipulation was nonfrivolous, and nonfrivolous complaints cannot be presented for improper purpose). See §1.6B.

  • Avoiding Conflicts of Interest

    • Effect of Breaching Conflicts Rules—Refunding Attorney Fees. The general rule is that an attorney disqualified for violating an ethical obligation is not entitled to fees. However, recovery may be available under a theory of quantum meruit (in an amount likely not equivalent to the contractual fee) if the attorney can show that the violation was neither willful nor egregious, the conduct was not so potentially damaging to the client as to warrant a complete denial of compensation, and the award will not undermine incentives for compliance with the Rules of Professional Conduct. Sheppard, Mullin, Richter & Hampton, LLP v J-M Mfg. Co. (2018) 6 C5th 59, 90 (law firm’s ethical violation by simultaneously representing adverse clients without informed consent invalidated fee agreement, but attorney fees potentially available under quantum meruit). See §2.9.

    • Conflicts Arising From Concurrent Representation. An attorney may not, without the informed written consent of each affected client, represent a client if the representation is directly adverse to another client in the same or separate matter, or represent a client if there is a significant risk the attorney’s representation of the client will be materially limited by the attorney’s responsibilities to or relationships with another client. Cal Rules of Prof Cond 1.7(a)–(b). Informed written consent means that the client agrees to the proposed course of conduct after the attorney has communicated and explained the relevant circumstances and material risks, including any actual and reasonably foreseeable adverse consequences. Cal Rules of Prof Cond 1.0.1(e). In addition to obtaining each affected client’s informed written consent, the following conditions must also be satisfied in order for an attorney to ethically represent a client when a conflict arises: the attorney must reasonably believe that he or she will be able to provide competent and diligent representation to each affected client; the representation must not be prohibited by law; and the representation must not involve the assertion of a claim by one client against another client represented by the attorney in the same litigation or other proceeding before the tribunal. Cal Rules of Prof Cond 1.7(d). See §2.11.

    • When Conflict Raises Later. A material change in circumstances creating a conflict of interest will trigger a requirement to immediately obtain new informed written consents. Alternatively, the attorney may withdraw from one or more of the representations to avoid the conflict. Comment 10 to Cal Rules of Prof Cond 1.7. See §2.13.

    • Advance Waivers of Future Conflicts. California Rules of Professional Conduct 1.7 does not per se preclude an informed written consent to a future conflict. Comment 9 to Cal Rules of Prof Cond 1.7. See also California State Bar Formal Ethics Opinion No. 1989–115 (blanket waivers of client’s right to disqualify was not per se improper). Whether an advance waiver will be deemed effective will depend on many factors, including the extent to which the client reasonably understands the material risks that the consent entails; the comprehensiveness of the explanation of the types of future representations that might arise; the comprehensiveness of the explanation regarding actual and reasonably foreseeable adverse consequences to the client; the experience and sophistication of the client giving consent; and whether the client is independently represented in connection with giving consent. Comment 9 to Rule 1.7. An advance consent cannot be effective if circumstances materialize in the future that render the conflict nonconsentable under Rule 1.7(d) (i.e., the attorney does not believe he or she will be able to provide competent and diligent representation of each affected client, the representation is prohibited by law, or the representation involves the assertion of a claim by one client against another client represented by the attorney in the same litigation or other proceeding before a tribunal). Comment 9 to Rule 1.7. When an attorney fails to disclose a known, existing conflict, general language in a fee agreement waiving any and all current and future conflicts does not constitute effective informed consent. Sheppard, Mullin, Richter & Hampton, LLP v J-M Mfg. Co. (2018) 6 C5th 59, 85. See §2.16.

    • Duties to Former Clients. An attorney who formerly represented a client in a matter may not thereafter represent another person in the same or substantially related matter in which the person’s interests are materially adverse to the interests of the former client, unless the former client gives informed written consent. Cal Rules of Prof Cond 1.9(a). Moreover, an attorney who has formerly represented a client in a matter may not thereafter (1) use information protected by Bus & P C §6068(e) and Cal Rules of Prof Cond 1.6 to the disadvantage of the former client (except as permitted by the California Rules of Professional Conduct or the State Bar Act (with respect to a current client) or when the information has become generally known) or (2) reveal information protected by Bus & P C §6068(e) and Cal Rules of Prof Cond 1.6 to the disadvantage of the former client (except as permitted by the California Rules of Professional Conduct or the State Bar Act (with respect to a current client)). Cal Rules of Prof Cond 1.9(c)(1)–(2). Information is not “generally known” for purposes of Rule 1.9(c)(1) merely because the information can be discovered in a public record. Comment 5 to Rule 1.9(c). See §2.18.

    • Conflicts Arising From Attorney’s Adverse Pecuniary Interest. Conflicts rules apply when an attorney enters into a business transaction with a client or acquires some other pecuniary interest (i.e., when the attorney possesses a legal right to significantly impair or prejudice the client’s rights or interests without court action) that may be adverse to the client’s interest. Comment 1 to Cal Rules of Prof Cond 1.8.1. An attorney shall not enter into a business transaction with a client, or knowingly acquire an ownership, possessory, security, or other pecuniary interest adverse to a client, unless each of the following requirements has been satisfied: (1) the transaction or acquisition and its terms are fair and reasonable to the client (as measured at the time of the transaction or acquisition); (2) the terms and the attorney’s role in the transaction or acquisition are fully disclosed and transmitted in writing to the client in a manner that the client should reasonably have understood; (3) the client is represented in the transaction or acquisition by an independent attorney of the client’s choice (or the client is advised in writing that the client may seek the advice of an independent lawyer of the client’s choice and is given a reasonable opportunity to do so); and (4) the client thereafter provides informed written consent to the transaction or acquisition, and to the attorney’s role in it. Cal Rules of Prof Cond 1.8.1, Comment 3 to Cal Rules of Prof Cond 1.8.1. See §2.26.

    • Attorney Accepting Compensation From Nonclient. An attorney may not enter into an agreement for, charge, or accept compensation for representing a client from anyone other than the client unless (1) there is no interference with the attorney’s independent professional judgment or with the attorney-client relationship; (2) information is protected as required by Bus & P C §6068(e)(1) and Cal Rules of Prof Cond 1.6; and (3) the attorney obtains the client’s informed written consent at or before the time the attorney has entered into the agreement for, charged, or accepted the compensation, or as soon thereafter as reasonably practicable (but no disclosure or consent is required if such nondisclosure or compensation is otherwise authorized by law or court order; or if the attorney is rendering legal services on behalf of any public agency or nonprofit organization that provides legal services to other public agencies or the public). See §2.26A.

    • Interest in Subject Matter or Relationship With Another Party, Witness, or Third Person. If there is a significant risk that an attorney’s representation of a client will be materially limited by the attorney’s responsibilities to or relationships with a third person or by the lawyer’s own interests, the attorney shall not accept or continue representation of the client unless (1) the attorney obtains informed written consent from each affected client; (2) the attorney reasonably believes that he or she will be able to provide competent and diligent representation of each affected client; (3) the representation is not prohibited by law; and (4) the representation does not involve the assertion of a claim by one client against another client in the same litigation or other proceeding before a tribunal. Cal Rules of Prof Cond 1.7. If an attorney has, or knows that another lawyer in the attorney’s firm has, a legal, business, financial, professional, or personal relationship with, or responsibility to, a party or witness in the same matter, the attorney shall not accept or continue representation of a client unless (1) the attorney discloses the relationship to the client in writing (even if there is no significant risk that the attorney’s relationship with another party’s lawyer will materially limit the attorney’s representation of the client); (2) the attorney reasonably believes that he or she will be able to provide competent and diligent representation of each affected client; (3) the representation is not prohibited by law; and (4) the representation does not involve the assertion of a claim by one client against another client in the same litigation or other proceeding before a tribunal. Cal Rules of Prof Cond 1.7. Additionally, if there is a significant risk that the attorney’s legal, business, financial, professional or personal relationship with a party or witness in the same matter will materially limit the attorney’s representation of the client, the attorney must obtain informed written consent from each affected client (Rule 1.7(b)). See §2.27.

