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California Elder Law Litigation: An Advocate's Guide

Serve your clients skillfully and confidently with this comprehensive resource on elder abuse litigation.

Serve your clients skillfully and confidently with this comprehensive resource on elder abuse litigation.

  • Actions against skilled nursing facilities
  • Actions against residential care facilities for the elderly
  • Actions for financial abuse under EADACPA
  • Actions for unfair business practices and abuse of elders by fiduciaries
  • Actions to obtain protective orders
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Serve your clients skillfully and confidently with this comprehensive resource on elder abuse litigation.

  • Actions against skilled nursing facilities
  • Actions against residential care facilities for the elderly
  • Actions for financial abuse under EADACPA
  • Actions for unfair business practices and abuse of elders by fiduciaries
  • Actions to obtain protective orders

Selected Developments

June 2020 Update

  • Elder and Dependent Adult Civil Protect Act (EADACPA).

    • Enhanced Remedies. Effective January 1, 2020, the enhanced remedies under Welf & I C §15657 are available for actions based on abandonment, in addition to physical abuse and neglect, upon a finding of recklessness, oppression, fraud, or malice. See §§2.45A, 2.68, 2.70A, 2.70C, 5.75.

    • Statute of Limitations. If the victim of elder abuse lacked capacity at the time of injury and subsequently dies while incapacitated, the limitations period begins to run upon the victim’s death under CCP §352. Moreover, that period is tolled pending appeal. Fenimore v The Regents of the University of California (2020) 44 CA5th 740, 743. See §3.48.

    • Medical Injury Compensation Reform Act (MICRA), Compared. An action alleging “conscious and continued pattern of withholding the most basic care and services” in violation of EADACPA was not an action for professional negligence and thus not subject to arbitration provisions under MICRA. Avila v Southern Cal. Specialty Care, Inc. (2018) 20 CA5th 835. See §2.80A.

    • EADACPA Protective Orders. See developments under “Protective Orders,” discussed later in this section.

  • Skilled Nursing Facilities (SNF).

    • Ownership Disclosures. Effective January 1, 2020, Health & S C §128734 requires any organization that operates, conducts, owns, or maintains an SNF to report to the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development whether the licensee, or a general partner, director, or officer of the licensee, has an ownership or controls interest of 5 percent or more in a related party that provides any service to the SNF. See §2.6.

    • Reasonable Licensee Defense. To assert the “reasonable licensee” defense, a facility need not establish the existence of an emergency or other special circumstance. RSCR Inland, Inc. v State Dep’t of Public Health (2020) 42 CA5th 122, 136. See §2.40.

    • Arbitration Agreements.

      • Common Law Defenses. For recent cases invalidating arbitration agreements in the SNF context, based on the signatory’s lack of authority, unconscionability, or both, see Valentine v Plum Healthcare Group, LLC (2019) 37 CA5th 1076 (lack of authority) and Lopez v Bartlett Care Ctr., LLC (2019) 39 CA5th 311 (lack of authority and unconscionability), discussed in §§2.21, 3.65, 3.63A, 3.65. See also OTO, L.L.C. v Kho (2019) 8 C5th 111 and Subcontracting Concepts (CT), LLC v De Melo (2019) 34 CA5th 201 (invalidating arbitration agreements on unconscionability grounds in employment context), discussed in §3.65.

      • Filing Opposition. For a case recognizing the court’s authority to consider late-filed opposition papers for good cause, see Correia v NB Baker Electric, Inc. (2019) 32 CA5th 602, discussed in §3.63B.

      • Predispute Arbitration Agreements. For SNFs participating in Medicare or Medi-Cal programs, former 42 CFR §483.70(n)(1) had prohibited predispute arbitration agreements in nursing home contracts. However, that rule was suspended shortly after passage and has now been replaced by revised 42 CFR §483.70(n) (effective Sept. 16, 2019), which permits predispute arbitration agreements subject to various protections. For substantive requirements and historical discussion, see §§2.21, 2.24, 3.28, 3.63A.

    • Notification of Change of Ownership. Effective January 1, 2020, a skilled nursing facility must give 90 days’ notification to its residents of a change of ownership. Additionally, new owners may not terminate existing staff, except the administrator or director of nursing, without cause during the first 60 days of ownership. Health & S C §§1267.61–1267.62. See §2.34B.

    • Private Action to Enforce the Federal Nursing Home Reform Amendments (FNHRA). In Anderson v Dooley (9th Cir 2019) 930 F3d 1066, the Ninth Circuit held that FNHRA created individual rights enforceable through a private action under 42 USC §1983. See §2.61.

    • Discovery—Records Regarding Other Residents. For a new section discussing the discovery of information about other residents and privacy limitations to such discovery, see §3.8. In a recent case involving medical information, the court permitted discovery of patient records from a doctor accused of overprescribing controlled substances. Grafilo v Soorani (2019) 41 CA5th 497 (noting that compelling interest is not always required to discovery information protected by right to privacy).

    • Joint and Several Liability. The California Supreme Court has granted review in B.B. v County of Los Angeles (review granted Oct. 10, 2018, S250734; opinion at 25 CA5th 115, to remain published and citable for persuasive value only until further order) and Burch v CertainTeed Corp. (review granted July 10, 2019, S255969; opinion at 34 CA5th 341, to remain published and citable for persuasive value only until further order), to determine whether a defendant who commits an intentional tort may invoke CC §1431.2 to have his or her liability for damages reduced based on principles of comparative fault.

  • Residential Care Facilities for the Elderly (RCFE).

    • Staffing. In May 2019, an in-depth investigative report by the Center for Investigative Reporting revealed widespread exploitation of RCFE staff, many of whom effectively as little as $2 per hour. See https://www.revealnews.org/article/california-regulators-arent-taking-action-against-care-homes-that-ignore-wage-theft-judgments, discussed in §4.6A.

    • Inspection Tools. In November 2019, CCLD launched new inspection tools for RCFEs statewide. The standardized inspection tool contains approximately 500 requirements and covers a range of requirements, organized by domains, to assess the overall health of a facility. See §4.14.

    • Suspension of Admissions. Effective July 1, 2019, the Department of Social Services issued new regulations implementing its authority, under Health & S C §1569.545, to suspend new admissions for a facility. See 22 Cal Code Regs §§87764–87765 (providing grounds for suspension, procedural requirements, and appeals process), discussed in §4.17A.

    • Assisted Living Waiver Program. As of October 1, 2019, there are 4,286 residents enrolled in the ALW, and 4,861 applicants are on the waitlist. See https://www.dhcs.ca.gov/services/ltc/Documents/October-ALW-Dashboard.pdf, discussed in §4.33.

    • Medi-Cal and Share of Cost for RCFE Residents. On July 9, 2019, California enacted legislation to increase the income limit for the “Aged & Disabled Federal Poverty Level” Program, from 100 percent up to 138 percent of the federal poverty level. See Stats 2019, ch 67 (SB 104), amending Welf & I C §14005.40. The increased income limit will be implemented on August 1, 2020 and applies prospectively only. ACWD Letter No. 20–02 (Jan. 31, 2020). See §4.34.

  • Financial Elder Abuse.

    • Double Damages Penalty under Prob C §859.

      • Bad Faith Finding. Generally, a claim for double damages under Prob C §859 based on taking property through financial elder abuse, as defined in Welf & I C §15610.30, does not expressly require a separate finding of bad faith. Kerley v Weber (2018) 27 CA5th 1187). However, a finding of bad faith is required to obtain double damages based on an undue influence theory of financial elder abuse under Welf & I C §15610.30(a)(3). See Levin v Winston-Levin (2019) 39 CA5th 1025, discussed in §6.16.

      • Calculating Penalty Amount. Currently, there is a split in authority regarding the appropriate method of calculating the amount of damages provided under Prob C §859. Compare Conservatorship of Ribal (2019) 31 CA5th 519, 525 (double damages are not calculated by first assessing amount of damages, then doubling and assessing that amount separately, as this would result in treble damages), with Estate of Ashlock (Mar. 3, 2020, F078083) 2020 Cal App Lexis 180 (characterizing Prob C §859 as penalty, rather than “damages” provision at all; amount calculated by doubling value of misappropriated property and awarded in addition to recovery of property itself); Estate of Kraus (2010) 184 CA4th 103, 117 (same). See §6.16.

    • Presumption of Fraud or Undue Influence—Care Custodians. Effective January 1, 2020, Prob C §21380(a)(4) creates a rebuttable presumption that a donative transfer to a care custodian was the product of fraud or undue influence, if the care custodian commenced a marriage, cohabitation, or domestic partnership with a transferor who is a dependent adult (1) while providing services to that dependent adult, or (2) within 90 days after those services were last provided to the dependent adult, if the donative transfer occurred, or the instrument was executed, less than 6 months after the marriage, cohabitation, or domestic partnership commenced. Additionally, the exception from the presumption of undue influence under Prob C §21382 for specified relatives and cohabitants of the transferor does not apply to a care custodian described in Prob C §21380(a)(4). See §6A.27.

    • Mandated Reporters. Effective January 1, 2020, Welf & I C §15630.2 expands the category of mandated reporters of financial elder abuse to include broker-dealers, as defined by Corp C §25004, and investment advisers, as defined by Corp C §25009. See §6A.22.

  • Actions Against Fiduciaries—Standing. In Barefoot v Jennings (2020) 8 C5th 822, the California Supreme Court held that a former beneficiary has standing to challenge the validity of a trust amendment that disinherited the beneficiary on grounds that the amendment arose from lack of capacity, undue influence, or fraud. See §7.1E.

  • Protective Orders.

    • Firearms. A person who owns, possesses, purchases, receives, or attempts to purchase or receive, a firearm knowing that he or she is prohibited from doing so in any jurisdiction by a protective order issued under the DVPA, CCP §527.6, or Welf & I C §15657.03, or by a valid order issued by an out-of-state jurisdiction that is similar or equivalent to a protective order issued under one of these statutes and that includes a firearms prohibition, is guilty of a public offense punishable by imprisonment for up to 1 year, a fine up to $1000, or both. Pen C §29825(a)–(b). See §8.21.

