You have no items in your shopping cart.
Search
Filters

California Eviction Defense Manual

The most comprehensive, efficient eviction defense resource ever published. Covers both substantive and procedural law.

The most comprehensive, efficient eviction defense resource ever published. With nearly 100 litigation forms, it covers both substantive and procedural law on these issues and more:

  • Termination notices; pretrial defense motions
  • Postforeclosure evictions: borrower and tenant strategies
  • Defending tenants who use medical marijuana
  • Negotiating tips; settlements
  • Warranty of habitability defense
  • Eviction-controlled jurisdictions
  • Commercial tenancies and government-assisted housing
  • Trial, judgments, writs, and appeals
OnLAW RE94080

Web access for one user.

 

$ 425.00
Print RE32080

2d edition, 2 looseleaf volumes, updated 6/19.

 

$ 425.00
Add Forms CD to Print RE22084
$ 99.00

The most comprehensive, efficient eviction defense resource ever published. With nearly 100 litigation forms, it covers both substantive and procedural law on these issues and more:

  • Termination notices; pretrial defense motions
  • Postforeclosure evictions: borrower and tenant strategies
  • Defending tenants who use medical marijuana
  • Negotiating tips; settlements
  • Warranty of habitability defense
  • Eviction-controlled jurisdictions
  • Commercial tenancies and government-assisted housing
  • Trial, judgments, writs, and appeals

1

Overview of Unlawful Detainer Law

  • I.  SCOPE OF THIS BOOK  1.1
  • II.  LANDLORD’S ALTERNATIVES TO UNLAWFUL DETAINER ACTION  1.2
  • III.  ETHICS; LITIGATION PRIVILEGE  1.3
  • IV.  SUMMARY OF UNLAWFUL DETAINER PROCESS  1.4
    • A.  Description of Unlawful Detainer Action  1.5
    • B.  Reduced Time Frame Governing Unlawful Detainer Procedure  1.6
    • C.  Landlord Must Strictly Comply With Statutory Requirements  1.7
    • D.  Notice Requirements  1.8
    • E.  Bases for Terminating Tenancy; Applicable Notice  1.9
      • 1.  Termination Requiring 3-Day Notice (Longer Notice Permitted)  1.10
      • 2.  Termination Requiring 30-Day or Longer Notice  1.11
      • 3.  Termination Requiring Other Notice  1.12
      • 4.  Termination Requiring No Notice  1.13
    • F.  Jurisdiction and Venue  1.14
    • G.  Default and Default Judgment  1.15
    • H.  Bases for Defending Unlawful Detainer Action  1.16
    • I.  Trial
      • 1.  Tenant Entitled to Jury Trial if Answer Presents Admissible Defenses  1.17
      • 2.  Rent and Damages Awardable to Landlord  1.18
    • J.  Posttrial Motions  1.19
    • K.  Execution by Sheriff  1.20
  • V.  CHECKLIST: SUMMARY OF POTENTIAL TENANT RESPONSES TO LANDLORD’S ACTIONS  1.20A
  • VI.  INVALIDITY OF LEASE PROVISION WAIVING TENANT’S RIGHTS  1.21
  • VII.  WRIT OF IMMEDIATE POSSESSION  1.22
  • VIII.  UNAVAILABILITY OF UNLAWFUL DETAINER IF TENANT IS NO LONGER IN POSSESSION OF PREMISES  1.23