    • Relationship With Other Party’s Lawyer. An attorney’s personal relationships sometimes raise conflicts issues. Specifically, special rules apply in the following instances: when an attorney is the spouse or sibling of, or has a parent-child relationship with, another party’s lawyer, when an attorney or another lawyer in the attorney’s firm lives with another party’s lawyer, or when an attorney has an intimate personal relationship with another party’s lawyer. Cal Rules of Prof Cond 1.7(c)(2). In such instances, an attorney shall not accept or continue to represent a client in the matter unless the following conditions are satisfied: (1) the attorney discloses the relationship to the client in writing (even if there is no significant risk that the attorney’s relationship with another party’s lawyer will materially limit the attorney’s representation of the client); (2) if there is a significant risk that the attorney’s relationship with another party’s lawyer will materially limit the attorney’s representation of the client, the attorney must obtain informed written consent from each affected client; (3) the attorney reasonably believes that he or she will be able to provide competent and diligent representation of each affected client; (4) the representation is not prohibited by law; and (5) the representation does not involve the assertion of a claim by one client against another client in the same litigation or other proceeding before a tribunal. Cal Rules of Prof Cond 1.7. See §2.28.

    • Informed, Written Consent. Informed written consent means that the client agrees to the proposed course of conduct after the attorney has communicated and explained the relevant circumstances and material risks, including any actual and reasonably foreseeable adverse consequences. Cal Rules of Prof Cond 1.0.1(e). See §2.45.

    • Imputed and Vicarious Disqualification. When an attorney is disqualified from representation because of an ethical conflict, the disqualification generally extends to the entire firm in which the attorney is associated; that is, the firm is vicariously disqualified. Cal Rules of Prof Cond 1.10. The following are exceptions to the general rule regarding vicarious disqualification: (1) the firm will not be disqualified if the conflict is based on a personal interest of the attorney and the conflict does not present a significant risk of materially limiting the representation by the remaining lawyers of the firm (Cal Rules of Prof Cond 1.10(a)(1)); (2) the other lawyers in an attorney’s firm may represent a client in a matter that is the same or substantially related to a matter in which the attorney or the attorney’s previous firm represented a different, adversarial client if (a) the prohibited attorney did not substantially participate in the same or substantially related matter for the previous client, (b) the prohibited attorney is timely screened from any participation in the matter, (c) the prohibited attorney does not receive any compensation directly related to the matter in which the attorney is prohibited, and (d) written notice is promptly given to any affected former client that describes the screening procedures employed and provides an agreement by the firm to respond promptly to any written inquiries or objections by the former client to the screening procedures (Cal Rules of Prof Cond 1.10(a)(2), Comment 3 to Cal Rules of Prof Cond 1.10); (3) when an attorney’s association with a firm is terminated, the firm may represent a client whose interests are materially adverse to a former client of the previously associated attorney if (a) the matter is not the same or substantially related and (b) no lawyer remaining in the firm has information material to the former client’s matter that is protected by Bus & P C §6068 and Cal Rules of Prof Cond 1.6 and 1.9(c) (Cal Rules of Prof Cond 1.10(b)). Vicarious disqualification, and the conditions necessary for the exceptions to vicarious disqualification, may be waived by each affected client through informed written consent. Cal Rules of Prof Cond 1.10(c). See §2.48.

    • Implied Waiver and Consent. Although both former and present professional rules in California require that the client’s or former client’s written consent be given, some courts have found an implied waiver and consent to an attorney’s acceptance of adverse employment when there is a lengthy and unreasonable delay by the client or former client in raising such an objection. See, e.g., Antelope Valley Groundwater Cases v Los Angeles County Waterworks Dist. No. 40 (2018) 30 CA5th 602, 625 (implied consent to concurrent representation found when client waited 10 years to move for disqualification and other party would suffer substantial financial cost if forced to replace counsel). See §2.53.

    • Disqualification. In City of San Diego v Superior Court (2018) 30 CA5th 457, 472, a disqualification order was reversed when a city attorney violated former Cal Rules of Prof Cond 2–100, now Rule 4.2, by questioning a party without the consent of counsel, but there was no showing that the information elicited would affect the outcome of proceedings before the court. See §2.55.

    • Motions for Disqualification or Recusal—Delay in Filing Motion. In Antelope Valley Groundwater Cases v Los Angeles County Waterworks Dist. No. 40 (2018) 30 CA5th 602, 625, estoppel applied in the concurrent representation context when a client waited 10 years to bring a disqualification motion. See §2.57.

  • Representation Agreements

    • Types of Fees—Forwarding or Referral Fee. California Rules of Professional Conduct 7.2(b) provides that a lawyer may not promise to compensate or provide actual compensation to a person or entity for providing a referral, unless the payment is the normal cost charged by a lawyer referral service operating in accordance with the California State Bar’s standards. A lawyer may, however, refer clients under a reciprocal referral arrangement, as long as the client is informed of the existence and nature of the arrangement, the arrangement is not exclusive, and the arrangement is not otherwise prohibited by the California Rules of Professional Conduct or the State Bar Act. A lawyer may also give a gift or gratuity to a referral source, so long as the gift or gratuity was not given as part of an agreement to provide the referral or to encourage future referrals. See §3.35.

    • Illegal Fee Contracts—Against Public Policy or Violation of Ethical Standards. When a fee agreement is void because it violates an ethical rule, recovery will be unavailable under the contract, but the attorney may still be able to recover under a theory of quantum meruit (in an amount likely not equivalent to the contractual fee). Sheppard, Mullin, Richter & Hampton, LLP v J-M Mfg. Co. (2018) 6 C5th 59, 90 (rejecting categorical bar against any recovery by attorney found in breach of ethical duty). To recover under quantum meruit following an ethical violation, the attorney must show that the violation was neither willful nor egregious, the conduct was not so potentially damaging to the client as to warrant a complete denial of compensation, and the award will not undermine incentives for compliance with the Rules of Professional Conduct. Sheppard, Mullin, Richter & Hampton, LLP v J-M Mfg. Co., supra. The egregiousness of the attorney’s conduct, its potential and actual effect on the client and attorney-client relationship, and the existence of alternative remedies will also be relevant to determine to what extent forfeiture of compensation is warranted. 6 C5th at 89. See §3.39.

  • California Jurisdiction

    • Standing. In Holloway v Showcase Realty Agents, Inc. (2018) 22 CA5th 758, 769, even though the plaintiff was not a party to the disputed contract, the plaintiff had standing under CCP §526a and Govt C §1090 as a taxpayer to challenge as void a water district’s purchase of real property because of a conflict of interest. In Hansen v Newegg.com Ams., Inc. (2018) 25 CA5th 714, 733, the appellate court held that to establish standing under the Unfair Competition Law and False Advertising Law, a consumer need only allege reliance on a misrepresentation when purchasing a product, and that he or she would not have made the purchase but for the misrepresentation. See §6.57A.

    • Forum Non Conveniens. In Quanta Computer Inc. v Japan Communications Inc. (2018) 21 CA5th 438, 448, despite a forum selection clause in the parties’ contract, a case was properly dismissed because suitable alternative forums exist and Calfornia has no interest in a purely foreign litigation regarding a contract formed and executed abroad. See §6.64.

  • Federal Jurisdiction

    • Standing. In recent decisions, courts have clarified the “injury in fact” requirement of standing. In Dutta v State Farm Mut. Auto. Ins. Co. (9th Cir 2018) 895 F3d 1166, 1176, a plaintiff failed to establish injury in fact when a decision not to hire the plaintiff was based on factors independent of the potential employer’s alleged violation of the Fair Credit Reporting Act of 1970. A credible threat of harm is sufficient to constitute actual injury for standing purposes, whether or not a statutory violation has occurred. California Sea Urchin Comm'n v Bean (9th Cir. 2018) 883 F3d 1173, 1182 (fishing industry groups failed to show genuine threat of imminent prosecution following U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s elimination of exemptions for incidental taking of sea otters in management zone). See §7.9.