    • Residence Exclusions. For purposes of a “move-out” order under Welf & I C § 15657.03(b)(4)(B), “dwelling” in the context of a multi-unit building means an individual apartment or other unit in the building and not the entire building. Herriott v Herriott (2019) 33 CA5th 212, 224. Thus, a petitioner may seek an order requiring the restrained person to move out from the petitioner’s own unit, but not out of the entire multi-unit building. See §8.29.

    • Mandatory Counseling or Anger Management Courses. After notice and a hearing, the court may issue an order requiring a person subject to an elder abuse restraining order to participate in mandatory clinical counseling or anger management courses provided by a counselor, psychologist, psychiatrist, therapist, clinical social worker, or other mental or behavioral health professional licensed in the state to provide those services. Welf & I C 15657.03(z). Direction on the implementation of Welf & I C §15657.03(z) will be provided by the Judicial Council in forms to be promulgated by January 1, 2021. See new §8.30C.

    • Conduct Constituting Elder Abuse. A petitioner seeking an elder abuse protective order is only required to prove elder abuse, not criminal assault. Tanguilig v Valdez (2019) 36 CA5th 514, 526 (repeatedly blocking elder’s driveway with trash cans and spraying elder with garden hose, causing elder mental anguish, constituted “abuse of an elder” supporting issuance of restraining order). See §8.46.

    • Domestic Violence Restraining Orders—Alternative Service. Effective January 1, 2020, the Judicial Council issued new forms relating to the alternative service methods when the restrained party is evading service. See What if the Person I Want Protection From is Avoiding (Evading) Service? (Judicial Council Form DV-205) (information sheet describing forms of alternative service and procedures for securing order allowing alternative service); Order Granting Alternative Service (Judicial Council Form DV-117) (to be used when court grants request for alternative service); and Summons (Domestic Violence Restraining Order) (Judicial Council Form DV-210) (to be used if the form of alternative service ordered requires a summons), discussed in §§8.75A–8.75C.

1

Introduction to Elder Law Litigation

CEB Staff

  • I.  ELDER LAW LITIGATION: AN EXPANDING FIELD  1.1
  • II.  ELDER ABUSE AND DEPENDENT ADULT CIVIL PROTECTION ACT (EADACPA)  1.2
  • III.  SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES (SNFs)  1.3
  • IV.  RESIDENTIAL CARE FACILITIES FOR THE ELDERLY (RCFEs)  1.4
  • V.  FINANCIAL ABUSE  1.5
  • VI.  PROTECTIVE ORDERS  1.6
  • VII.  ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS  1.7

2

Understanding Skilled Nursing Facilities

Russell S. Balisok

Peter G. Lomhoff

  • I.  REPRESENTING ABUSED ELDERS
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  2.1
    • B.  Widespread Abuse in Skilled Nursing Facilities (SNFs); Examples and Causes  2.2
      • 1.  Poorly Trained and Low-Paid Staff Employees  2.3
      • 2.  Inadequate Medical Care  2.4
      • 3.  Abuse by SNF in Concert With Physician  2.5
      • 4.  Profit Motive of Facility Operator  2.6
      • 5.  Lack of Meaningful Enforcement by Regulatory Agencies  2.7
    • C.  Traditional Reluctance to Represent Elders
      • 1.  Limited Recovery for Damages  2.8
      • 2.  Possible Loss of Government Benefits  2.9
    • D.  Potent Remedies Available
      • 1.  Elder Abuse and Dependent Adult Civil Protection Act (EADACPA)  2.10
      • 2.  Punitive Damages  2.11
  • II.  REGULATION OF NURSING FACILITY INDUSTRY
    • A.  Broad Scope of Regulation  2.12
    • B.  Legal Authority; Definitions   2.13
    • C.  Admission Contracts  2.14
      • 1.  Prohibited Contract Provisions  2.15
        • a.  Third Party Guaranties of Payment  2.16
        • b.  Provisions Discriminating Against Residents Eligible for Medi-Cal  2.17
        • c.  Waivers of Liability  2.18
        • d.  Blanket Consents to Treatment  2.19
      • 2.  Required Contract Provisions
        • a.  Specific Itemization of Charges Assessed Above Basic Daily Rate  2.20
        • b.  Arbitration Clauses  2.21
    • D.  Other Regulations Under California and Federal Law
      • 1.  License to Operate Facility Required  2.22
      • 2.  Regulations Governing Services, Patient Care, and Staff  2.23
        • a.  Federal Law
          • (1)  Recent Amendments to Federal Regulations   2.24
          • (2)  Use of Resources and Care Plan  2.24A
          • (3)  Required Services  2.25
          • (4)  Maintaining Patient Independence and Ensuring Highest Possible Quality of Life  2.26
          • (5)  Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act  2.26A
        • b.  State Law  2.27
      • 3.  Statutory Expressions of Patients’ Rights  2.28
        • a.  Protections Against Eviction  2.29
        • b.  Right to Return to Nursing Facility After Hospital Stay  2.30
      • 4.  Rights Provided by California Law  2.31
        • a.  Civil Enforcement of Patients’ Rights  2.32
        • b.  Patients’ Rights to Disclosure and Informed Consent  2.33
      • 5.  Family Notification of Change in Health or Mental Status  2.34
      • 6.  Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program  2.35
      • 7.  Registered Nurse as Patients’ Advocate  2.35A
      • 8.  Notification of Change in Ownership; Retention of Staff  2.35B
    • E.  Administrative Procedures for Enforcing State Regulations
      • 1.  Request for Inspection  2.36
      • 2.  Inspection  2.37
      • 3.  Statement of Deficiency and Plan of Correction  2.38
      • 4.  Citation
        • a.  When Citation May Be Issued  2.39
        • b.  “Reasonable Licensee” Defense  2.40
      • 5.  Classification of Violations  2.41
      • 6.  Facility’s Contest of Citation; Final Administrative Order  2.42
  • III.  STANDING TO BRING ACTION ON BEHALF OF DECEDENT
    • A.  Who May Bring Survival Action  2.42A
    • B.  Proceeding Without Compliance With CCP §337.32  2.42B
    • C.  Problems When Heir Is Missing  2.42C
  • IV.  THEORIES OF RECOVERY
    • A.  Overview  2.43
    • B.  Negligence  2.44
    • C.  Willful Misconduct  2.45
    • D.  Elder Abuse  2.45A
    • E.  Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress  2.46
    • F.  Battery  2.47
    • G.  Fraud
      • 1.  Actual Fraud  2.48
        • a.  Elements  2.49
        • b.  Fraudulent Misrepresentation, Promises to Patient, and Fraudulent Concealment  2.50
        • c.  Fraudulent Misrepresentations and Promises to CDPH  2.51
      • 2.  Constructive Fraud
        • a.  Elements  2.52
        • b.  Fiduciary Relationships  2.53
      • 3.  Damages for Fraud  2.54
    • H.  Unfair, Unlawful, or Fraudulent Business Practice
      • 1.  Conduct Prohibited by Bus & P C §17200  2.55
      • 2.  Standing to Proceed to Protect Consumers; Statute of Limitations  2.56
      • 3.  Remedies; Attorney Fees  2.57
      • 4.  Broad Discovery Rights  2.58
    • I.  Deceptive Practice Under Consumers Legal Remedies Act
      • 1.  Conduct Prohibited by CC §1770  2.59
      • 2.  Remedies; Attorney Fees  2.60
    • J.  Violations of Patients’ Rights (Health & S C §1430)  2.61
    • K.  Negligent Infliction of Emotional Distress  2.62
      • 1.  Bystander Cases  2.63
      • 2.  Direct Victim Cases  2.64
    • L.  Cause of Action Under Pen C §368
      • 1.  Civil Action for Violation of §368  2.65
      • 2.  Possible Limited Applicability of Pen C §368 to Nursing Home Abuse  2.66
      • 3.  Constitutionality of Pen C §368(b)  2.67
  • V.  ENHANCED REMEDIES IN ACTIONS AGAINST SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES
    • A.  Elder Abuse and Dependent Adult Civil Protection Act (EADACPA)  2.68
      • 1.  Definitions
        • a.  Physical Abuse  2.69
        • b.  Neglect  2.70
      • 2.  No Requirement of Custodial Care for Physical Abuse  2.70A
      • 3.  Distinction Between Neglect and Professional Negligence  2.70B
      • 4.  Abandonment  2.70C
      • 5.  Remedies  2.71
      • 6.  Allegations That Should Be Included if EADACPA Remedies Sought  2.72
      • 7.  Retroactive Application in Actions Against SNFs: New Remedy or New Cause of Action [Deleted]  2.73
    • B.  Punitive Damages (CC §3294)
      • 1.  Relationship Between EADACPA and Punitive Damages  2.74
      • 2.  Proving Punitive Damages  2.74A
    • C.  Unfair Practices Against Senior Citizens or Disabled Persons (CC §3345)  2.75
    • D.  Table: Remedies in Actions Against SNFs  2.76
  • VI.  RELATIONSHIP OF EADACPA TO MEDICAL INJURY COMPENSATION REFORM ACT OF 1975 (MICRA)  2.77
    • A.  MICRA Limited to Actions Based on Professional Negligence  2.78
    • B.  Varying Definitions of Actions Based on Professional Negligence  2.79
    • C.  EADACPA Remedies Under Welf & I C §15657 Not Subject to MICRA Limitations  2.80
    • D.  Wrongful Death Caused by Elder Abuse Not Subject to MICRA Limitations  2.80A
    • E.  Statute of Limitations Questions Reviewed  2.81
    • F.  Actions for Breach of Duty of Ordinary Care Not Covered by MICRA
      • 1.  Professional Negligence Versus Ordinary Negligence  2.82
      • 2.  Different Approaches to Determining Whether Duty Is Professional or Ordinary  2.83
  • VII.  RELATIONSHIP OF PUNITIVE DAMAGE PROCEDURE UNDER CCP §425.13 TO EADACPA  2.84
  • VIII.  INSURANCE COVERAGE ISSUES
    • A.  Possible Coverage for Intentional Conduct or Recklessness  2.85
    • B.  Nursing Home Abuse Cases  2.86