2

Relationship of Unlawful Detainer to Other Actions

  • I.  ISSUES NOT COGNIZABLE IN UNLAWFUL DETAINER ACTIONS  2.1
  • II.  COORDINATION AND CONSOLIDATION OF UNLAWFUL DETAINER WITH OTHER ACTIONS  2.2
    • A.  Coordination of Complex Actions  2.2A
    • B.  Transfer of Noncomplex Actions  2.2B
    • C.  Consolidation of Actions Pending in Same County  2.2C
  • III.  CONVERSION OF UNLAWFUL DETAINER ACTION TO ACTION FOR EJECTMENT  2.3
  • IV.  SEVERING POSSESSION ISSUE FROM RENT-DUE ISSUE  2.4
  • V.  TENANT’S SUIT FOR DECLARATORY OR INJUNCTIVE RELIEF; STAY OF UNLAWFUL DETAINER ACTION
    • A.  Overview: Can Unlawful Detainer Actions Be Enjoined?  2.5
    • B.  Obtaining Injunctive Relief
      • 1.  Legal Basis; Grounds  2.5A
      • 2.  The Newby Exception: Adequate Remedy at Law  2.5B
      • 3.  Overcoming Newby Limitations  2.5C
      • 4.  Procedure; Bond Required  2.5D
    • C.  Stay of Eviction Action as Reasonable Accommodation  2.5E
  • VI.  LANDLORD’S SUIT FOR INJUNCTIVE RELIEF  2.6
  • VII.  ACTIONS AFTER ENTRY OF JUDGMENT  2.7
  • VIII.  ARBITRATION PROVISION IN LEASE  2.8
  • IX.  ADMINISTRATIVE MANDAMUS  2.9
  • X.  BANKRUPTCY  2.10

3

Self-Help by Landlord

  • I.  USE OF SELF-HELP BY LANDLORD  3.1
  • II.  FORCIBLE ENTRY AND DETAINER  3.2
    • A.  Examples of Forcible Entry and Detainer  3.3
    • B.  Retaking Abandoned Premises Is Not Forcible Entry or Detainer  3.4
    • C.  Recovering Punitive Damages for Forcible Entry or Detainer Requires Showing of Malice  3.5
  • III.  SHUTTING OFF UTILITIES OR OTHERWISE BARRING TENANT’S USE OF PROPERTY
    • A.  Civil Code §789.3  3.6
    • B.  Remedies Under Public Utilities Code and CC §1942.2  3.6A
  • IV.  OTHER ACTIONS BY LANDLORD THAT MAKE PREMISES UNINHABITABLE  3.7
  • V.  SELF-HELP EVICTIONS OF TENANTS IN RESIDENTIAL HOTELS  3.8
  • VI.  SELF-HELP EVICTIONS OF LODGERS  3.9
  • VII.  SELF-HELP EVICTIONS OF OCCUPANTS OF TRANSITIONAL HOUSING  3.10
  • VIII.  SELF-HELP EVICTIONS OF HOTEL GUESTS  3.11
  • IX.  ANTI-HARASSMENT STATUTE (CC §1940.2)  3.12