    • Standing in Procedural Injury Cases. When a plaintiff asserts a violation of a procedural right conferred by federal statute, the standards for establishing standing are “softened.” Friends of the Santa Clara River v United States Army Corps of Eng'rs (9th Cir 2018) 887 F3d 906, 918. To establish causation and redressability in a procedural injury case, a plaintiff is not required to show that the agency would have rendered a different decision had it followed the proper procedure. Rather, the plaintiff need only show that the agency’s ultimate decision would have been influenced by the correct procedural steps. Friends of the Santa Clara River v United States Army Corps of Eng’rs, supra (plaintiffs had standing to seek judicial review of agency decision when it was reasonably probable that agency decision could be influenced by environmental considerations agency was required to study). When the alleged procedural injury is caused by a third party, a plaintiff must establish that the desired government action could alter the third party's conduct in a way that redresses the injury in fact. Center for Biological Diversity v Export-Import Bank of the U.S. (9th Cir 2018) 894 F3d 1005, 1013 (performance of additional procedures under National Historic Preservation Act and Endangered Species Act could not redress environmental injury because financing for project would be provided by other sources). See §7.9A.

    • Abstention. In Arevalo v Hennessy (9th Cir 2018) 882 F3d 763, 766, Younger abstention was inappropriate when the issues raised in a bail appeal would not impede the underlying criminal prosecution. See §7.12.

    • The Well-Pleaded Complaint Rule. A complaint is not well pleaded and does not invoke federal jurisdiction if the federal question “can be raised properly only as an anticipated defense.” Mobil Oil Corp. v City of Long Beach (9th Cir 1985) 772 F2d 534, 539. See Stillaguamish Tribe of Indians v Washington (9th Cir, Jan. 22, 2019, No. 17–35722) 2019 US App Lexis 1943, *3 (no federal question jurisdiction when tribe sued State of Washington in federal court, seeking declaration that tribe’s sovereign immunity barred Washington from pursuing an anticipated contract claim against tribe). See §7.17.

    • Exclusive Federal Court Jurisdiction. The Labor Management Relations Act (29 USC §185) permits suits by both unions and individual union members seeking to vindicate rights (e.g., wages, hours, overtime pay, wrongful discharge, fair representation) arising out of a collective bargaining agreement. See Rymel v Save Mart Supermarkets, Inc. (2018) 30 CA5th 853, 863 (no federal preemption under 28 USC §185 when plaintiffs’ claims all based on violations of nonnegotiable state law policies and did not require interpretation of collective bargaining agreement). See §7.30.

    • Complete Diversity Requirement—Class Action. Under the Class Action Fairness Act’s (CAFA’s) “local controversy” exception, federal courts must decline to exercise removal jurisdiction when more than two-thirds of the putative class members and a defendant from whom significant relief is sought or who is the primary defendant are citizens of the state in which the action was originally filed. 28 USC §1332(d)(4)(A)–(B). The exception’s purpose is to provide state courts with the opportunity to try cases that they have a strong interest in resolving. Kendrick v Conduent State & Local Solutions, Inc. (9th Cir 2018) 910 F3d 1255, 1261 (case properly remanded under local controversy exception to CAFA jurisdiction). See §7.67.

    • Jurisdictional Amount in Controversy Requirement—Determined as of Time Action Commenced. When a case is removed to federal court, the amount in controversy is determined by the amount in damages a court could award to a prevailing plaintiff based on the complaint as it stands when the case is removed. Chavez v JP Morgan Chase & Co. (9th Cir 2018) 888 F3d 413, 414. If the complaint is later amended and the amount in controversy drops below the jurisdictional threshold, the federal court will maintain jurisdiction as long as the amount in controversy was satisfied on removal. 888 F3d at 417. Additionally, the amount in controversy is not limited to damages incurred before removal. 888 F3d at 414. For example, the court may consider future statutory or contractual attorney fees awardable to the plaintiff if successful. Fritsch v Swift Transp. Co. of Arizona, LLC (9th Cir 2018) 899 F3d 785, 794. See §7.75.

    • Jurisdictional Amount in Controversy Requirement—Attorney Fees. When a plaintiff would be entitled under contract or statute to future attorney fees if successful, such fees may also be included in the amount in controversy as long as the defendant may establish such future fees by a preponderance of the evidence. Fritsch v Swift Transp. Co. of Arizona, LLC (9th Cir 2018) 899 F3d 785, 794 (plaintiff demanded attorney fees permitted by California law in complaint, so district court should have permitted defendant opportunity to prove that amount in controversy, including future attorney fees, exceeded jurisdictional threshold). See §7.77.

  • Venue

    • The Removal Statute (CCP §394). In GameStop, Inc. v Superior Court (2018) 26 CA5th 502, 511, an appellate court held that CCP §394 is inapplicable in an action filed by a district attorney because a district attorney is neither a plaintiff nor a party; rather, the plaintiff is the people of California. See §8.72.

  • Prelitigation Claims, Notices, and Petitions for Guardians Ad Litem

    • Presenting Claim as Prerequisite to Suite—Exceptions. The California Supreme Court has granted review in Big Oak Flat-Groveland Unified Sch. Dist. v Superior Court (review granted June 13, 2018, S247975; opinion at 21 CA5th 403 to remain published and citable until further order) to determine whether a school district may impose its own claim presentation requirements under Govt C §935 for childhood sexual abuse claims under CCP §340.1, when such claims are otherwise exempt under Govt C §905(m) from the Government Claims Act’s claims presentation requirement. See §9.4.

    • Entity Responses to Claims—Waiver; Estoppel—Failure to Give Notice That Claim Was Late. A claimant may be estopped from invoking Govt C §911.3’s waiver provision when the entity’s failure to warn a claimant that he or she should seek leave to present a late claim is induced by the claimant’s misrepresentation on the government claim form. Estill v County of Shasta (2018) 25 CA5th 702, 711 (county not required to give notice and warning under Govt C §911.3 when county unaware of claimant’s untimely filing because she erroneously reported date on which she discovered injurious conduct). See §9.21.

    • Suing Professionals—Notice to Health Care Provider Before Filing Medical Malpractice Suite—Form and Contents of Notice. Actual notice is not required; rather, the test is whether plaintiff took adequate steps to achieve actual notice. Selvidge v Tang (2018) 20 CA5th 1279, 1283 (mailing notice to address defendant provided to medical board rather than defendant’s residence did not meet requirements of CCP §1013, but was adequate step to achieve actual notice). See §9.32.

    • Suing Professionals—Leave to Sue Attorney for Civil Conspiracy. A cause of action may still fall within the scope of CC §1714.10, even if the cause of action against an attorney does not use the words “conspiracy” or “civil conspiracy.” Berg & Berg Enters., LLC v Sherwood Partners, Inc. (2005) 131 CA4th 802, 824. See e.g., Cortese v Sherwood (2018) 26 CA5th 445, 456 (plaintiff’s cause of action for third party liability for breach of trust against attorney actually amounted to civil conspiracy claim and defendant’s demurrer should been sustained for failure to meet prefiling requirement of CC §1714.10). See §9.37.

  • Noticed Motions

    • Rulings and Orders—Procedures After Motion Denied—Court’s Inherent Power to Reconsider. In Cox v Bonni (2018) 30 CA5th 287, 313, although the trial court did not expressly invoke its inherent authority to reconsider prior rulings, the context made it clear that the trial court had relied on its inherent authority in granting the relief sought. See §12.140.

    • Sanctions—Motions for Sanctions Under CCP §128.7—Safe Harbor Provisions. In Moofly Prods., LLC v Favila (2018) 24 CA5th 993, 999, sanctions were reversed when the trial court simultaneously moved for sanctions and denied a motion for reconsideration, rendering moot the offending party’s ability to withdraw the improper motion. See §12.146.

  • Ascertaining, Joining, and Naming Parties

    • Capacity to Sue or Be Sued—Entities Without Capacity. Insurers of corporations that have been suspended for failure to pay corporate franchise taxes are among the entities that may not prosecute actions. Travelers Prop. Cas. Co. of Am. v Engel Insulation, Inc. (2018) 29 CA5th 830, 837 (insurers of corporations suspended for failure to pay corporate franchise taxes prohibited from filing actions based on subrogated rights of suspended corporation). See §14.7.

    • Joinder—Compulsory Joinder—Requirements. In Citizens for Amending Proposition L v City of Pomona (2018) 28 CA5th 1159, 1184, a billboard company was not an indispensable party when its interests were aligned with the city’s, and an indemnity provision in the contract gave a nonjoined party certain control over litigation. See §14.8.