3

Actions Against Skilled Nursing Facilities

Peter G. Lomhoff

Russell S. Balisok

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  3.1
  • II.  EVALUATION: DECIDING WHETHER TO TAKE THE CASE  3.2
    • A.  Questions for First Phone Call
      • 1.  Is This an Emergency?  3.3
      • 2.  Is There a Statute of Limitations Problem?  3.4
      • 3.  Does Attorney Want to Reject Case Quickly?  3.5
      • 4.  Does Attorney Need More Information Before Deciding Whether to Take Case?  3.6
    • B.  Questions for Initial Interview  3.7
      • 1.  Who Is the Caller, Who Is the Resident, What Is Their Relationship, and Who Will Be the Plaintiff?  3.8
      • 2.  What Are Resident’s Age, Condition, and Full Identification?  3.9
      • 3.  What Are Family Members’ Needs?  3.10
      • 4.  Identify Family Members and Family Representative; Are There Family Conflicts?  3.11
      • 5.  What Was the Injury and What Caused It?  3.12
      • 6.  Is the Injury Part of a Pattern?  3.13
      • 7.  What Promises Were Made Before and After Admission to Nursing Home?  3.14
      • 8.  Who Are the Witnesses?  3.15
      • 9.  Has Any Third Party Investigation Been Done?  3.16
      • 10.  Will Any Liens and Claims or Public Benefits Be Lost?  3.17
    • C.  Collecting Records and Checking Data Sources  3.18
      • 1.  CDPH Licensing Records
        • a.  Nature of Licensing Records  3.19
        • b.  Surveys  3.20
        • c.  Citations and Substantiated Complaints  3.21
      • 2.  DHCS Audits and Investigations Division Records  3.22
      • 3.  Federal Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Records  3.23
      • 4.  Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD) Records  3.24
      • 5.  Professional License Records  3.25
      • 6.  Medical Records  3.26
      • 7.  Nursing Home’s Records  3.27
      • 8.  Nursing Home’s Admission Contract  3.28
      • 9.  Nursing Home’s Advertising and Handbooks  3.29
      • 10.  Death Certificate and Coroner’s Report  3.30
      • 11.  Elder and Dependent Adult Death Review Teams  3.31
      • 12.  Decedent’s Relevant Personal Papers  3.32
    • D.  Ombudsman Records  3.32A
    • E.  Checklist: Preliminary Investigation of SNF  3.33
    • F.  Organizing and Reviewing Records and Data
      • 1.  Organizing Records  3.34
      • 2.  Reviewing Staff Time Records  3.35
      • 3.  Reviewing Admission and Discharge Reports  3.36
      • 4.  Review by Consultants  3.37
    • G.  Assessing Case for Punitive Damages, Other Enhanced Remedies, and Excess Liability  3.38
      • 1.  Nature of Injuries  3.39
      • 2.  Breach of Regulations  3.40
    • H.  Assessing Potential for Avoiding MICRA and CCP §425.13  3.41
      • 1.  Actions Not Covered by MICRA  3.42
      • 2.  Actions Against Unlicensed Health Care Providers  3.43
    • I.  Questionnaire: Evaluating Case and Creating Discovery Plan  3.44
  • III.  IDENTIFYING CLIENTS AND SIGNING RETAINER AGREEMENT
    • A.  Potential Clients  3.45
    • B.  Retainer Agreement
      • 1.  Attorney-Client Fee Agreement; Effect of Bus & P C §§6146–6147  3.46
      • 2.  Possible Conflict of Interest Between Attorney and Client  3.47
  • IV.  INITIATING THE ACTION
    • A.  Drafting the Complaint
      • 1.  Statutes of Limitations
        • a.  Limitations Period for Actions Under EADACPA and MICRA  3.48
        • b.  Limitations Period for Fraud Allegations  3.49
        • c.  Limitations Period When Defendant Convicted of Felony  3.50
        • d.  Tolling for Mental Incompetence  3.51
        • e.  Limitations Period for Resident’s Survival Action  3.52
      • 2.  The Plaintiffs  3.53
      • 3.  The Defendants
        • a.  Nursing Home, Employees, Doctor  3.54
        • b.  HMO Defendants  3.55
        • c.  Other Defendants  3.56
      • 4.  Bifurcation  3.57
      • 5.  Possible Causes of Action  3.58
      • 6.  Practical Considerations in Drafting  3.59
      • 7.  Possible Class Action or Multi-Plaintiff Action  3.59A
    • B.  Petition for Appointment of Guardian Ad Litem  3.60
    • C.  Declaration or Petition of Successor in Interest  3.61
    • D.  When to File Complaint  3.62
  • V.  RESPONDING TO PETITION FOR ARBITRATION
    • A.  Why Defendants Seek Arbitration  3.63
    • B.  Plaintiff’s Response to Petition for Arbitration
      • 1.  Conflict of State and Federal Law on Arbitration  3.63A
      • 2.  Timing of Opposition to the Petition to Compel Arbitration   3.63B
      • 3.  Gather Information on Arbitration Agreement  3.64
      • 4.  Draft Opposition to Petition  3.65
  • VI.  MOVING TO AMEND COMPLAINT TO ALLOW CLAIM FOR PUNITIVE DAMAGES (CCP §425.13)  3.66
    • A.  Elements of Punitive Damages Claim
      • 1.  Professional Negligence of Licensed Health Care Provider  3.67
        • a.  Proving Professional Negligence  3.68
        • b.  Examples of When §425.13 Requirements Not Met  3.69
      • 2.  Substantial Probability of Success  3.70
      • 3.  Timely Filing of Motion
        • a.  Statutory Deadlines  3.71
        • b.  Gathering Sufficient Evidence in Light of Deadlines  3.72
    • B.  Significance of §425.13 Motion  3.73
    • C.  Preparation and Form of §425.13 Motion  3.74
    • D.  Declarations in Support of Motion
      • 1.  Admissibility of Authenticated Licensing Records Generally  3.75
        • a.  Admissibility of Licensing Records of the Present Incident  3.75A
        • b.  Narrow Limitation on Admissibility of Plan of Correction  3.75B
      • 2.  Declarations of Client and Family  3.76
      • 3.  Declarations of Experts  3.77
    • E.  CCP §425.13 and CC §3295  3.78
  • VII.  CONDUCTING DISCOVERY AND CONTINUING EVIDENCE GATHERING  3.79
    • A.  Plan of Correction
      • 1.  Nursing Home’s Disregard of Plan  3.80
      • 2.  Admission of Plan of Correction  3.81
      • 3.  When CDPH Fails to Issue Citation for Gross Violations  3.82
    • B.  Staffing  3.83
    • C.  Nursing Home Finances  3.84
    • D.  Lines of Responsibility  3.85
    • E.  Internal Nursing Home Records  3.86
      • 1.  Records Regarding Resident  3.87
      • 2.   Records Regarding Other Residents; Right to Privacy Concerns  3.87A
      • 3.  Records Regarding Staffing  3.88
      • 4.  Records Regarding Ownership, Management, and Administration  3.89
    • F.  Depositions  3.90
  • VIII.  PROVING NEGLIGENCE PER SE AND CAUSATION  3.91
  • IX.  PROVING PUNITIVE DAMAGES AND ENHANCED REMEDIES UNDER EADACPA
    • A.  Proving Malice, Fraud, or Oppression  3.92
      • 1.  Malice  3.93
      • 2.  Oppression  3.94
      • 3.  Fraud  3.95
      • 4.  Violation of Regulations as Proof of Malice and Oppression  3.96
        • a.  Example: Failure to Prevent Bedsores  3.97
        • b.  Example: Failure to Develop Comprehensive Care Plan  3.98
      • 5.  Willful and Conscious Disregard; Willful Misconduct
        • a.  Willfulness Inferred From Failure to Follow Regulations  3.99
        • b.  Willfulness Inferred From CDPH Finding of Failure to Follow Regulations  3.100
    • B.  Distinction Between Malice, Oppression, and Fraud Regarding Client Resident and Residents in General  3.101
    • C.  Liability of Corporate Owners and Managers for Punitive Damages and Enhanced Remedies Under EADACPA  3.102
      • 1.  Who Is a Managing Agent?  3.103
      • 2.  Conscious Disregard of Rights and Safety by Managing Agent  3.104
    • D.  Use of Facility’s Operating Budget as Evidence
      • 1.  Defendant’s “Profits”  3.105
      • 2.  Discovery of Budget Information  3.106
    • E.  Significance of Criminal Conduct as Grounds for Punitive Damages and EADACPA Remedies  3.107
    • F.  Joint and Several Liability  3.107A
  • X.  SPECIAL SETTLEMENT ISSUES
    • A.  Role of Cumis Counsel  3.108
    • B.  Preserving Settlement Funds and Protecting Right to Medi-Cal and Other Benefits  3.109
    • C.  Structured Settlements  3.110
    • D.  Medi-Cal and Medicare Liens and Recovery Claims  3.111
      • 1.  Medi-Cal  3.112
        • a.  Medi-Cal Third Party Recovery Lien   3.112A
        • b.  Medi-Cal Estate Recovery  3.112B
      • 2.  Medicare  3.113
      • 3.  Planning Strategies  3.114
    • E.  Confidential Settlements and Prohibited Provisions  3.114A
  • XI.  NURSING HOME BANKRUPTCIES  3.115
    • A.  Bankruptcy Code  3.116
    • B.  The Chapter 11 Process
      • 1.  Purpose of Chapter 11 Filing  3.117
      • 2.  Bankruptcy Court’s Role  3.118
    • C.  Claims Not Affected by Bankruptcy  3.119
      • 1.  Postpetition Claims  3.120
      • 2.  Defendants Not Protected by Automatic Stay  3.121
    • D.  Automatic Stay  3.122
      • 1.  Violations of Automatic Stay  3.123
      • 2.  Seeking Relief From Stay  3.124
        • a.  Standards  3.125
        • b.  Burden of Proof  3.126
    • E.  Alternative Dispute Resolution Programs in Nursing Home Bankruptcies  3.127
    • F.  Effect of Statute of Limitations  3.128
    • G.  Proof of Claim Against Debtor
      • 1.  Filing Proof of Claim  3.129
      • 2.  “Bar Date”  3.130
      • 3.  Effect of Filing Proof of Claim  3.131
  • XII.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Sample Attorney-Client Fee Agreement  3.132
    • B.  Form: Sample Complaint #1  3.133
    • C.  Form: Sample Complaint #2  3.134
    • D.  Form: Sample Complaint #3  3.135
    • E.  Form: Sample Complaint #4  3.135A
    • F.  Form: Sample Ex Parte Application for Order Continuing Hearing on Petition by Defendants to Compel Arbitration  3.136
    • G.  Form: Sample Memorandum in Opposition to Petition to Compel Arbitration; Declarations  3.137
    • H.  Form: Sample Inspection Demand  3.138
    • I.  Form: Sample Separate Statement in Support of Plaintiff’s Motion to Compel Further Responses to Inspection Demand (Cal Rules of Ct 3.1345)  3.139
    • J.  Form: Sample Demand Letter  3.140
    • K.  Form: Jury Instruction #1 (Negligence Per Se)  3.141
    • L.  Form: Jury Instruction #2 (Pen C §368; Pen C §243(f)(4))  3.142
    • M.  Form: Jury Instruction #3 (Willful Misconduct)  3.143
    • N.  Form: Jury Instruction #4 (Concert of Action Liability)  3.144
    • O.  Form: Jury Instruction #5 (Ratification)  3.145
    • P.  Form: Jury Instruction #6 (Fraud by Intentional Misrepresentation)  3.146
    • Q.  Form: Jury Instruction #7 (Fraud by False Promise)  3.147
    • R.  Form: Special Verdict (Fraud—Misrepresentation)  3.148
    • S.  Form: Special Verdict (Willful Misconduct)  3.149
    • T.  Form: Special Verdict (Fraud—Misrepresentation)  3.150