4

Representing the Tenant; Office Procedures

  • I.  OFFICE PROCEDURES  4.1
  • II.  LAW OFFICE AUTOMATION  4.2
  • III.  LEGAL REFERENCE MATERIALS  4.3
    • A.  Necessary Legal Sources and Forms  4.4
    • B.  Useful Additional Library Materials  4.5
  • IV.  INITIAL STEPS BEFORE DECIDING WHETHER TO REPRESENT TENANT
    • A.  Initial (Telephone) Contact With Prospective Client  4.6
    • B.  Form: Telephone Intake Form  4.7
    • C.  Scheduling Meeting With Prospective Client  4.8
    • D.  Conflict of Interest in Representing Tenant
      • 1.  Performing a Conflicts Check  4.9
      • 2.  Common Conflict Situations in Unlawful Detainer Actions  4.10
    • E.  Initial Meeting With Prospective Client  4.11
    • F.  Use of Client Interview Questionnaire  4.12
    • G.  Form: Client Interview Questionnaire  4.13
    • H.  Conduct of Initial Meeting  4.14
    • I.  Investigate Tenant’s Relationship With Former Counsel and Any Litigation History  4.15
    • J.  Contact Landlord’s Attorney for Preliminary Look at Opposing View of Case  4.16
    • K.  Initial Assessment of Case  4.17
    • L.  Scope of Initial Assessment  4.18
    • M.  Allaying Tenant’s Fears  4.19
  • V.  REPRESENTATION OF TENANT
    • A.  Decision to Represent Tenant  4.20
      • 1.  If Attorney Will Not Represent or Assist Tenant  4.21
      • 2.  When More Time Needed for Decision on Representation  4.22
      • 3.  Form: Substitution of Attorney—Civil (Without Court Order) (Judicial Council Form MC-050; Mandatory)  4.23
      • 4.  If Attorney and Tenant Agree That Attorney Will Represent or Assist Tenant  4.24
      • 5.  Disclosure Regarding Professional Liability Insurance  4.24A
    • B.  Representation Agreements and Ground Rules  4.25
      • 1.  Delegating Tasks to Client  4.26
      • 2.  Contents of Representation Agreement  4.27
      • 3.  Form: Representation Agreement—Private Practitioner  4.28
      • 4.  Form: Client Retainer Agreement—Legal Services Organization  4.29
    • C.  Limited Scope Representation (Unbundling)
      • 1.  Applicable Law  4.29A
      • 2.  Checklist: Tenant Fee Agreement  4.29B
    • D.  Deposit of Rent Due Into Client Trust Account  4.30
    • E.  Form: Requirement for Deposit of Rent Into Client Trust Account  4.31
  • VI.  PROCEDURE AFTER REPRESENTATION IS UNDERTAKEN
    • A.  Ascertain Goal of Representation  4.32
      • 1.  Ascertain Whether Tenant Wants to Continue Living in Rental Unit  4.33
      • 2.  Goal of Representation Is Not Necessarily Successful Defense of Unlawful Detainer Action  4.34
    • B.  Counsel Should Investigate Facts of Case  4.35
    • C.  Determining Defense Strategy  4.36
    • D.  Making Choices on Strategy and Tactics  4.37
    • E.  Example of Strategic and Tactical Choices in Procedure When Defective 3-Day Notice Was Served  4.38
      • 1.  Strategy and Tactics: Filing a Demurrer  4.39
      • 2.  Strategy and Tactics: Filing an Answer  4.40
      • 3.  Strategy and Tactics: Filing Motion for Summary Judgment  4.41
    • F.  Counsel Should Simultaneously File Pleadings, Conduct Discovery, and Negotiate  4.42

5

Grounds for Eviction

  • I.  GROUNDS FOR EVICTION GENERALLY  5.1
  • II.  GROUNDS FOR EVICTION BASED ON TENANT’S DEFAULT; 3-DAY NOTICE REQUIRED  5.2
  • III.  REASONS FOR TERMINATION NOT BASED ON TENANT’S DEFAULT; NOTICE REQUIRED  5.3
  • IV.  REASONS FOR TERMINATION NOT BASED ON TENANT’S DEFAULT; NOTICE NOT REQUIRED  5.4
  • V.  TERMINATING MOBILEHOME PARK TENANCIES  5.5
  • VI.  EVICTION BROUGHT BY CITY PROSECUTOR OR CITY ATTORNEY  5.6