  • Complaints

    • Components of Complaints—Effect of Prayer on Judgment—Default Cases. In Airs Aromatics, LLC v CBL Data Recovery Technols., Inc. (2018) 23 CA5th 1013, 1018, a complaint that alleged damages “in an amount to be proven at trial, but estimated to exceed $25,000” at most, gave notice of $25,000 in damages; default judgment that awarded over $3 million was void. See §15.11.

  • Amending Complaints

    • Limits on Amendments. The right to amend a pleading without leave of court under CCP §472(a) is limited to amending the original version of the pleading. Hedwall v PCMV, LLC (2018) 22 CA5th 564, 575 (CCP §472(a) does not authorize defendant to file second amended cross-complaint without leave of court while demurrer to first amended cross-complaint is pending). If a plaintiff cannot demonstrate the possibility of an amendment to cure the defects in the original pleading, then the court may sustain a demurrer or motion to strike without leave to amend. 22 CA5th at 579. See §16.4A.

    • Forms of Written Amendments—Amended Complaint—Defined; Uses. Under the sham pleading doctrine, a plaintiff may not avoid attacks raised in a demurrer by filing (without a satisfactory explanation) an amended complaint that changes or omits the allegations in the original complaint. If a plaintiff attempts this, a judge may strike the amended complaint as a sham or read into the amended complaint the omitted allegations. Tindell v Murphy (2018) 22 CA5th 1239, 1248. See §16.7.

    • Amendment of Course: Before Answer Filed or Demurrer Heard. The right to amend a complaint or cross-complaint of course is limited to amending the original version of the complaint or cross-complaint. Hedwall v PCMV, LLC (2018) 22 CA5th 564, 575 (trial court struck defendant’s second amended cross-complaint while demurrer to first amended cross-complaint was pending). See §16.11.

  • Service of Summons

    • Service by Publication. A plaintiff’s failure to publish the summons in the newspaper designated by the court will render a resulting default judgment void. Calvert v Al Binali (2018) 29 CA5th 954, 961 (CCP §415.50 is strictly construed; default judgment void on face when plaintiff did not publish summons in specific newspaper named by court, but rather published in named newspaper’s subsidiary). See §17.51.

    • Manner of Service—Outside United States. International service by mail will be valid provided that (1) the receiving state has not objected to service by international mail and (2) service by international mail is affirmatively authorized by the laws of the forum state in which the action is pending. See, e.g., Inversiones Papaluchi S.A.S. v Superior Court (2018) 20 CA5th 1055, 1067 (Colombian corporations were not properly served because delivery by Federal Express without return receipts did not comply with California procedure for service by mail). See §17.55.

    • Filing Proof of Service of Summons—Service Outside California—Service in Accordance With Foreign Law. The California Supreme Court has granted review in Rockefeller Technol. Invs. (Asia) VII v Changzhou SinoType Technol. Co. (review granted Sept. 26, 2018, S249923; opinion at 24 CA5th 115 to remain published and citable until further order) to determine whether private parties can contractually agree to service of process by methods not expressly authorized by the Hague Convention. See §17.75.

  • Service of Papers

    • Service on Party. The hours during which a notice or other paper in a civil action may be personally served on a party, attorney, or person 18 years or older at the party’s residence have been expanded from 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. to 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. See CCP §1011 (effective January 1, 2019). See §18.15.

  • Motions to Change Venue

    • Procedures for Moving Party—Time to File Motion—Wrong Court. There is no hard deadline for bringing a motion brought under CCP §397(a)’s discretionary change of venue provision, and failure to make a timely CCP §396b(a) motion does not preclude a defendant from making a motion under CCP §397(a). Walt Disney Parks & Resorts U.S., Inc. v Superior Court (2018) 21 CA5th 872, 876. Although a CCP §397(a) motion is not time-limited, a defendant may waive the right to request a transfer of venue if the request is not brought within a reasonable time. 21 CA5th at 878 (defendant did not waive right to request venue change when it promptly sought to remove case to federal court and then moved to change venue shortly after federal court remanded case). See §20.8.

  • Motions to Stay or Dismiss for Inconvenient Forum

    • Statutory Authority; Limitations. Although a California court may hear a dispute under CCP §410.40, a trial court retains discretion under CCP §410.30 to dismiss the case on forum non conveniens grounds. Quanta Computer Inc. v Japan Communications Inc. (2018) 21 CA5th 438, 448 (case properly dismissed despite forum selection clause in parties’ contract because suitable alternative forums exist and California has no interest in purely foreign litigation regarding contract formed and executed abroad). See §21.5.

  • Removal to Federal Court

    • Actions Specifically Made Nonremovable by Statute. In Cyan, Inc. v Beaver County Employees Retirement Fund (2018) ___ US ___, 138 S Ct 1061, 1075, the United States Supreme Court held that suits alleging only Securities Act of 1933 claims are not class actions as set forth in 15 USCS §77p(b), and are subject to the 1933 Act’s removal ban. See §22.45.

    • Time Limitations—When Initial Pleading Contains Removable Claim—30-day Rule. In Kenny v Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. (9th Cir 2018) 881 F3d 786, 791, a defendant was able to remove a case to federal court 90 days after the plaintiff filed and served the first amended complaint because nothing on the face of the complaint put the defendant on notice of the case’s removability. See §22.65.

  • Demurrer

    • Posthearing Procedures—If Demurrer Sustained Without Leave to Amend—Dismissal and Appeal. In Jensen v The Home Depot, Inc. (2018) 24 CA5th 92, 97, a trial court did not abuse its discretion by sustaining a demurrer without leave to amend when the plaintiffs made no showing as to how they would amend their complaint to cure a misjoinder issue, but the judgment was reversed because the plaintiffs cured the issue by dismissing the misjoined party on appeal. See §23.69.

  • Anti-SLAPP Motions

    • Activities Protected Under Anti-SLAPP Statute. Code of Civil Procedure §92(d) precludes the filing of an anti-SLAPP motion to strike in limited civil cases. 1550 Laurel Owner’s Ass’n v Appellate Div. of Superior Court (2018) 28 CA5th 1146, 1149 (affirming trial court’s denial of anti-SLAPP motion in limited civil case under restriction set forth in CCP §92(d)). See §24A.5.

    • Public Interest Exemption. In Takhar v People ex rel Feather River Air Quality Mgmt. Dist. (2018) 27 CA5th 15, 26, the public interest exemption did not apply when a cause of action was inextricably tied to the individualized relief sought and not brought solely in the public interest. See §24A.13.

    • Commercial Speech Exemption. In Dean v Friends of Pine Meadow (2018) 21 CA5th 91, 104, speech and petitioning activity by individuals who formed a community group to oppose an amendment to a city’s general plan was political, rather than commercial, in nature, and thus the commercial speech exemption did not apply. See §24A.14.

    • Defendant’s Burden of Proof (Part One of Anti-SLAPP Test). An anti-SLAPP motion to strike may be based on allegations of protected activity that defendant denies engaging in. For example, in Bel Air Internet, LLC v Morales (2018) 20 CA5th 924, 929, employee defendants’ prevailed on their anti-SLAPP motion to strike plaintiff employer's complaint, which alleged that defendants had encouraged fellow employees to quit and sue company, even though defendants denied engaging in such protected activity. See §24A.17.

    • Does the Cause of Action “Arise From” Defendant’s Exercise of Constitutional Free Speech or Petition Rights? In Yeager v Holt (2018) 23 CA5th 450, 457, after an attorney’s successful action to recover fees against former clients, the former clients sued the attorney for malpractice, breach of contract, and using the clients’ name or likeness for commercial purposes. The attorney’s anti-SLAPP motion to strike the former clients’ complaint was denied because the client’s lawsuit did not attack the attorney’s expressive activity and, even if the lawsuit were retaliatory, the suit was brought after the attorney had successfully recovered fees from the former clients. In Gaynor v Bulen (2018) 19 CA5th 864, 880, plaintiff alleged that defendant trustee breached his fiduciary duty by taking certain actions (including filing probate petitions) that would improperly benefit some beneficiaries to the detriment of other beneficiaries. In doing so, defendant allegedly violated statutes requiring a trustee to administer a trust solely in the interest of beneficiaries in an impartial manner. Defendant’s anti-SLAPP motion was properly denied because, although the manner in which defendant may have violated such statutes involved protected petitioning activity, liability arose from the defendant’s potential breach of loyalty, not from the petitioning activity itself. See §24A.18.