4

Understanding Residential Care Facilities

Jody L. Spiegel

  • I.  INTRODUCTION TO RESIDENTIAL CARE FACILITIES FOR THE ELDERLY (RCFES)
    • A.  Overview of RCFEs in California  4.1
    • B.  Attorney’s Role in Representing RCFE Residents  4.2
    • C.  Governing Law
      • 1.  State Law  4.3
      • 2.  Federal Law  4.4
    • D.  RCFE Defined  4.5
    • E.  Required Basic Services  4.6
    • F.  Staffing  4.6A
  • II.  LICENSING, COMPLAINTS, AND ENFORCEMENT
    • A.  Licensing Body  4.7
    • B.  Licensing Requirements  4.8
    • C.  Administrative Complaints
      • 1.  Filing Complaint  4.9
      • 2.  Role of Long-Term Care Ombudsman  4.10
      • 3.  Role of “Representative” or “Responsible Person”  4.11
      • 4.  Investigation  4.12
      • 5.  Protection Against Retaliation  4.13
    • D.  Enforcement
      • 1.  Unannounced Inspection  4.14
      • 2.  Deficiencies  4.15
      • 3.  Monetary Penalties  4.16
      • 4.  License Suspension or Revocation  4.17
      • 5.  Suspension of Admissions  4.17A
  • III.  RCFE ADMISSIONS
    • A.  Eligibility for Admission
      • 1.  Age  4.18
      • 2.  Mobility
        • a.  When Admission of Nonambulatory Resident Is Permitted  4.19
        • b.  “Bedridden” Residents  4.20
      • 3.  Prohibited, Restricted, and Allowable Health Conditions  4.21
      • 4.  Terminally Ill Patients  4.22
      • 5.  Dementia  4.22A
      • 6.  Other Medical Grounds for Denial of Admission  4.23
      • 7.  Discrimination Prohibited  4.23A
    • B.  Admission Procedures
      • 1.  Preadmission Appraisal and Reappraisals  4.24
      • 2.  Resident Care Plan Meeting  4.25
      • 3.  Admission Agreement
        • a.  Contents  4.26
        • b.  Execution and Effect  4.27
      • 4.  Special Programs and Services  4.27A
      • 5.  Preadmission Fees  4.28
      • 6.  Refunds Payable on Death of a Resident  4.28A
  • IV.  RATES AND FUNDING SOURCES
    • A.  Basic Rates and Other Charges  4.29
    • B.  Funding Sources  4.30
      • 1.  Supplemental Security Income (SSI)
        • a.  Eligibility and Benefits  4.31
        • b.  Restriction on Basic Rate Charged to SSI Recipient  4.32
      • 2.  Medi-Cal and Medicare
        • a.  Home Health Care  4.33
        • b.  Medi-Cal and Share of Cost for RCFE Residents  4.34
  • V.  RIGHTS OF RCFE RESIDENTS
    • A.  Personal Rights  4.35
    • B.  Specific Rights
      • 1.  Freedom From Restraining Devices  4.36
      • 2.  Freedom of Movement; Secured Perimeters for Residents With Dementia  4.37
      • 3.  Family Support
        • a.  In General  4.38
        • b.  Family Councils  4.39
      • 4.  Resident Councils  4.40
      • 5.  Right to Individualized and Quality Care  4.41
      • 6.  Right to Choices Concerning Daily Life and Activities That Promote Independent Living  4.42
      • 7.  Right to Notification About Rules and Laws Governing RCFE  4.43
      • 8.  Right to Advance Notice of Rate Changes and Involuntary Transfers  4.44
      • 9.  Right to Advance Notice of Events Related to Bankruptcy, Foreclosure, and Financial Distress  4.44A
    • C.  Enforcement of Residents’ Rights
      • 1.  Administrative Action  4.45
      • 2.  Private Action  4.46
      • 3.  Mandatory Reports to Ombudsperson  4.47
      • 4.  Criminal Penalties  4.48
  • VI.  MEDICAL CARE
    • A.  Provision of Medical Care
      • 1.  Medication  4.49
      • 2.  Informed Consent and Right to Refuse Treatment  4.50
      • 3.  Right to Refuse Life-Sustaining Medical Treatment  4.51
      • 4.  Provision of Health-Related Services  4.52
    • B.  Relocation for Medical Reasons
      • 1.  Need for Relocation  4.53
      • 2.  Relocation Ordered by DSS  4.54
  • VII.  PROTECTING RESIDENTS’ PROPERTY
    • A.  Impact of Theft or Loss on Resident  4.55
    • B.  Theft and Loss Prevention  4.56
    • C.  Safeguarding Money  4.57
    • D.  Reporting Theft or Loss  4.58
    • E.  Action Against RCFE for Lost or Stolen Property  4.59
  • VIII.  EVICTION
    • A.  Effect of Eviction on Resident  4.60
    • B.  Grounds for Eviction  4.61
    • C.  Eviction Procedures  4.62
    • D.  Relocation Protections  4.62A
    • E.  Challenging Eviction
      • 1.  Complaint to DSS and Request for Investigation  4.63
      • 2.  Compelling Unlawful Detainer Proceedings  4.64
      • 3.  Causes of Action Against RCFE for Wrongful Eviction
        • a.  Forcible Detainer or Entry  4.65
        • b.  Retaliatory Eviction  4.66
        • c.  Breach of Contract  4.67
        • d.  Unfair or Deceptive Business Practice  4.68
        • e.  Elder Abuse  4.69
  • IX.  CONTINUING CARE CONTRACTS
    • A.  Covered Facilities  4.70
    • B.  Contract Provisions and Residents’ Rights  4.71
  • X.  RCFE TRAINING REQUIRED TO RECOGNIZE AND REPORT ELDER ABUSE  4.72