6

Three-Day Notice

  • I.  PURPOSE AND EFFECT OF 3-DAY NOTICE  6.1
    • A.  Purpose of 3-Day Notice  6.2
    • B.  If 3-Day Notice Is Defective  6.3
  • II.  IMMEDIATE TENANT RESPONSE TO SERVICE OF 3-DAY NOTICE (BEFORE COMPLAINT HAS BEEN FILED)  6.4
  • III.  STRICT COMPLIANCE WITH STATUTE IS REQUIRED  6.5
  • IV.  NOTICE REQUIRED EVEN IF LEASE PROVIDES THAT IT IS NOT NECESSARY  6.6
  • V.  COMPUTATION OF NOTICE PERIOD  6.7
  • VI.  NOTICE IS VALID EVEN THOUGH IT CONTAINS MORE THAN ONE REASON FOR EVICTION  6.8
  • VII.  NOTICE MAY BE WITHDRAWN  6.9
  • VIII.  FORM OF NOTICE  6.10
    • A.  Notice Must Be in Writing  6.11
    • B.  Description of Premises in Notice  6.12
    • C.  Signature on Notice  6.13
    • D.  Demand for Possession Must Be Unequivocal  6.14
    • E.  Statement of 3 Days in Notice Itself May Not Be Required  6.15
    • F.  Notice May Declare Election of Forfeiture  6.16
    • G.  Demand for Rent and Charges
      • 1.  Notice to Quit Must Include Demand for Rent as Alternative  6.17
      • 2.  Notice Must Specify No More Than Rent Actually Due  6.18
        • a.  Precise Amount of Rent Need Not Be Specified if Calculation of Rent Depends on Tenant’s Accounting  6.19
        • b.  Statement of Rent Due; Additional Claims in Notice  6.20
        • c.  Effect of Federal Fair Debt Collection Practices Act  6.20A
        • d.  When Landlord Directs Manner of Payment  6.20B
        • e.  When Notice Seeks Less Than Actual Amount Owed  6.21
      • 3.  Notice Must State to Whom and Where Rent Must Be Paid  6.21A
      • 4.  One-Year Limitation on Amount of Rent That Can Be Demanded  6.22
      • 5.  Inclusion of Late Charges in Notice  6.23
      • 6.  Validity of Late Charges Landlord Claims Are Due
        • a.  As Liquidated Damages  6.24
        • b.  As Violation of Usury Law  6.24A
  • IX.  SERVICE OF NOTICE
    • A.  When Notice May Be Served  6.25
      • 1.  “Holidays” Defined  6.26
      • 2.  When Tenant May Perform Under Notice  6.27
    • B.  Method of Service  6.28
    • C.  Statutory Requirements for Service of 3-Day Notice  6.29
  • X.  WHEN 3-DAY NOTICE IS BASED ON FAILURE TO PAY RENT  6.30
  • XI.  TENDER OF RENT
    • A.  Method of Tender of Rent  6.31
    • B.  Proof That Tender Was Made  6.32
    • C.  Depositing Money in Landlord’s Bank Account  6.33
    • D.  Effect of Tender of Rent on Obligation to Pay Rent  6.34
    • E.  Time of Tender of Rent
      • 1.  Tender of Rent Before Service of Notice  6.35
      • 2.  Tender of Rent After Notice Is Served and Before Notice Period Expires  6.36
      • 3.  Tender of Rent After Notice Period Has Expired  6.37
  • XII.  WHEN 3-DAY NOTICE IS BASED ON DEFAULT UNDER LEASE OR CONDUCT OTHER THAN FAILURE TO PAY RENT
    • A.  Violation of Covenant in Lease Generally; Statutory Basis for 3-Day Notice  6.38
      • 1.  Express and Implied Covenants  6.39
      • 2.  Trivial or Technical Breach Not Sufficient  6.40
      • 3.  Waiver and Estoppel  6.41
      • 4.  Repeated Acceptance of Late Rent  6.42
      • 5.  Effect of Tenant’s Performance  6.43
      • 6.  Whether Notice Must Be Given in Alternative  6.44
      • 7.  Stating the Breach  6.45
    • B.  Violation of Covenant Against Subletting, Assignment, or Waste; Maintaining Nuisance; or Using Premises for Unlawful Purpose  6.46
      • 1.  Subletting, Assignment, and Waste  6.47
      • 2.  Nuisance  6.48
      • 3.  Unlawful Purpose  6.49
      • 4.  Operating Bed-and-Breakfast or Transient Occupancy Business  6.49A
  • XIII.  SALE UNDER EXECUTION, MORTGAGE, OR TRUST DEED  6.50
  • XIV.  COMMON FLAWS IN 3-DAY NOTICE OR ITS SERVICE THAT RENDER NOTICE INEFFECTIVE  6.51
  • XV.  EFFECT OF SERVICE OF MORE THAN ONE NOTICE  6.52