    • Is the Cause of Action Based on a Written or Oral Statement Made in Connection With an Issue Under Consideration or Review by Legislative, Executive, or Judicial Body or Another Official Proceeding Authorized by Law? In Cheveldave v Tri Palms United Owners Ass’n (2018) 27 CA5th 1202, 1213, a homeowners association’s entering into a settlement agreement that resulted from an arbitration proceeding (that was connected to a bankruptcy proceeding) was protected by CCP §425.16(e)(2). In Bel Air Internet, LLC v Morales (2018) 20 CA5th 924, 940, employees’ alleged conduct in encouraging other employees to sue their employer was protected prelitigation conduct for purposes of an anti-SLAPP motion. See §24A.21.

    • Is the Cause of Action Based on a Written or Oral Statement Made in a Place Open to the Public or a Public Forum in Connection With a Public Issue? In Rall v Tribune 365 LLC (2019) 31 CA5th 479, 493, defendant newspaper’s articles regarding a decision to stop publishing plaintiff’s cartoons and blog posts due to concerns about the accuracy of a blog post alleging police brutality were published in a public forum and concerned issues of public interest. See §24A.22.

    • Is the Cause of Action Based on Defendant’s Conduct in Furtherance of an Exercise of Constitutional Petition or Free Speech Rights in Connection With an Issue of Public Interest? A lawsuit against plaintiffs who allegedly engaged in widespread overbilling of Medicare and underpaying of Medicare providers is a matter of public interest. MMM Holdings, Inc. v Reich (2018) 21 CA5th 167, 182. A mere chance that an issue may impact the public is insufficient for an issue to be of public interest. Kettler v Gould (2018) 22 CA5th 593, 605 (financial planner’s alleged mishandling of one client’s affairs not issue of public interest just because planner handled investments of many clients and could potentially engage in abuse and fraud). In Blue v Office of Inspector Gen. (2018) 23 CA5th 138, 156, an Inspector General’s anti-SLAPP motion was properly granted even though the Inspector General had a mandatory duty to review a prison’s policies regarding excessive force, because the cause of action arose from the Inspector General’s expressive activity while carrying out its mandatory duty and the investigation concerned a matter of public interest. A district’s filing of a civil enforcement action and an investigation of a citizen’s alleged violation of air pollution control laws were activities protected by the anti-SLAPP statute because the filing of lawsuits is an aspect of the First Amendment right to petition, and nonpetitioning conduct (such as an investigation) is within the “protected ‘breathing space’ of the right of petition if that conduct is (1) incidental or reasonably related to an actual petition or actual litigation or to a claim that could ripen into a petition or litigation and (2) the petition, litigation, or claim is not a sham.” Takhar v People ex rel Feather River Quality Mgmt. Dist. (2018) 27 CA5th 15, 28 (quoting Tichinin v City of Morgan Hill (2009) 177 CA4th 1049, 1068). See §24A.23.

    • Defamation. In Issa v Applegate (2019) 31 CA5th 689, 709, a political candidate’s defamation by implication claims were struck because the candidate’s claims arose from protected statements made during television commercials aired by a political opponent, and the candidate could not establish a prima facie case showing falsity of the statements. In Rall v Tribune 365 LLC (2019) 31 CA5th 479, 500, a blogger’s defamation claim against a newspaper was struck because the blogger’s claim arose from statements in a newspaper that were absolutely protected by CC §47(d)’s fair report privilege, and the blogger could not show a probability of prevailing. See §24A.23G.

    • Fraud. In Rand Resources, LLC v City of Carson (Feb. 4, 2019, S235735) 2019 Cal App Lexis 635, a defendant’s anti-SLAPP motion to strike failed because the plaintiff’s fraud claim alleging a scheme to breach an exclusive agency agreement and hire competitors was not related to a public interest issue or to a city council’s proceedings, and thus did not arise from protected activity. See §24A.23H.

    • Examples of Cases Holding That Plaintiff Did Not Meet Its Burden. In Monster Energy Co. v Schechter (2018) 26 CA5th 54, 70, a plaintiff could not establish a probability of succeeding on a breach of contract claim because the defendant attorneys did not become parties to the contract merely by signing the contract under words stating “approved as to form and content.” In Area 51 Prods., Inc. v City of Alameda (2018) 20 CA5th 581, 603, a plaintiff could not establish a probability of succeeding on a breach of contract claim because defendants were not parties to the contract and plaintiff failed to supply sufficient facts to support an agency theory of liability. See §24A.29.

    • Litigation Privilege May Preclude Plaintiff’s Ability to Prevail. In Kettler v Gould (2018) 22 CA5th 593, 611, the litigation privilege did not apply to statements made before litigation that could do nothing to further the objects of the litigation. In MMM Holdings v Reich (2018) 21 CA5th 167, 187, an attorney’s dissemination of documents obtained during a qui tam litigation to other attorneys involved in matters separate from, but related to, the qui tam action was protected by the litigation privilege. See §24A.31.

    • Timing After Amended Complaint, Remand, or Transfer. An anti-SLAPP motion to strike a cause of action must be filed within 60 days of service of the earliest complaint containing that cause of action, unless the trial court grants permission for late filing under CCP §425.16(f). The filing of an amended complaint does not extend the 60-day period in which to file an anti-SLAPP motion to strike if an earlier version of the complaint contained the cause of action subject to the desired anti-SLAPP motion. Newport Harbor Ventures, LLC v Morris Cerullo World Evangelism (2018) 4 C5th 637, 640, disapproving Yu v Signet Bank/Virginia (2002) 103 CA4th 298 to the extent it held otherwise. See §24A.42.

    • Moving Party’s Procedures—Moving Papers—Supporting Documents. In Bel Air Internet, LLC v Morales (2018) 20 CA5th 924, 936, a court of appeal held that defendants were not required to submit additional evidentiary support to prevail on an anti-SLAPP motion when the complaint sufficiently showed that plaintiff’s claims arose from protected activity. See §24A.52.

  • Cross-Complaints

    • Procedures—Drafting Cross-Complaint—Demand for Relief (Prayer). Demands for “damages according to proof” do not provide adequate notice to sustain a default judgment. Yu v Liberty Surplus Ins. Corp. (2018) 30 CA5th 1024, 1027 ($1.2 million default judgment voided for lack of notice of amount demanded because cross-complainant prayed for “compensatory damages according to proof” and language in cross-complaint incorporating by reference original complaint did not provide clear and unequivocal notice of prayer for relief). See §26.34.

  • Security for Costs

    • Vexatious Litigants—Procedures—Noticed Motion; Timing. A plaintiff may not escape a vexatious litigant motion by voluntarily dismissing a case. For example, in Pittman v Beck Park Apartments Ltd. (2018) 20 CA5th 1009, 1024, a plaintiff’s voluntary dismissal under CCP §581 did not deprive the trial court of jurisdiction to rule on a vexatious litigant motion that had been filed before the dismissal. See §29.57.

  • Intervention

    • Discretionary Intervention. In Edwards v Heartland Payment Sys, Inc. (2018) 29 CA5th 725, 736, plaintiffs’ proposed reasons for intervening did not outweigh the objections to intervention because intervening was not necessary to protect their rights on appeal, their argument that the original plaintiffs’ complaint failed to name certain class representatives had become moot, and they did not need to intervene to seek discovery from defendants. See §31.4.

  • Summary Judgment

    • Timing Requirements—Requesting a Continuance—Continuance to Conduct Further Discovery—Diligence Required—Court Has Limited Discretion to Grant Continuance in Absence of Diligence. In Levingston v Kaiser Found. Health Plan, Inc. (2018) 26 CA5th 309, 317, despite plaintiff’s inexcusable neglect and although plaintiff did not satisfy the statutory requirements of CCP §437c(h), the trial court should have granted a continuance to file a summary judgment opposition when plaintiff’s counsel’s failure was not willful and defendant could not show prejudice. See §36.51.