5

Actions Against Residential Care Facilities

Kathryn Stebner

Peter G. Lomhoff

  • I.  INTRODUCTION: COMPARISON OF RCFEs AND SNFs  5.1
  • II.  IMPORTANT REGULATIONS FOR LITIGATION AGAINST RCFE
    • A.  Importance of California Code of Regulations  5.2
    • B.  Admission Agreement  5.2A
    • C.  Admission Criteria  5.3
    • D.  Ambulatory Requirement  5.4
    • E.  Prohibited Health Conditions: Persons Who May Not Be Admitted or Retained  5.5
    • F.  Restricted Health Conditions  5.6
    • G.  Incidental Medical Services Permitted in Certain Circumstances  5.7
      • 1.  Oxygen Administration  5.8
      • 2.  Intermittent Positive Pressure Breathing Machine  5.9
      • 3.  Colostomy/Ileostomy  5.10
      • 4.  Enema and/or Suppository and Fecal Impaction Removal  5.11
      • 5.  In-Dwelling Urinary Catheter/Catheter Procedure  5.12
      • 6.  Manageable Bowel and Bladder Incontinence  5.13
      • 7.  Contractures  5.14
      • 8.  Diabetes  5.15
      • 9.  Injections  5.16
      • 10.  Healing Wounds  5.17
    • H.  Hospice Care  5.18
    • I.  Dementia  5.19
    • J.  Restraints and Postural Support  5.20
    • K.  Medications  5.21
    • L.  Waivers  5.22
    • M.  Training
      • 1.  Non-Dementia Care  5.22A
      • 2.  Dementia Care  5.22B
    • N.  Insurance  5.22C
  • III.  STEPS TO TAKE AFTER DECIDING TO TAKE THE CASE
    • A.  Before Filing Suit  5.23
    • B.  Form: Request to Community Care Licensing Division (CCLD) for Public Records  5.24
  • IV.  FILING SUIT
    • A.  Parties
      • 1.  Plaintiffs  5.25
        • a.  Nominal Defendants or Personal Representative in Wrongful Death Action  5.26
        • b.  Nominal Defendants When There Is No Wrongful Death Action  5.27
      • 2.  Defendants
        • a.  Licensees, Owners, and Operators  5.28
        • b.  Health Care Providers  5.29
        • c.  Referral Services  5.30
        • d.  Doe Defendants  5.31
    • B.  Causes of Action  5.32
      • 1.  Negligence and Negligence Per Se  5.33
      • 2.  Elder Abuse  5.34
      • 3.  Wrongful Death  5.35
      • 4.  Negligent Infliction of Emotional Distress  5.36
      • 5.  Misrepresentation  5.37
    • C.  Statutes of Limitations  5.38
    • D.  Pleading Punitive Damages  5.39
    • E.  Responding to Petition for Arbitration  5.39A
    • F.  Form: Sample Complaint Against RCFE  5.40
  • V.  FORMAL DISCOVERY
    • A.  Depositions
      • 1.  RCFE Personnel  5.41
        • a.  Administrator  5.42
          • (1)  Qualifications  5.43
          • (2)  Licensing and Citation History  5.44
        • b.  Care Providers  5.45
        • c.  Others  5.46
      • 2.  CCLD Personnel  5.47
      • 3.  Ombudsman  5.48
      • 4.  Treating Physician at Facility  5.49
      • 5.  Personnel Involved in Transfer to and Treatment at Acute Care Facility  5.50
    • B.  Records
      • 1.  Request for Inspection and Production of Documents
        • a.  Resident’s File  5.51
        • b.  Preadmission Appraisal, Medical Assessment, and Reappraisal  5.52
        • c.  Policies and Procedures  5.53
        • d.  CCLD and Ombudsman Records in Facility’s Possession  5.54
        • e.  Information on Staffing Levels, Census, and Acuity  5.55
        • f.  Other Records From Facility  5.56
        • g.  Form: Demand for Inspection and Production of Documents  5.57
      • 2.  Records From Third Parties
        • a.  Subpoena Records From CCLD  5.58
        • b.  Form: Subpoena of Nonpublic Records From CCLD  5.59
    • C.  Special Interrogatories
      • 1.  Purpose  5.60
      • 2.  Form: Special Interrogatories  5.61
  • VI.  PUNITIVE DAMAGES  5.62
    • A.  Pleading  5.63
    • B.  Managing Agents  5.64
    • C.  Malice, Oppression, and Fraud Under CC §3294(c) in RCFEs  5.65
      • 1.  Repeated Pattern of Conscious Disregard of Residents’ Rights and Safety Documented in CCLD Records  5.66
      • 2.  Knowingly Meaningless Resident Documentation  5.67
      • 3.  Knowing Inattention by Owner-Administrator  5.68
      • 4.  Overbilling and Underfunding Documented in Bank Records  5.69
      • 5.  Overbilling and Underfunding Documented in Budget  5.70
      • 6.  RCFEs as Real Estate Investments Rather Than as Care Facilities  5.71
      • 7.  Insurance Fraud  5.72
      • 8.  Incentive to Retain Paying Client  5.73
      • 9.  Conscious Disregard of the Plan of Operation  5.73A
      • 10.  Conscious Disregard of the Right to Receive Services Paid For  5.73B
    • D.  Discovery Concerning Punitive Damages  5.74
  • VII.  EADACPA REMEDIES  5.75

6

Understanding and Litigating Financial Elder Abuse Actions Under the Elder and Dependent Adult Civil Protection Act

Daniel D. Murphy

  • I.  INTRODUCTION TO FINANCIAL ELDER ABUSE UNDER EADACPA  6.1
    • A.  Former Obstacles to Litigation for Elder Abuse  6.2
    • B.  Relief Under EADACPA; Legislative Intent  6.3
    • C.  Protection From Financial Abuse Under Other Statutes
      • 1.  Prohibited Donative Transfers  6.3A
      • 2.  Litigating Financial Abuse Under Other Statutes  6.4
  • II.  INVOKING PROBATE COURT JURISDICTION
    • A.  When Jurisdiction is Available  6.5
    • B.  Probate Court’s Authority  6.6
    • C.  Advantages of Conservatorships for Elder Abuse Litigation  6.7
    • D.  Considerations When Concurrent Jurisdiction Is Available  6.8
    • E.  Probate Court Procedures Governing Actions for Abuse
      • 1.  Concurrent Applicability of Probate Conservatorship and Civil Action Procedures  6.9
      • 2.  Initiating Action for Abuse in Probate Court  6.10
      • 3.  Form: Caption for Complaint for Abuse Filed With Probate Court  6.11
      • 4.  Venue  6.12
      • 5.  Availability of Conservatorship Remedies in Action for Abuse  6.13
        • a.  Expedited Discovery  6.14
        • b.  Return of Property to Conservatee  6.15
        • c.  Double Damages  6.16
      • 6.  Voluntary Conservatorship to Invoke Probate Court Jurisdiction
        • a.  When Appropriate  6.17
        • b.  Showing Required for Appointment  6.18
        • c.  Form: Good Cause Allegations in Petition for Voluntary Conservatorship  6.19
    • F.  Transfer of Claim to General Civil Calendar  6.20
    • G.  Procedural Confusion Over Hybrid Jurisdiction  6.21
  • III.  LITIGATING FINANCIAL ABUSE UNDER EADACPA
    • A.  Persons Protected  6.22
    • B.  Financial Abuse Defined  6.23
    • C.  Statute of Limitations; Duty of Principal to Inquire  6.23A
    • D.  Issuance of Writ of Attachment  6.23B
    • E.  Common Law and Statutory Presumptions of Undue Influence  6.24
      • 1.  Existence of Special Relationship  6.25
      • 2.  Evidence Sufficient to Overcome the Presumption  6.26
        • a.  Adequacy of Consideration  6.27
        • b.  Independent Legal Advice  6.28
      • 3.  Remedy for Undue Influence  6.29
    • F.  Presumptions Affecting Recorded Instruments  6.29A
    • G.  Requisite Degree of Misconduct to Invoke EADACPA Remedies  6.30
      • 1.  Preponderance of the Evidence  6.30A
      • 2.  Clear and Convincing Evidence  6.30B
    • H.  Pleading EADACPA  6.31
      • 1.  Required Allegations for EADACPA as Enhancement of Remedies  6.32
      • 2.  Form: Allegations of Abuse Showing Applicability of EADACPA Remedies  6.33
    • I.  Pleading Financial Abuse as Independent Cause of Action [Deleted]  6.34
    • J.  Pleading Causes of Action Other Than Elder Abuse  6.35
      • 1.  Breach of Trust/Breach of Fiduciary Duty  6.35A
        • a.  Elements of Breach of Fiduciary Duty  6.35B
        • b.   Remedies Available for Commencing a Breach of Trust Proceeding  6.35C
        • c.  Vicarious Liability of Third Parties  6.35D
      • 2.  Fraud
        • a.  Elements  6.36
        • b.  Pleading Fraud Sufficiently to Withstand Demurrer or Motion to Strike  6.37
          • (1)  3-Year Statute of Limitations Under CCP §338   6.37A
          • (2)  1-Year Statute of Limitations for Non-Fraud Claims Against Attorneys  6.37B
      • 3.  Constructive Fraud  6.38
      • 4.  Conversion  6.38A
      • 5.  Incapacity as Defense to Formation of Enforceable Contract  6.38B
    • K.  Punitive Damages
      • 1.  Requirements  6.39
      • 2.  Pleading Punitive Damages Sufficiently to Withstand Demurrer or Motion to Strike  6.40
    • L.  Employer Liability
      • 1.  Employer Liability for Punitive Damages  6.41
        • a.  Applicability of Clear and Convincing Evidence Standard for Punitive Damages  6.42
        • b.  Respondeat Superior  6.43
      • 2.  Form: Employer Liability for Punitive Damages When Action Is Based on Employee’s Acts  6.44
    • M.  Death of Elder Abuse Victim
      • 1.  Cause of Action Pending at Time of Death  6.45
      • 2.  Survival of Conservatorship Proceeding After Death of Conservatee  6.45A
      • 3.  Initiating Action After Death  6.46
      • 4.  Postmortem Recovery for Pain and Suffering  6.47
    • N.  Collateral Source Rule  6.47A
    • O.  Parol Evidence Rule  6.47B
    • P.  Attorney Fees and Costs
      • 1.  Mandatory Fees Under Welf & I C §15657.5(a)  6.48
      • 2.  Factors Affecting Award of Attorney Fees  6.49
        • a.  Improvement in Quality of Elder’s Life  6.50
        • b.  Defendant’s Efforts to Determine Liability  6.51
        • c.  Offers in Compromise  6.52
    • Q.  Confidential Settlements  6.53