7

Thirty-Day/Sixty-Day Notices and Termination Without Notice

  • I.  TERMINATING PERIODIC TENANCIES
    • A.  Using 30-Day Notice  7.1
    • B.  Using 60-Day Notice  7.1A
  • II.  IMMEDIATE TENANT RESPONSE TO SERVICE OF NOTICE  7.2
  • III.  TENANT REMAINS IN POSSESSION AFTER TERMINATION
    • A.  “Holdover” Tenant Defined  7.3
    • B.  Tenant Serves Landlord With Notice of Termination and Remains in Possession After Termination Period  7.4
    • C.  Term Has Expired but Tenant Holds Over  7.5
    • D.  Termination of Employment of Resident Employee  7.6
    • E.  Death of Tenant  7.7
    • F.  Expiration of Fixed-Term Lease  7.8
    • G.  Effect of Landlord’s Acceptance of Rent After Expiration of Fixed Term  7.9
    • H.  Effect of Clause Providing for Automatic Extension or Renewal  7.9A
    • I.  Lodger Who Holds Over in Owner-Occupied Dwelling  7.10
    • J.  Expiration of Periodic (Generally Month-to-Month) Lease  7.11
  • IV.  LENGTH OF PERIOD OF NOTICE
    • A.  Shortened Notice Periods by Agreement  7.12
    • B.  Date on Which Mailed Notice Is Effective  7.13
    • C.  Notice Period Must Expire Before Complaint Can Be Filed  7.14
  • V.  WITHDRAWAL OF NOTICE; ACCEPTANCE OF RENT PAYMENTS  7.15
  • VI.  FORM OF NOTICE
    • A.  Notice Must Be in Writing  7.16
    • B.  Description of Premises and Signature  7.17
    • C.  Notice Cannot Be in the Alternative  7.18
    • D.  Statement of 30 or 60 Days  7.19
    • E.  Cover Sheet; Evictions After Foreclosure  7.19A
  • VII.  APPORTIONMENT OF RENT  7.20
  • VIII.  METHOD OF SERVICE  7.21
  • IX.  TENANCY AT WILL  7.22
  • X.  EFFECT OF SERVICE OF 30-DAY OR 60-DAY NOTICE IN CONJUNCTION WITH SERVICE OF 3-DAY NOTICE  7.23
  • XI.  COMMON FLAWS IN NOTICE OR ITS SERVICE, RENDERING NOTICE INEFFECTIVE  7.24
  • XII.  TENANT IN MILITARY SERVICE  7.25

8

Service of Notices on Tenant

  • I.  EVALUATING SERVICE OF NOTICE  8.1
  • II.  METHODS OF SERVICE OF NOTICE  8.2
    • A.  Personal Service  8.3
    • B.  Substituted Service (CCP §1162(a)(2))  8.4
    • C.  Service by Posting, Delivery, and Mail (CCP §1162(a)(3))  8.5
      • 1.  Service by Posting Alone Is Insufficient  8.6
      • 2.  Service by Mail Alone Is Insufficient  8.7
    • D.  Extension of Tenant’s Time to Act When Notice Is Mailed  8.8
      • 1.  Notice Effective on Receipt  8.8A
      • 2.  Notice Effective on Mailing  8.8B
      • 3.  Effective Date of Notice Extended by CCP §1013  8.8C
      • 4.  Rationale Favoring Extension of Response Period Under CCP §1013 When Notice Is Mailed  8.9
  • III.  IMPROPER SERVICE
    • A.  Effect of Defective Service of Notice  8.10
    • B.  Actual Receipt of Improperly Served Notice  8.11
  • IV.  EFFECT OF SERVICE ON PERSONS OTHER THAN TENANT  8.12
    • A.  Occupants Who Are Neither Tenants nor Subtenants  8.13
    • B.  Cotenants  8.14
    • C.  Subtenants  8.15
  • V.  EXAMPLES OF COMMON MISTAKES IN SERVICE  8.16
  • VI.  PROOF OF SERVICE OF NOTICE  8.17