    • Preparing Evidence to Support or Oppose Motion for Summary Judgment or Summary Adjudication—Declarations and Affidavits. In Fernandez v Alexander (2019) 31 CA5th 770, 779, a court of appeal held that the rules of evidence still apply to a court’s liberal construction of declarations opposing a summary judgment motion. See §36.106.

    • Preparing Evidence to Support or Oppose Motion for Summary Judgment or Summary Adjudication—Declarations and Affidavits—Opinion Evidence—Expert Opinion Evidence—Include Factual Basis for Opinion. In Fernandez v Alexander (2019) 31 CA5th 770, 782, a court of appeal stated that an expert declaration in opposition to a summary judgment motion is entitled to all favorable inferences, but the inferences must still be reasonably derived from the declaration. See §36.118.

    • Preparing Evidence to Support or Oppose Motion for Summary Judgment or Summary Adjudication—Declarations and Affidavits—Opinion Evidence—Expert Opinion Evidence—Must Not be Merely Conclusory. In Doe v Good Samaritan Hosp. (2018) 23 CA5th 653, 662, an expert declaration for a hospital failed to state the facts on which its conclusions were based and did not include a reasoned explanation for the conclusions. In Fernandez v Alexander (2019) 31 CA5th 770, 781, a medical expert offered no reasoned explanation to support a conclusion that defendant doctor caused further deformity to plaintiff’s wrist. See §36.120.

    • Challenging the Court’s Order—Appellate Court Review—Review of Evidence—Waiver of Evidentiary Objections—Failure to Object to Admission in Trial Court. In Fernandez v Alexander (2019) 31 CA5th 770, 780, because plaintiff did not object to an expert’s declaration in the trial court, plaintiff could not raise its objections to the expert’s opinion on causation on appeal. See §36.201.

  • Default

    • Seeking Relief From Default or Default Judgment—When Relief Is Mandatory Under CCP §473(b). In Pagnini v Union Bank, N.A. (2018) 28 CA5th 298, 304, a court of appeal held that a demurrer is a dismissal motion for purposes of mandatory CCP §473(b) relief, and that plaintiff was entitled to mandatory relief from a sustained demurrer resulting in dismissal. See §38.93.

    • Seeking Relief From Default or Default Judgment—Equitable Relief in Cases of Extrinsic Fraud or Mistake. In Mechling v Asbestos Defendants (2018) 29 CA5th 1241, entry of default judgment against an insured without service of complaint or notice of entry of the default judgment on the insurer constituted extrinsic mistake. See §38.100.

    • Seeking Relief From Default or Default Judgment—Relief if Default Judgment Is Void—What Constitutes a Void Judgment. In Calvert v Al Binali (2018) 29 CA5th 954, 961, a default judgment was void on its face because plaintiffs did not publish a summons in the specific newspaper named by the court order authorizing service by publication. See §38.104.

    • Seeking Relief From Default or Default Judgment—Relief if Default Judgment Is Void—Timing: Relief for Void Judgment May be Requested at Any Time. In Calvert v Al Binali (2018) 29 CA5th 954, 961, a motion to set aside a void judgment under CCP §473(d) was not subject to the 6-month time limit of CCP §473(b). See §38.105.

    • Seeking Relief From Default or Default Judgment—Procedure: How to Obtain Relief From Default or Default Judgment—Reconsideration if Motion Denied. A motion for reconsideration must be made within 10 days after service of written notice of entry of the order at issue. CCP §1008(a); J.W. v Watchtower Bible & Tract Soc’y of New York, Inc. (2018) 29 CA5th 1142, 1171. See §38.105.

  • Dismissal

    • Failure to Bring Action to Trial Within 5 Years: Mandatory Dismissal—When Action “Brought to Trial”—When Jury Impaneled. At least one appellate court has opined that the Hartman procedure of swearing in a witness and then continuing the trial in order to preserve the 5-year period is only permissible when application of the mandatory dismissal statute would be unjust. Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. v Superior Court (2018) 29 CA5th 243, 265 (Hartman procedure inappropriate when plaintiffs did not exercise reasonable diligence in bringing putative class action to point of class certification, a prerequisite for trial on merits). In Hartman v Santamarina (1982) 30 C3d 762, in contrast, the plaintiff obtained several trial dates that were continued when no judge was available, and then several additional trial dates had to be continued as a result of circumstances outside of the parties’ control. See §39.28.

    • Failure to Bring Action to Trial Within 5 Years: Mandatory Dismissal—Statutory Extensions, Excuses, and Exceptions—Court’s Jurisdiction Suspended. In Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. v Superior Court (2018) 29 CA5th 243, 258, tolling under CCP §583.340(b) was inapplicable when an order imposing a 43-day stay of responsive pleadings and formal discovery was not a complete stay used to stop prosecution of the action altogether. See §39.40.

    • Other Grounds for Involuntary Dismissal—Inherent Authority of Court. Independent of other statutory grounds, the court may dismiss an action with prejudice or impose other sanctions under court rules granting it inherent authority to do so. CCP §583.150. This power has been used to dismiss cases when a plaintiff has failed to prosecute diligently or the complaint is “fictitious or sham” such that the plaintiff has no valid cause of action. See, e.g., Huang v Hanks (2018) 23 CA5th 179, 182 (trial court had inherent authority to dismiss fantastic, delusional, and fanciful claim that famous persons used nano-probes to control plaintiff’s mind). See §39.65.

    • Voluntary Dismissal—Description and Use—Tactical Considerations. In Shapira v Lifetech Resources, LLC (2018) 22 CA5th 429, 441, plaintiff, anticipating that defendant would be the prevailing party, requested dismissal of the case, with prejudice, after the commencement of trial but before submission. The trial court, citing fairness grounds, refused to grant plaintiff’s request to dismiss, awarded judgment in defendant’s favor, and ordered plaintiff to pay contractual attorney fees to defendant as the prevailing party. The appellate court reversed, holding that (1) a trial court must grant a plaintiff's dismissal request under CCP §581(e) after commencement of trial but before submission, and (2) a trial court lacks discretion to award contractual attorney fees under CC §1717(b)(2) after a case has been voluntarily dismissed. See §39.98.

  • Trial Preference and Continuance Motions

    • Grounds for Motion for Trial Preference—Party Over Age 70. In Fox v Superior Court (2018) 21 CA5th 529, 535, the court of appeal held that it is error to deny a motion for trial preference by an 81-year old plaintiff suffering from stage IV lung cancer. See §42.4.

    • Motions for Continuance—Statutory Grounds. In Padda v Superior Court (2018) 25 CA5th 25, 28, it was an abuse of discretion not to grant a continuance request after an expert witness fell ill less than 2 weeks before trial. See §42.22.

  • Alternative Dispute Resolution

    • Enforceability of Arbitration Agreement. The Federal Arbitration Act (FAA) authorizes a court to stay litigation and send the parties to an arbitral forum, unless the arbitration agreement is set forth within a contract that is exempt from the Act (e.g., if the arbitration agreement is set forth in a contract of employment of seamen, railroad employees, or any other class of workers engaged in foreign or interstate commerce). 9 USC §1. It is for a court, and not an arbitrator, to determine whether the contract in question falls within the coverage of the FAA or is exempt. New Prime, Inc. v Oliveira (2019) 586 US ___, 139 S Ct 532, 537. See §45.26.

    • Who Decides Issues of Enforceability. In Henry Schein, Inc. v Archer & White Sales, Inc. (2019) 586 US ___, 139 S Ct 524, 529, the United States Supreme Court determined that a court may not conduct an inquiry into whether an assertion of arbitrability itself is wholly groundless if the issue of arbitrability has been clearly and unmistakably delegated to an arbitrator within an arbitration agreement governed by the FAA. The Supreme Court noted that a “wholly groundless” exception to the rule permitting arbitrators to determine issues of arbitrability (when the issue has been clearly delegated to them) is inconsistent with the text of the FAA, noting that “[w]hen the parties’ contract delegates the arbitrability question to an arbitrator, the courts must respect the parties’ decision as embodied in the contract.” This decision settled a dispute regarding this issue among the courts of appeal. See, e.g., Smythe v Uber Technols., Inc. (2018) 24 CA5th 327, 333 (delegation clause clearly directed the arbitrator to determine arbitrability, yet court of appeal conducted limited inquiry into whether defendant’s assertion of arbitrability under arbitration agreement goverend by FAA was wholly groundless). In reaching this decision, the Supreme Court likely abrogated Smythe, but did not specifically name Smythe in its decision. See §45.27A.