6A

Litigating Financial Elder Abuse Actions

Kathryn Stebner

Kirsten M. Fish

  • I.  INTRODUCTION TO LITIGATING FINANCIAL ELDER ABUSE ACTIONS  6A.1
  • II.  FINANCIAL ELDER ABUSE CASES: GETTING STARTED
    • A.  Definition of Financial Elder Abuse  6A.2
      • 1.  Elder or Dependent Who Lacks Capacity  6A.2A
      • 2.  Interpretation of Financial Abuse Terms  6A.2B
    • B.  What to Look for in Financial Elder Abuse Cases  6A.3
    • C.  Burden of Proof
      • 1.  Enhanced Remedies Under EADACPA  6A.4
      • 2.  Obtaining Protective Order Under EADACPA  6A.5
    • D.  Determining the Appropriate Definition of Recklessness  6A.6
  • III.  LITIGATING UNFAIR BUSINESS PRACTICES ON BEHALF OF ELDERLY CUSTOMERS
    • A.  Unfair Competition Law (UCL)  6A.7
      • 1.  Application of UCL  6A.8
      • 2.  Remedies Under UCL  6A.9
      • 3.  Statute of Limitations  6A.10
      • 4.  Application of UCL to Insurance Industry  6A.11
    • B.  Consumer Warranty Statutes  6A.12
    • C.  Unlawful Acts or Practices Under CC §1770
      • 1.  Definition of Unlawful Act or Practice  6A.13
      • 2.  Remedies
        • a.  Consumers Legal Remedies Act  6A.14
        • b.  Additional Remedy for Senior Citizens and Disabled Persons  6A.15
          • (1)  “Senior Citizen” and “Disabled Person” Defined  6A.16
          • (2)  Class Actions  6A.17
  • IV.  WHO ARE THE PLAINTIFFS IN FINANCIAL ELDER ABUSE CASES?
    • A.  Definition of Elder and Dependent Adult  6A.18
    • B.  Standing  6A.19
    • C.  Who May Commence or Maintain Survival Action  6A.20
    • D.  Guardians Ad Litem  6A.21
  • V.  WHO ARE DEFENDANTS IN FINANCIAL ELDER ABUSE CASES?
    • A.  Banks, Mortgage Brokers, Lenders  6A.22
      • 1.  Consumer Loans  6A.22A
      • 2.  Reverse Mortgages  6A.22B
    • B.  Insurance Companies and Their Agents  6A.23
    • C.  Financial Advisers and Life Agents  6A.24
    • D.  Trust Mills  6A.25
    • E.  Real Estate Agents, Notaries, Title and Escrow Companies  6A.26
    • F.  Owners and Operators of Mobilehome Parks  6A.26A
    • G.  Care Custodians  6A.27
  • VI.  CAUSES OF ACTION
    • A.  Financial Elder Abuse
      • 1.  Financial Elder Abuse Is Separate Cause of Action  6A.28
      • 2.  Statute of Limitations on Financial Elder Abuse  6A.29
    • B.  Other Causes of Action in Financial Elder Abuse Cases  6A.30
    • C.  Form: Sample Complaint for Financial Abuse  6A.31
  • VII.  JURY INSTRUCTIONS AND VERDICT FORMS  6A.32
  • VIII.  DISCOVERY
    • A.  Depositions  6A.33
    • B.  Interrogatories  6A.34
    • C.  Requests for Admission  6A.35
    • D.  Production of Documents  6A.36
    • E.  Broad Discovery Rights in Bus & P C §17200 Cases  6A.37
  • IX.  DEFENSES  6A.38
  • X.  DAMAGES
    • A.  Special Damages  6A.39
    • B.  General Damages  6A.40
    • C.  Civil Code §3345 Treble Damages  6A.41
      • 1.  Awards That May Be Trebled  6A.42
      • 2.  Requisite Findings of Fact  6A.43
    • D.  Punitive Damages  6A.44
    • E.  Restitution  6A.45
    • F.  Attorney Fees and Costs  6A.46

7

Actions for Abuse of Elders by Fiduciaries

Daniel D. Murphy

  • I.  INTRODUCTION TO ACTIONS AGAINST FIDUCIARIES  7.1
  • II.  ABUSE BY FIDUCIARY  7.1A
    • A.  Trustee Breach of Trust  7.1B
    • B.  Fraud: Omissions and Concealment  7.1C
    • C.  Law of Agency  7.1D
    • D.  Standing to Sue in Trust Litigation  7.1E
  • III.  ABUSE BY AGENT UNDER DURABLE POWER OF ATTORNEY FOR PROPERTY MANAGEMENT (DPAP)
    • A.  Potential for Abuse  7.2
    • B.  Remedies
      • 1.  Revocation  7.3
      • 2.  Invoking Protective Clauses of DPAP  7.4
      • 3.  Enforcement of Duties of Agent Under DPAP
        • a.  Petition Under Prob C §§4500–4545  7.5
        • b.  Civil Damages or Restitution  7.6
        • c.  Subject Matter of Petition for Enforcement  7.7
        • d.  Who May Petition
          • (1)  Statutory Standing to Petition  7.8
          • (2)  Principal as Petitioner  7.9
          • (3)  Spouse or Child as Petitioner  7.10
          • (4)  When There Is No Close Relative or Conservator to Bring Petition
            • (a)  Considerations When Nonrelative Contacts Attorney  7.11
            • (b)  Court Investigator or Public Guardian as Petitioner  7.12
            • (c)  Ex Parte Petition for Temporary Conservatorship  7.13
            • (d)  Personal Representative as Petitioner  7.14
        • e.  Restricting Authority of Persons to Petition Under Terms of Power of Attorney  7.15
        • f.  Jurisdiction  7.16
        • g.  Venue  7.17
        • h.  Compelling Accounting
          • (1)  Situations Necessitating Accounting  7.18
          • (2)  Written Request for Accounting  7.19
          • (3)  Form: Written Request for Accounting  7.20
        • i.  Requesting Revocation in Petition for Enforcement  7.21
        • j.  Initiating Petition Proceedings
          • (1)  Filing in Superior Court  7.22
          • (2)  Form: Petition on Behalf of Incapacitated Principal to Compel Accounting, Revoke Authority of Attorney-in-Fact, and for Attorney Fees  7.23
        • k.  Notice  7.24
        • l.  Award of Attorney Fees  7.25
        • m.  Court Disposition
          • (1)  Authority of Court  7.26
          • (2)  Form: Order to Compel Accounting, Revoke Authority of Attorney-in-Fact, and for Attorney Fees  7.27
      • 4.  Appointment of Conservator of Estate  7.28
  • IV.  ABUSE BY CONSERVATOR
    • A.  Court Oversight of Inventories and Accountings  7.29
    • B.  Compelling Filing of Inventory and Appraisal
      • 1.  Request for Court Order  7.30
      • 2.  Removal of Conservator for Failure to File  7.31
      • 3.  Liability for Failure to File  7.32
    • C.  Compelling Accounting
      • 1.  Written Notice  7.33
      • 2.  Penalties for Failure to File Account After Written Notice  7.34
      • 3.  Compelling Account by Attorney for Deceased or Incapacitated Conservator  7.35
    • D.  Objections to Account and Petition for Surcharge
      • 1.  Procedures for Objecting  7.36
      • 2.  Grounds for Objecting  7.37
      • 3.  Surcharging Conservator  7.38
      • 4.  Form: Objections to Account; Petition for Surcharge  7.39
      • 5.  Liability of Surety  7.40
      • 6.  Objections or Opposition Made in Bad Faith; Costs and Fees  7.41
    • E.  Other Remedies for Conservator’s Breach of Duty  7.42
    • F.  Removal  7.43
  • V.  ABUSE BY REPRESENTATIVE PAYEE
    • A.  Potential for Abuse  7.44
    • B.  Proper Use of Benefits by Representative Payee  7.45
    • C.  Remedies for Misuse of Benefits
      • 1.  Termination of Representative Payee’s Certification  7.46
      • 2.  Restitution Efforts by SSA  7.47
      • 3.  SSA Liability for Negligence in Investigating or Monitoring Representative Payee  7.48
        • a.  Negligence in Investigating Representative Payee  7.49
        • b.  Negligence in Monitoring Representative Payee  7.50
      • 4.  Payee Liability  7.51
      • 5.  Restrictions on Attorney Fees in SSA Cases  7.52