9

Negotiating Strategies

  • I.  IMPORTANCE OF NEGOTIATION AND EARLY SETTLEMENT  9.1
    • A.  Definitions of Terms: “Negotiation,” “Target Point,” “Resistance Level,” and “Bottom Line”  9.2
    • B.  Determining Tenant’s Goals and Expectations  9.3
    • C.  Determining the Bargaining Range  9.4
    • D.  Possible Bargaining Outcomes  9.5
    • E.  Evaluating Case  9.6
  • II.  KEY FACTORS TOWARD SETTLEMENT IN TENANT’S FAVOR
    • A.  Merits of Tenant’s Case  9.7
    • B.  Whether Tenant Is Willing to Relinquish Possession  9.8
    • C.  Whether Tenant Is Impervious to Judgment for Damages  9.9
    • D.  Whether Eviction Follows State of Emergency or Disaster  9.9A
    • E.  Whether Rental Agreement Contains Attorney Fee Clause  9.10
  • III.  DEVELOPING A BARGAINING STRATEGY  9.11
    • A.  Look for Means to Strengthen Tenant’s Case and Weaken Landlord’s  9.12
    • B.  Tenant’s Attorney Must Be Ready to Move Quickly to Take Advantage of Settlement Opportunities  9.13
    • C.  Tenant’s Attorney Should Be Aware of Landlord’s Goals and Fears  9.14
    • D.  Determining How Much to Demand in Initial Settlement Offer  9.15
  • IV.  ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF FACING OPPOSING COUNSEL KNOWN TO TENANT’S COUNSEL  9.16
  • V.  USING BARGAINING TACTICS  9.17
  • VI.  COMMUNICATING WARNINGS TO OPPOSING PARTY  9.18
  • VII.  WHEN LANDLORD’S COUNSEL APPEARS TO BE DRAWING OUT ACTION TO GENERATE FEES  9.19
  • VIII.  DRAFTING SETTLEMENT AGREEMENT  9.20
  • IX.  EVALUATING SUCCESS OF SETTLEMENT AGREEMENT  9.21

10

Proceeding in Forma Pauperis

  • I.  AUTHORITY FOR OBTAINING WAIVER OF COURT FEES AND COSTS  10.1
  • II.  COMMON LAW RIGHT TO PROCEED IN FORMA PAUPERIS  10.2
  • III.  SUBSTANTIVE SHOWING OF INDIGENCE  10.3
  • IV.  CLASSES OF CLAIMANTS AND CATEGORIES FOR WHICH FEES AND COSTS MAY BE WAIVED  10.4
  • V.  FEES AND COSTS IN TRIAL COURT
    • A.  Types of Fees and Costs Waived by Initial Application  10.5
    • B.  Waiver of Other Fees and Costs  10.6
    • C.  Applying to Proceed in Forma Pauperis
      • 1.  Procedure for Request for Waiver of Court Fees and Costs  10.7
      • 2.  Grant of Waiver of Court Fees and Costs Without Hearing  10.7A
      • 3.  Hearing on Applicant’s Entitlement to Waiver of Court Fees and Costs  10.7B
      • 4.  Court Issues and Serves Order on Request to Waive Court Fees  10.7C
      • 5.  Effect of Denial of Waiver on Pleadings Already Filed by Applicant  10.7D
      • 6.  Procedure for Subsequent Determinations of Fee Waiver Eligibility  10.8
    • D.  No Right to Waiver or Reimbursement of Discovery Costs  10.9
    • E.  Right to Appointment of Attorney  10.10
  • VI.  FEES AND COSTS ON APPEAL
    • A.  Proceeding in Forma Pauperis  10.11
      • 1.  Filing Fees  10.11A
      • 2.  Fees for Transcript  10.11B
      • 3.  Fees for Interpreter  10.11C
      • 4.  Appeal Bond Fees  10.11D
    • B.  Review of Denial of Request  10.12