    • Methods of Alternative Dispute Resolution—Arbitration by Contractual Agreement—Enforceability of Arbitration Agreement—Unconscionability—Class Action Waivers. In Muro v Cornerstone Staffing Solutions, Inc. (2018) 20 CA5th 784, 792, when a plaintiff made a sufficient showing under the Gentry test, the trial court properly denied a petition to compel arbitration agreement that contained a class action waiver and the arbitration agreement was exempted from the FAA. See §45.28D.

    • Arbitration by Contractual Agreement—Arbitration Procedures—Order Compelling or Denying Arbitration. In Avila v Southern Cal. Specialty Care, Inc. (2018) 20 CA 5th 835, 844, a trial court reasonably stayed an arbitration of survivorship claim due to a risk of inconsistent results with a wrongful death claim. See §45.35.

    • Arbitration by Contractual Agreement—Arbitration Process—Discovery. If a party to an arbitration agreement is dissatisfied with the superior court’s decision regarding an arbitrator’s discovery order, the party may appeal the superior court’s decision. Uber Technols., Inc. v Google LLC (2018) 27 CA5th 953, 962 (defendant party to arbitration agreement could appeal superior court’s order vacating arbitrator’s order compelling third party to produce documents because superior court’s order was final determination of discovery rights between defendant and third party). See §45.40.

    • Arbitration by Contractual Agreement—Arbitration Awards and Remedies—Confirming, Correcting, or Vacating Award. The court must vacate the award if it finds any of the grounds listed in CCP §1286.2. See, e.g., Honeycutt v JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A. (2018) 25 CA5th 909, 930 (award vacated under CCP §1286.2(a)(6)(A) because arbitrator failed to disclose separate, pending arbitration involving same attorney); Baker Marquart LLP v Kantor (2018) 22 CA5th 729, 741 (award vacated under CCP §1286.2(a)(1) as procured by “undue means” because arbitrators took into consideration claims not made in arbitration demand and to which defendant not given opportunity to respond). See §45.49.

  • Offers to Allow Judgment (CCP §998)

    • Nature of Offer—Actions in Which Offer May be Made. In actions to establish an insured decedent’s liability under Prob C §§550–555, a plaintiff may recover costs in excess of the policy limits if the insurer fails to accept a reasonable CCP §998 offer, even if the insurer is not a named party. This is because the insurer, as the entity that controls the litigation and incurs the risk of loss, is a de facto party. Meleski v Estate of Albert Hotlen (2018) 29 CA5th 616, 625 (in action brought under Prob C §§550–555, plaintiff’s damage award was reduced from $180,000 to $100,000 policy limit under Prob C §554, but additional $66,000 cost award upheld because insurer rejected plaintiff’s more favorable settlement offer before trial). See §47.4.

    • Nature of Offer—Consequences of Refusing Offer—Plaintiff Refuses Defendant’s Offer. If the plaintiff reasonably rejects a CCP §998 offer, the attorney fees accrued after the offer may still be recoverable by the plaintiff. See, e.g., Etcheson v FCA US LLC (2018) 30 CA5th 831, 834 (trial court erred in cutting off plaintiffs’ ability to recover attorney fees and costs incurred after date defendant tendered impermissibly vague offer to compromise). See §47.6.

    • Procedures for Making and Accepting Offer—Format of Offer. Ambiguities in a CCP §998 offer may be clarified in writing after it has been made. Prince v Invensure Ins. Brokers, Inc. (2018) 23 CA5th 614, 623 (correspondence between counsel resolved ambiguity in offer). A party bringing an action under a statute that requires a judicial determination of liability for recovery of attorney fees must be careful when using Form CIV-090 to make a CCP §998 offer. None of the checkbox options for costs and fees included in Form CIV-090 provides for costs outside of the context of CCP §1032 and/or reasonable attorney fees to be determined by the court (beyond those permitted by statute). Checking one of these boxes, without providing an additional explanation under box 2(b) or including an attachment to the form, can preclude a party’s recovery of attorney fees in certain instances. For example, in Linton v County of Contra Costa (2019) 31 CA5th 628, 638, the plaintiff brought an action under the California Disabled Persons Act (DPA) (CC §54–55.3). Plaintiff made a CCP §998 offer using Form CIV-090, checked box 2(a)(5) (“[p]lus costs under Code of Civil Procedure section 1032 and attorney’s fees allowed by law as determined by the court”), and provided no further explanation of the settlement terms. The defendant accepted the offer. Although plaintiff was the prevailing party and entitled to costs under CCP §1032, she was not entitled to attorney fees because, under the DPA, recovery of fees requires a judicial determination of defendant’s liability, of which there had been none. See §47.11.

    • Procedures for Making and Accepting Offer—Terms of Offer—Defendant’s Offer to Plaintiff. In Etcheson v FCA US LLC (2018) 30 CA5th 831, 851, an offer that was vague, incomplete, and unclear as to whether plaintiffs would be required to sign a release, was invalid and could not be used to cut off plaintiffs’ recovery of fees and costs. See §47.12.

    • Procedures for Making and Accepting Offer—Terms of Offer—Good Faith Requirement. In Licudine v Cedars-Sinai Med. Ctr. (2019) 30 CA5th, 918, 926, CCP §998 costs were properly denied when plaintiff served an offer 19 days after service of the complaint (5 days after defendant filed an answer), and defendant had little information on the issues of liability and amount of damages. See §47.15.

    • Procedures for Making and Accepting Offer—Joint Offers—Multiple Plaintiffs Making Offer to One Defendant. Plaintiffs may make a joint offer, even if each plaintiff suffered separate injuries. Gonzalez v Lew (2018) 20 CA5th 155, 171 (plaintiffs’ joint CCP §998 offer was not automatically invalidated by fact that plaintiffs did not suffer single, indivisible injury; CCP §998 penalties applied when defendants rejected plaintiff’s $1.5 million offer, one plaintiff recovered $2.2 million at trial, and other plaintiff recovered $357,000). See §47.20.

  • Good Faith Settlement

    • Overview—Impact of Fair Responsibility Act of 1986 on Good Faith Determinations. In LAOSD Asbestos Cases (2018) 28 CA5th 862, 883, a nonsettling defendant was not entitled to CCP §877 credits based on settlements with original, later-deceased plaintiffs when subsequent wrongful death plaintiffs were not bound by the settlement agreement. See §50.7.

About the Authors

Michael C. Denison (Chapter 24A) is a partner in the Los Angeles law firm of Towle Denison Smith & Maniscalco LLP. He practices civil litigation with an emphasis on business litigation and defending business-related torts. Mr. Denison received his J.D. from Loyola Law School Los Angeles in 1974. Before practicing civil litigation, he clerked for the Hon. Manuel L. Real, United States District Court, and served as an assistant United States attorney.

Hon. Fumiko Hachiya Wasserman (Chapter 24A) is a judge of the Los Angeles Superior Court and has served in appellate, civil, criminal, and juvenile assignments. Judge Wasserman served as the chair of the California Center for Judicial Education and Research (CJER) Governing Committee and has developed curricula and taught judges and lawyers throughout her judicial career on a wide range of topics, from criminal proceedings to managing complex civil litigation. She has taught as the National Judicial College, Loyola Law School Los Angeles, and the University of Southern California. Before her appointment to the bench, Judge Wasserman was an assistant United States attorney, a real estate and corporate associate, a deputy Los Angeles city attorney, and a law clerk for the Hon. Terry J. Hatter, Jr., of the United States District Court for the Central District of California. She received her J.D. from Loyola Law School Los Angeles.

About the 2019 Update Authors

TINA M. ALLEGUEZ, B.A., University of California, San Diego; J.D., Pepperdine School of Law. Ms. Alleguez is the managing partner of Alleguez Newman Goodstein LLP in Woodland Hills, where her principal practice areas are commercial litigation with an emphasis in premises and products liability defense, business, and real estate litigation. Ms. Alleguez also serves as outside general counsel for a variety of business clients, advising them in business entity formation, acquisition or sale of businesses or commercial real estate, and business operating issues (including contract preparation and negotiation, collections, risk management analysis, corporate compliance, and dissolution). Ms. Alleguez is a member of the San Fernando Valley Bar Association and is the Board President of a dual immersion nonprofit charter school located in Canoga Park. Ms. Alleguez assisted with the update of chapter 42.