8

Actions for Protective Orders in Elder Abuse Cases

Judy L. Hitchcock

  • I.  INTRODUCTION TO PROTECTIVE ORDERS
    • A.  Extent of Elder Abuse and Neglect  8.1
    • B.  Scope of Chapter  8.2
  • II.  PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS
    • A.  Understanding Client’s Attitude Toward Pursuing Action for Protective Orders  8.3
    • B.  Ensuring Client Cooperation  8.4
    • C.  Support Services for Abused Elders  8.5
      • 1.  Adult Protective Services
        • a.  Reporting Elder Abuse  8.6
        • b.  Services Available Through APS  8.7
        • c.  Attorney’s Role in Securing Adult Protective Services for Client  8.8
      • 2.  Other Social Services  8.9
      • 3.  Victim Witness Programs  8.10
    • D.  Criminal Protective Orders
      • 1.  Relief Sought  8.11
      • 2.  Form: Criminal Protective Order—Domestic Violence (Judicial Council Form CR-160)  8.11A
      • 3.  Form: Criminal Protective Order—Other Than Domestic Violence (Judicial Council Form CR-161)   8.11B
    • E.  Protection of Elder During Pendency of TRO  8.12
    • F.  Possibility of Proceeding in Pro Per or Using Nonprofit Legal Services Programs  8.13
  • III.  ACTIONS FOR PROTECTIVE ORDERS
    • A.  Actions Available  8.14
    • B.  Deciding Which Statutory Action to Pursue
      • 1.  Overview  8.15
      • 2.  Factors to Consider
        • a.  Age of Abused Elder  8.16
        • b.  Relationship Between Abused Elder and Abuser  8.17
        • c.  Form of Abuse to Be Addressed  8.18
        • d.  Relief Sought  8.19
    • C.  Phases of Protective Orders: EPOs, TROs, and Orders After Hearing  8.20
    • D.  Priority of Enforcement When Multiple Restraining Orders Issue  8.20A
    • E.  Penalties for Violating Protective Orders  8.21
    • F.  Department of Justice Record Maintenance System  8.22
  • IV.  EMERGENCY PROTECTIVE ORDERS
    • A.  Initiated by Law Enforcement; Relief Available  8.23
    • B.  Form: Emergency Protective Order (CLETS) (Judicial Council Form EPO-001)  8.24
  • V.  ELDER ABUSE AND DEPENDENT ADULT CIVIL PROTECTION ACT
    • A.  Overview  8.25
    • B.  Requirements for Use
      • 1.  Elder or Dependent Adult  8.26
      • 2.  Abuse of Elder or Dependent Adult  8.27
      • 3.  Who May Bring the Action  8.27A
    • C.  Relief Available
      • 1.  Protective Orders
        • a.  Restraining Order Enjoining Specified Conduct  8.28
        • b.  Residence Exclusion (“Move-Out” Order)  8.29
        • c.  Other Necessary Orders  8.30
        • d.  Order Protecting Animals  8.30A
        • e.  Order Prohibiting Restrained Party From Attempting to Locate Protected Party  8.30B
        • f.  Order to Participate in Counseling or Anger Management Courses  8.30C
        • g.  Firearms Prohibition and Relinquishment Order  8.30D
      • 2.  Attorney Fees  8.31
    • D.  Procedures
      • 1.  Self-Help Instructions  8.32
      • 2.  Filing Procedures; Fees  8.33
      • 3.  Ex Parte Temporary Restraining Order  8.34
        • a.  Form: Request for Elder or Dependent Adult Abuse Restraining Orders (Judicial Council Form EA-100)   8.35
        • b.  Form: Notice of Court Hearing (Judicial Council Form EA-109)  8.35A
        • c.  Form: Temporary Restraining Order (Judicial Council Form EA-110)  8.36
        • d.  Form: Confidential CLETS Information (Judicial Council Form CLETS-001)  8.36A
        • e.  Obtaining Judge’s Signature and Hearing Date  8.37
        • f.  Delivery and Service of TRO
          • (1)  Transmittal to Law Enforcement Agencies  8.38
          • (2)  Service on Respondent  8.39
          • (3)  Form: Response to Request for Elder or Dependent Adult Abuse Restraining Orders (Judicial Council Form EA-120)   8.40
          • (4)  Form: Proof of Personal Service (Judicial Council Form EA-200)  8.41
          • (5)  Form: Proof of Service of Response by Mail (Judicial Council Form EA-250)  8.42
        • g.  Requesting More Time for Service
          • (1)  Procedure  8.43
          • (2)  Form: Request to Continue Court Hearing (Judicial Council Form EA-115)  8.44
          • (3)  Form: Order on Request to Continue Hearing (Judicial Council Form EA-116)  8.44A
        • h.  Enforcement of TRO  8.45
      • 4.  Hearing  8.46
      • 5.  Restraining Order After Hearing
        • a.  Protective Orders Available  8.47
        • b.  Duration, Modification, and Renewal
          • (1)  Duration  8.48
          • (2)  Modification or Termination  8.48A
          • (3)  Renewal  8.48B
        • c.  Form: Elder or Dependent Adult Abuse Restraining Order After Hearing (Judicial Council Form EA-130)   8.49
        • d.  Delivery and Service of Restraining Order After Hearing
          • (1)  Transmittal to Law Enforcement Agencies  8.50
          • (2)  Service on Respondent  8.51
          • (3)  Form: Proof of Service of Order After Hearing (Judicial Council Form EA-260)  8.51A
        • e.  Enforcement of Restraining Order After Hearing  8.52
  • VI.  DOMESTIC VIOLENCE PREVENTION ACT
    • A.  Overview  8.53
    • B.  Requirements
      • 1.  Relationship Between Elder and Abuser
        • a.  Statutory Requirements  8.54
        • b.  Unrelated Live-in Caregivers and Roommates  8.55
      • 2.  Commission of Act or Acts of Abuse  8.56
    • C.  Relief Available
      • 1.  Available Ex Parte and After Notice and Hearing
        • a.  Restraining Order Enjoining Specified Conduct  8.57
        • b.  Residence Exclusion (“Move-out” Order)  8.58
        • c.  Other Necessary Orders  8.59
        • d.  Property Control Orders  8.60
        • e.  Order Protecting Animals  8.60A
        • f.  Order Granting Permission to Record Prohibited Communications  8.61
        • g.  Order Prohibiting Restrained Party From Attempting to Locate Protected Party  8.61A
      • 2.  Available After Notice and Hearing
        • a.  Restitution  8.62
        • b.  Transfer of Cell Phone Account  8.62A
        • c.  Order to Participate in Batterer’s Program  8.63
        • d.  Attorney Fees  8.64
      • 3.  Prohibition Against Owning or Possessing Firearms  8.65
      • 4.  Relinquishment of Firearms  8.66
    • D.  Mutual Restraining Order  8.67
    • E.  Procedures
      • 1.  Self-Help Instructions  8.68
      • 2.  Filing Procedures; Fees  8.69
      • 3.  Ex Parte Temporary Restraining Order  8.70
        • a.  Form: Request for Domestic Violence Restraining Order (Judicial Council Form DV-100)  8.71
        • b.  Form: Notice of Court Hearing (Judicial Council Form DV-109)  8.71A
        • c.  Form: Temporary Restraining Order (Judicial Council Form DV-110)  8.72
        • d.  Obtaining Judge’s Signature and Hearing Date  8.73
        • e.  Denial of Request for Ex Parte Order
          • (1)  Order Denying Request; Waiver of Hearing  8.73A
          • (2)  Form: Waiver of Hearing on Denied Request for Temporary Restraining Order (Judicial Council Form DV-112)  8.73B
        • f.  Delivery and Service of TRO
          • (1)  Delivery to Law Enforcement Agencies  8.74
          • (2)  Service on Respondent
            • (a)  Service of TRO; Proof of Service  8.75
            • (b)  Exception to Personal Service  8.75A
              • (i)  Form: Order Granting Alternative Service (Judicial Council Form DV-117)  8.75B
              • (ii)  Form: Summons (Domestic Violence Restraining Order) (Judicial Council Form DV-210)  8.75C
            • (c)  Service of TRO or Notification by Police at Scene of Further Incident of Domestic Violence  8.75D
          • (3)  Form: Response to Request for Domestic Violence Restraining Order (Judicial Council Form DV-120)  8.76
          • (4)  Form: Proof of Personal Service (Judicial Council Form DV-200)  8.77
        • g.  Requesting More Time for Service  8.78
        • h.  Form: Request to Continue Hearing (Judicial Council Form DV-115)  8.79
        • i.  Form: Order on Request to Continue Hearing (Judicial Council Form DV-116)  8.79A
        • j.  Enforcement of TRO  8.80
      • 4.  Hearing  8.81
        • a.  Consideration of Information From Background Search  8.82
        • b.  Support Person  8.83
        • c.  Interpreters  8.84
      • 5.  Denial of Request for Restraining Order  8.84A
      • 6.  Stipulations Not Allowed for Entry of Non-CLETS Restraining Order  8.84B
      • 7.  Restraining Order After Hearing
        • a.  Protective Orders Available  8.85
        • b.  Duration and Renewal
          • (1)  Duration  8.86
          • (2)  Renewal  8.86A
        • c.  Form: Restraining Order After Hearing (Order of Protection) (Judicial Council Form DV-130)   8.87
        • d.  Form: Order Transferring Wireless Phone Account (Judicial Council Form DV-900)  8.88
        • e.  Form: Attachment to Order Transferring Wireless Phone Account (Judicial Council Form DV-901)  8.88A
        • f.  Delivery and Service of Restraining Order After Hearing
          • (1)  Delivery to Law Enforcement Agencies  8.89
          • (2)  Service on Respondent  8.90
          • (3)  Form: Proof of Service by Mail (Judicial Council Form DV-250)  8.91
        • g.  Enforcement of Restraining Order After Hearing  8.92
  • VII.  CIVIL HARASSMENT RESTRAINING ORDERS
    • A.  Definition of Harassment Under CCP §527.6  8.93
    • B.  Compared With DVPA and EADACPA Actions
      • 1.  Relationship Between Abuser and Elder Not Required  8.94
      • 2.  No Age Requirement  8.95
      • 3.  Absent Violence or Threat of Violence, Course of Conduct Is Required  8.96
      • 4.  Need to Show Likelihood of Future Harassment; Enhanced Burden of Proof  8.96A
      • 5.  Residence Exclusion Not Available  8.97
      • 6.  EPO Available for Harassment Involving Stalking  8.98
    • C.  Relief Available
      • 1.  Protective Orders  8.99
      • 2.  Attorney Fees  8.100
    • D.  Mutual Restraining Order Not Permitted in Absence of Petition by Respondent  8.101
    • E.  Procedures
      • 1.  Self-Help Instructions  8.102
      • 2.  Filing Procedures; Fees  8.103
      • 3.  Ex Parte Temporary Restraining Order  8.104
        • a.  Form: Request for Civil Harassment Restraining Orders (Judicial Council Form CH-100)   8.105
        • b.  Form: Notice of Court Hearing (Judicial Council Form CH-109)   8.105A
        • c.  Form: Temporary Restraining Order (Judicial Council Form CH-110)   8.106
        • d.  Obtaining Judge’s Signature and Hearing Date  8.107
        • e.  Delivery and Service of TRO
          • (1)  Transmittal to Law Enforcement Agencies  8.108
          • (2)  Service on Respondent  8.109
          • (3)  Form: Response to Request for Civil Harassment Restraining Orders (Judicial Council Form CH-120)   8.109A
          • (4)  Form: Proof of Service of Response by Mail (Judicial Council Form CH-250)  8.109B
          • (5)  Form: Proof of Personal Service (Judicial Council Form CH-200)  8.110
        • f.  Requesting More Time for Service  8.111
        • g.  Form: Request to Continue Court Hearing (Judicial Council Form CH-115)  8.112
        • h.  Form: Order on Request to Continue Hearing (Judicial Council Form CH-116)  8.112A
        • i.  Enforcement of TRO  8.113
      • 4.  Hearing  8.114
        • a.  Showing Required  8.114A
        • b.  Support Person  8.114B
        • c.  Interpreter  8.114C
      • 5.  Restraining Order After Hearing
        • a.  Protective Orders; Attorney Fees  8.115
        • b.  Duration, Modification, and Renewal
          • (1)  Duration  8.116
          • (2)  Modification or Termination  8.116A
          • (3)  Renewal  8.116B
        • c.  Form: Civil Harassment Restraining Order After Hearing (Judicial Council Form CH-130)   8.117
        • d.  Delivery and Service of Restraining Order After Hearing
          • (1)  Transmittal to Law Enforcement Agencies  8.118
          • (2)  Service on Respondent  8.119
          • (3)  Form: Proof of Service of Order After Hearing (Judicial Council Form CH-260)  8.119A
        • e.  Enforcement of Restraining Order After Hearing  8.120

CALIFORNIA ELDER LAW LITIGATION: AN ADVOCATE'S GUIDE

(1st Edition)

June 2020

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

File Name

Book Section

Title

CH03

Chapter 3

Actions Against Skilled Nursing Facilities

03-033

§3.33

Checklist: Preliminary Investigation of SNF

03-044

§3.44

Questionnaire: Evaluating Case and Creating Discovery Plan

03-132

§3.132

Sample Attorney-Client Fee Agreement

03-133

§3.133

Sample Complaint #1

03-134

§3.134

Sample Complaint #2

03-135

§3.135

Sample Complaint #3

03-135A

§3.135A

Sample Complaint #4

03-136

§3.136

Sample Ex Parte Application for Order Continuing Hearing on Petition by Defendants to Compel Arbitration