11

Service of Summons and Complaint; Motion to Quash Service of Summons

  • I.  SERVICE OF SUMMONS AND COMPLAINT  11.1
  • II.  IMMEDIATE ACTIONS THAT CAN BE TAKEN ON TENANT’S BEHALF AFTER SERVICE OF SUMMONS  11.2
  • III.  ATTEMPTS TO AVOID SERVICE OF SUMMONS  11.3
  • IV.  FORM OF SUMMONS  11.4
  • V.  FORM: SUMMONS—UNLAWFUL DETAINER—EVICTION (JUDICIAL COUNCIL FORM SUM-130)  11.5
  • VI.  SERVICE OF PROCESS  11.6
    • A.  Methods of Service  11.7
    • B.  Strict Construction of Service Statutes  11.8
    • C.  Effect of Defective Service  11.9
    • D.  New Summons Need Not Be Served With Service of Amended Complaint  11.10
    • E.  Return of Service  11.11
    • F.  Personal Service  11.12
    • G.  Substituted Service  11.13
      • 1.  Substituted Service on Individual Defendant  11.14
      • 2.  Substituted Service on Business Entity  11.15
      • 3.  Showing Reasonable Diligence  11.16
      • 4.  Recital on Return of Service  11.17
    • H.  Service by Mail With Acknowledgment of Receipt  11.18
    • I.  Service by Posting and Mailing  11.19
    • J.  Order Allowing Service by Posting  11.20
    • K.  Completion Date of Service by Posting  11.21
    • L.  Service by Publication  11.22
  • VII.  SPECIAL APPEARANCE REQUIRED ON MOTION TO QUASH
    • A.  What Constitutes a General Appearance  11.23
    • B.  Making a Special Appearance  11.24
  • VIII.  GROUNDS FOR MOTION TO QUASH  11.25
    • A.  Error in Filled-Out Summons  11.26
    • B.  Failure to Properly Serve All Required Papers  11.27
    • C.  Motion to Quash When Cause of Action Is Not Properly Pleaded in Unlawful Detainer  11.28
    • D.  Complaint Contains Another Cause of Action in Addition to Unlawful Detainer  11.29
    • E.  Complaint Prays for Damages Not Allowed in Unlawful Detainer  11.30
    • F.  Defendant Erroneously Designated
      • 1.  Pleading Requirements; “Doe” Defendants  11.31
      • 2.  Entering Judgment Against “Doe” Defendant  11.32
  • IX.  CONSTITUTIONAL CHALLENGE TO FIVE-DAYS-TO-ANSWER REQUIREMENT  11.33
  • X.  MOTION TO QUASH—PROCEDURE
    • A.  Time to File Motion; Effect of Motion on Time to File Answer  11.34
    • B.  Form of Notice  11.35
    • C.  Hearing on Motion to Quash; Burden of Proof  11.36
    • D.  Filing Fees  11.37
  • XI.  FORM: MOTION TO QUASH SERVICE OF SUMMONS; SUPPORTING MEMORANDUM; DECLARATION OF TENANT  11.38
  • XII.  FORM: ORDER GRANTING MOTION TO QUASH SERVICE OF SUMMONS  11.39
  • XIII.  EFFECT OF GRANTING MOTION TO QUASH  11.40
  • XIV.  EFFECT OF DENIAL OF MOTION TO QUASH  11.41
  • XV.  APPLICATION FOR WRIT OF MANDATE IF MOTION DENIED  11.42
  • XVI.  POSSIBLE EFFECT OF CCP §1167.4 ON WHETHER TIME FOR FILING RESPONSIVE PLEADINGS IS TOLLED BY PETITION FOR WRIT  11.43
  • XVII.  CHART: TIMELINE FOR TENANT ACTIONS IF SUMMONS OR SERVICE OF SUMMONS WAS DEFECTIVE  11.44