AMY T. BRANTLY, B.A., California State University, Fullerton, magna cum laude; J.D., Fordham University School of Law. Ms. Brantly is a founding partner of Kesselman Brantly Stockinger LLP, where her primary practice areas include business litigation and antitrust and unfair competition matters. Ms. Brantly’s antitrust experience includes litigating group boycott cases, exclusionary contracting practices, price fixing, and bid rigging involving numerous markets, including semiconductors, medical devices, cosmetics, and sports. For several years, Ms. Brantly has served as a contributing editor of the leading treatise in California on antitrust and unfair competition law. She is also active in the community, volunteering at the Sojourn domestic violence clinic with the Woman Lawyers Association (WLA) of Los Angeles, and has served on the Board of the WLA for a decade, including serving as President from 2017–2018. Ms. Brantly assisted with the update of chapter 39.

MARGARET L. CARTER, A.B. and J.D., Harvard University. Ms. Carter is a litigation partner in the Los Angeles office of O’Melveny & Myers LLP. She is a former federal prosecutor who specializes in high-stakes civil and white collar criminal trials, sensitive internal investigations, and regulatory matters. The Los Angeles Business Journal named Ms. Carter among the “Most Influential Women Lawyers” in Los Angeles. Ms. Carter is a former Ninth Circuit clerk. She assisted with the update of chapter 23, and acknowledges Daniel Tully and Katelyn Kuwata, associates with O’Melveny & Myers, for their valuable assistance in updating this chapter.

MONISHA A. COELHO, B.A., St. Xavier College; LL.B., University of Bombay; LL.M., University of Southern California. Ms. Coelho is the Head of International Practice with the Adli Law Group in Los Angeles, where her main practice areas are business litigation, complex corporate transactions, and cross-border India-U.S. litigation and transactions. She is amongst a small group of attorneys nationwide who have successfully practiced law (transactions and litigation) in both California and India. She was featured on the cover of the Los Angeles Lawyer Magazine, has been invited to speak at Los Angeles law schools and bar associations, and authored the book, Fundamentals of an American Lawsuit (For Businesses). Ms. Coelho assisted with the update of chapter 7.

DAVID DORENFELD, B.A., Cal State University, Northridge; J.D., Whittier College School of Law, magna cum laude. Mr. Dorenfeld is the founder and principal of DorenfeldLaw, Inc. Mr. Dorenfeld has over 20 years of experience, and focuses his practice in areas of business law, real estate, and insurance law. He regularly sits as a pro tem judge and offers his services as a pro bono mediator for the County of Los Angeles. Mr. Dorenfeld provides continuing education to the insurance industry and is regularly called on by other lawyers for litigation strategy and resolution of insurance-related coverage issues. Mr. Dorenfeld assisted with the update of chapter 45.

GARY J. GOODSTEIN, B.A., San Francisco State University; J.D., Loyola Law School, cum laude. Mr. Goodstein is a partner with Alleguez Newman Goodstein LLP in Woodland Hills, where his practice focuses on complex business disputes, real estate litigation, insurance coverage, and civil appeals. Mr. Goodstein is a member of the Board of Trustees of the San Fernando Valley Bar Association and the Litigation Section executive committee of the Los Angeles County Bar Association (LACBA). He is also the past president of the Los Angeles Trial Practice chapter of the American Inns of Court. He regularly conducts continuing education seminars on topics including civil procedure, evidence, and trial technique. Mr. Goodstein assisted with the update of chapter 24.

LISA LAWSON, A.B., Duke University; J.D., UCLA School of Law. Ms. Lawson is a partner at Lawson & Lawson LLP, where she specializes in employment litigation. Ms. Lawson has over 20 years of experience litigating high-stakes employment-related cases and advising California employers and executives. She has served on the Executive Committee of the State Bar’s Labor and Employment Law Section (now under the California Lawyer’s Association (CLA)). Ms. Lawson also has been peer rated “Preeminent” (5 out of 5) by Martindale Hubbell and has consistently been named a Northern California “Super Lawyer.” Ms. Lawson assisted with the update of chapter 47.

SCOTT G. LAWSON, B.A., University of California, Berkeley; M.A., University of California, Berkeley; J.D., University of Utah College of Law. Mr. Lawson is a partner in Lawson & Lawson LLP in San Francisco and Oakland, where he is an employment and commercial litigation trial lawyer. Mr. Lawson is Vice-Chair of the Executive Committee of the Litigation Section of the Bar Association of San Francisco (BASF). He also serves as an instructor in the Trial Skills Workshop at Stanford Law School. Mr. Lawson assisted with the update of chapter 36.

AARON M. MAY, B.A./B.S., Brown University; J.D., Stanford Law School. Mr. May is a founding partner at Huang Ybarra Gelberg & May LLP in Los Angeles, where his principal practice areas are commercial civil litigation and government investigations. Mr. May is a former federal prosecutor and is currently a member of the Executive Committee of the Los Angeles County Bar Association (LACBA) Litigation Section and Vice President of the Board of Directors of the Housing Rights Center, the nation’s largest nonprofit, civil rights organization dedicated to promoting and securing fair housing. Mr. May assisted with the update of chapter 23.

WARREN METLITZKY, B.A., Yale University; J.D., University of Michigan Law School, cum laude. Mr. Metlitzky is a founding partner of Conrad & Metlitzky, a civil trial boutique in San Francisco. He is an accomplished first-chair trial and appellate lawyer representing businesses and individuals in state and federal courts. He specializes in trying high-profile jury cases to verdict, and has successfully argued before the Ninth Circuit and the California Court of Appeal. Following law school, Mr. Metlitzky clerked for the Honorable Chief Judge Marilyn Hall Patel in the Northern District of California. After a few years in private practice, he then spent nearly a decade as a trial lawyer with the San Francisco City Attorney’s Office handling dozens of civil jury trials and appeals in both state and federal courts. The County Counsel’s Association of California recognized Mr. Metlitzky for his appellate work with its annual Litigation Award. He then joined the Department of Justice as an Assistant United States Attorney in the Northern District of California, where he was appointed as a Special Attorney to the United States Attorney General. Mr. Metlitzky served as the Chair of the San Francisco Bar Association’s Litigation Section and is a frequent speaker for continuing education programs. He also coaches UC Berkeley School of Law’s mock trial team, guest lectures on trial advocacy at local law schools, and is a certified mediator. He is on the Board of Directors of the San Francisco Jewish Bar Association and is a member of the Bar Association of San Francisco, the Federal Bar Association, and The Edward J. McFetridge American Inn of Court. Mr. Metlitzky assisted with the update of chapter 36.

LAURIE CARR MIMS, A.B., Duke University, summa cum laude; J.D., Harvard Law School, cum laude. Ms. Mims, who is a partner at Keker, Van Nest & Peters LLP, has extensive experience litigating complex civil matters, including securities class actions and shareholder derivative actions. She has tried a variety of cases, including several as first chair. While Ms. Mims has represented institutional and individual clients from a wide range of industries, most of her clients are in the biotechnology and venture capital fields. She has also handled high-stakes matters involving the False Claims Act, breach of contract, fraud, trade secret theft, and copyright infringement, and has defended individuals in DOJ investigations and prosecutions. She is the Chair of the Bar Association of San Francisco’s Litigation Section (BASF). Ms. Mims assisted with the update of chapter 22.

DIMITRI D. PORTNOI, B.A., Columbia University; J.D., New York University. Mr. Portnoi is a litigation partner in the Los Angeles office of O’Melveny & Myers LLP, where he represents clients in a wide range of complex business litigation, financial service, and entertainment matters, including consumer class actions, unfair competition, business torts, fraud, contract, and related commercial litigation. Mr. Portnoi assisted with the update of chapter 23, and acknowledges Daniel Tully and Katelyn Kuwata, associates with O’Melveny & Myers, for their valuable assistance in updating this chapter.

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