03-137

§3.137

Sample Memorandum in Opposition to Petition to Compel Arbitration; Declarations

03-138

§3.138

Sample Inspection Demand

03-139

§3.139

Sample Separate Statement in Support of Plaintiff’s Motion to Compel Further Responses to Inspection Demand (Cal Rules of Ct 3.1345)

03-140

§3.140

Sample Demand Letter

03-141

§3.141

Jury Instruction #1 (Negligence Per Se)

03-142

§3.142

Jury Instruction #2 (Pen C §368; Pen C §243(f)(4))

03-143

§3.143

Jury Instruction #3 (Willful Misconduct)

03-144

§3.144

Jury Instruction #4 (Concert of Action Liability)

03-145

§3.145

Jury Instruction #5 (Ratification)

03-146

§3.146

Jury Instruction #6 (Fraud by Intentional Misrepresentation)

03-147

§3.147

Jury Instruction #7 (Fraud by False Promise)

03-148

§3.148

Special Verdict (Fraud—Misrepresentation)

03-149

§3.149

Special Verdict (Willful Misconduct)

03-150

§3.150

Special Verdict (Fraud—Misrepresentation)

CH05

Chapter 5

Actions Against Residential Care Facilities

05-024

§5.24

Request to Community Care Licensing Division (CCLD) for Public Records

05-040

§5.40

Sample Complaint Against RCFE

05-057

§5.57

Demand for Inspection and Production of Documents

05-059

§5.59

Subpoena of Nonpublic Records From CCLD

05-061

§5.61

Special Interrogatories

CH06

Chapter 6

Understanding and Litigating Financial Elder Abuse Actions Under the Elder and Dependent Adult Civil Protection Act

06-011

§6.11

Caption for Complaint for Abuse Filed With Probate Court

06-019

§6.19

Good Cause Allegations in Petition for Voluntary Conservatorship

06-033

§6.33

Allegations of Abuse Showing Applicability of EADACPA Remedies

06-044

§6.44

Employer Liability for Punitive Damages When Action Is Based on Employee’s Acts

CH06A

Chapter 6A

Litigating Financial Elder Abuse Actions

06A-031

§6A.31

Sample Complaint for Financial Abuse

CH07

Chapter 7

Actions for Abuse of Elders by Fiduciaries

07-020

§7.20

Written Request for Accounting

07-023

§7.23

Petition on Behalf of Incapacitated Principal to Compel Accounting, Revoke Authority of Attorney-in-Fact, and for Attorney Fees

07-027

§7.27

Order to Compel Accounting, Revoke Authority of Attorney-in-Fact, and for Attorney Fees

07-039

§7.39

Objections to Account; Petition for Surcharge

 

About the Authors

RUSSELL S. BALISOK has been in private practice emphasizing business tort and personal injury litigation since 1975. He practices with the firm of Balisok & Associates, Glendale. He received his J.D. degree from Southwestern University in 1975. He has been involved in nursing home personal injury litigation since 1980, and in 1984 was a founding member of the Los Angeles County Bar Association’s Barrister’s Subcommittee on Legal Problems of the Elderly. He serves on the Board of Directors of California Advocates for Nursing Home Reform, an organization that provides training and technical assistance to legal services projects and engages in consumer advocacy campaigns on behalf of patients in skilled nursing facilities. Mr. Balisok has acted as amicus or as counsel of record in several major elder abuse cases, including ARA Living Centers Pacific v Superior Court, College Hospital v Superior Court, Delaney v Baker, Barris v County of Los Angeles, and McCall v PacifiCare.

KIRSTEN M. FISH is a partner at Needham Kepner & Fish LLP in San Jose. Her practice focuses on personal injury/wrongful death litigation and elder abuse litigation. She graduated from Santa Clara University School of Law summa cum laude and received her B.S. in chemistry with honors from the University of California at Davis. Ms. Fish is a frequent guest lecturer on elder abuse topics and has been a speaker for the annual review seminar “What’s New in Tort & Trial” since 2010. Ms. Fish has also taught legal research and writing to first-year law students at Lincoln Law School in San Jose since 2009, is on the board of the Santa Clara County Trial Lawyers Association (SCCTLA) and is on the Consumer Attorneys of California’s (CAOC) Board of Governors. In 2014, she was named SCCTLA’s Trial Lawyer of the Year and CAOC’s Street Fighter of the Year. She was also a finalist for CAOC’s Street Fighter of the Year in 2018 and was named Lincoln Law School’s Professor of the Year in 2015, 2018 and 2019.

JUDY L. HITCHCOCK is a senior staff attorney with Legal Assistance to the Elderly in San Francisco, specializing in elder abuse. She received her B.A. degree in 1973 from the University of California, Santa Barbara, a Master of Social Welfare degree with a specialization in aging in 1978 from the University of California, Berkeley, and her J.D. degree in 1983 from the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law. Ms. Hitchcock drafted the legislation providing for the issuance of restraining orders to abused elders and dependent adults. She is a former chair of the Multidisciplinary Team of the San Francisco Consortium for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, and has spoken at conferences for attorneys and other professionals about restraining orders and issues related to elder abuse.

DAVID G. KNITTER is a partner with the law firm of Knitter & Knitter, LLP, in Vacaville. He received his B.A. from the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, and his J.D., from McGeorge School of Law, University of the Pacific. Mr. Knitter practices in the areas of financial elder abuse, contested conservatorships, and trust and probate litigation. He is a past member and current advisor of the Executive Committee for the Trusts and Estates Section of the State Bar of California (TEXCOM) and current Chair of the State Bar of California Educating Seniors Project. He is Past President of the Solano County Bar Association (SCBA) and was honored as Attorney of the Year in 2006. Mr. Knitter has written extensively on financial elder abuse, undue influence, and trust and probate trust litigation issues. He has presented locally and nationally for organizations including the National Academy of Elder Law Attorneys (NAELA), the Elder Financial Protection Network, county bar associations, local estate planning councils, and civic and professional groups. Topics have included undue influence, financial elder abuse, trust and probate litigation, and related subject matter.

PETER G. LOMHOFF is an attorney in private practice in Oakland representing plaintiffs in nursing home and elder abuse cases. Mr. Lomhoff received his B.A. degree from Reed College in 1966, a Master of Arts degree from the University of Chicago in 1970, continued with graduate studies at Harvard University, and received his J.D. from the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law, where he was an associate editor of the California Law Review. Mr. Lomhoff was a law clerk to the Hon. William T. Sweigert, United States District Court for the Northern District of California, from 1975 to 1977. He is a member of the Advisory Committee of the California Advocates for Nursing Home Reform Lawyer Referral Service. He is a lecturer on nursing home and elder abuse law and litigation.

DANIEL D. MURPHY is a San Francisco estate and trust litigation attorney, whose practice primarily focuses on financial abuse of the elderly. He was an author of Senate Bill 2107 (2001), which revised the definition of “financial abuse” under the Elder Abuse and Dependent Adult Civil Protection Act (Welf & I C §15610.30). In addition to writing for CEB, he speaks on the subject of financial abuse for California Advocates for Nursing Home Reform. He is a former member of the board of directors of Legal Assistance for Seniors, a nonprofit legal aid organization in Oakland, California that serves the elderly and the poor. Since 2013, he has been a member of the executive committee of the Estate & Trust section (TEXCOM) of the State Bar of California.

LYNN SEARLE practices trusts and estate law in San Francisco, specializing in estate planning, trust administration, probate, and financial elder abuse. Ms. Searle earned her J.D. at the University of California, Hastings College of the Law and her LL.M. in taxation at Golden Gate University. A former prosecutor, Ms. Searle has significant experience with elder abuse and has spoken on the subject as it relates to estate planning for the American College of Trust and Estate Counsel, the Bar Association of San Francisco, the Marin Bar Association, Golden Gate University, the Stanislaus Estate Council, and Legal InCite (CNET Radio, San Francisco).

JODY L. SPIEGEL is a staff attorney with California Advocates for Nursing Home Reform (CANHR), a statewide nonprofit advocacy organization dedicated to improving the choices, care, and quality of life for California’s long-term care consumers through direct advocacy, community education, legislation, and litigation. Before joining CANHR, Ms. Spiegel worked with Bet Tzedek Legal Services as director of its Nursing Home Advocacy Project. Ms. Spiegel is a frequent lecturer to community and professional organizations, and also the author of several consumer guides on long­term care laws and practices. She received her B.A. degree from Wellesley College, and her J.D. degree from the University of Southern California Law Center.

KATHRYN STEBNER is the owner of Stebner and Associates. She has been in private practice emphasizing elder abuse and medical malpractice litigation since 1985. Ms. Stebner received her J.D. from the University of San Francisco School of Law in 1985 and is licensed to practice in both California and Oregon. She is currently on the Board of Directors of the San Francisco Trial Lawyers Association and Consumer Attorneys of California, and is a frequent speaker and author on elder abuse litigation. Ms. Stebner is currently the CAOC liaison for “Protect our Parents”—a consortium of elder advocacy groups involved in California long-term care, state policies, and laws. She received California Advocates for Nursing Home Reform’s Legal Advocacy Award in 2001 for recognition of her efforts on behalf of California long-term care residents.

About the 2020 Update Authors

KIRSTEN M. FISH: For biographical information, see About the Authors. Ms. Fish is a co-author of chapter 6A.

JUDY L. HITCHCOCK: For biographical information, see About the Authors. Ms. Hitchcock is the author of chapter 8.

DAVID G. KNITTER: For biographical information, see About the Authors. Mr. Knitter provided assistance with chapters 6 and 7.

PETER G. LOMHOFF: For biographical information, see About the Authors. Mr. Lomhoff is a co-author of chapters 2 and 3, and he provided assistance with chapter 5.

JODY L. SPIEGEL: For biographical information, see About the Authors. Ms. Spiegel is the author of chapter 4.

KATHRYN STEBNER: For biographical information, see About the Authors. Ms. Stebner is a co-author of chapters 5 and 6A.

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