12

Default Judgments

  • I.  PROCEDURE FOR OBTAINING JUDGMENT BY DEFAULT
    • A.  Request for Entry of Default and Judgment for Possession  12.1
    • B.  Forms Used for Entry of Default and Judgment for Possession  12.2
  • II.  EARLY INTERVENTION FOR TENANT  12.2A
  • III.  SERVICE OF REQUEST FOR ENTRY OF DEFAULT; LANDLORD’S OBLIGATION TO INFORM TENANT  12.3
  • IV.  EFFECT OF ENTRY OF DEFAULT; LATE FILING OF RESPONSE  12.4
  • V.  ENTRY OF DEFAULT; WRIT OF IMMEDIATE POSSESSION  12.5
  • VI.  PROVE-UP HEARING FOR RELIEF OTHER THAN RESTITUTION  12.6
  • VII.  PROCEDURE FOR ENTERING DEFAULT IF SERVICE WAS BY PUBLICATION  12.7
  • VIII.  SETTING ASIDE DEFAULT AND DEFAULT JUDGMENT  12.8
    • A.  Stipulation to Set Aside Default and Default Judgment  12.9
    • B.  Form: Stipulation to Set Aside Default and Default Judgment; Order  12.10
    • C.  Procedures for Applying to Set Aside Default  12.11
    • D.  Grounds for Setting Aside Default and Default Judgment  12.12
      • 1.  Mistake, Inadvertence, Surprise, or Excusable Neglect (CCP §473)
        • a.  Relief May Be Granted for Client or Attorney Error  12.13
        • b.  Mandatory Relief From Default, Default Judgment, or Dismissal When Attorney Files Affidavit of Fault  12.14
        • c.  Time Limitations on Bringing Motion Under CCP §473  12.15
        • d.  Showing in Support of Motion; Declaration  12.16
        • e.  Excuses for Default; Examples  12.17
          • (1)  Mistake of Fact  12.18
          • (2)  Attorney’s Mistake of Law  12.19
          • (3)  Excusable Neglect  12.20
          • (4)  Fraud  12.21
      • 2.  Clerical Mistakes; Vacating Void Judgments (CCP §473, ¶4)  12.22
        • a.  Judgment Void on Its Face  12.23
        • b.  Judgment Void in Fact, But Not Void on Its Face  12.24
      • 3.  When Service of Summons Does Not Result in Actual Notice to Party (CCP §473.5)  12.25
      • 4.  Motion or Separate Action in Equity Available to Vacate Judgment on Ground of Fraud or Mistake  12.26
      • 5.  Erroneously Entered Default or Default Judgment  12.27
      • 6.  Examples of Erroneously Entered Defaults and Default Judgments  12.28
    • E.  When Writ of Execution Has Been Issued  12.29
  • IX.  CHECKLIST: OBTAINING RELIEF FROM ENTRY OF DEFAULT  12.29A
  • X.  FORMS: MOTION TO SET ASIDE DEFAULT AND DEFAULT JUDGMENT
    • A.  Form: Notice of Motion to Set Aside Default and Default Judgment; Supporting Memorandum  12.30
    • B.  Form: Declaration Supporting Motion to Set Aside Default and Default Judgment  12.30A
    • C.  Form: Notice of Motion to Vacate Default; Supporting Memorandum  12.30B
  • XI.  ORDER SETTING ASIDE DEFAULT AND DEFAULT JUDGMENT  12.31
  • XII.  FORM: ORDER SETTING ASIDE DEFAULT AND DEFAULT JUDGMENT  12.32
  • XIII.  EFFECT OF ORDER SETTING ASIDE DEFAULT AND DEFAULT JUDGMENT
    • A.  Effect on Sealing of Court Records  12.32A
    • B.  Effect on Tenant’s Ability to Appear in Action  12.33

13

Demurring and Moving to Strike

  • I.  ATTACKING LEGAL SUFFICIENCY OF COMPLAINT  13.1
  • II.  THE DEMURRER  13.2
    • A.  Grounds for General Demurrer  13.3
    • B.  Grounds for Special Demurrer  13.4
    • C.  Sustaining Demurrer With or Without Leave to Amend  13.5
    • D.  Demurrer Permitted on Grounds of No Jurisdiction Over Subject Matter  13.6
    • E.  Effect of Another Pending Unlawful Detainer Action  13.7
    • F.  Parties
      • 1.  Improper Defendant  13.8
      • 2.  Improper Plaintiff  13.9
    • G.  Venue and Trial Court Location  13.10
    • H.  Description of Premises With Reasonable Certainty  13.11
    • I.  Existence of Landlord-Tenant Relationship  13.12
    • J.  Notice of Termination
      • 1.  Alleging Manner of Service of Notice; Statutory Amendment  13.13
      • 2.  Alleging Proper Notice or Service of Notice; Motion to Quash Versus Demurrer  13.13A
      • 3.  Alleging Contents of Notice and Reasons for Termination  13.14
        • a.  Default in Rent  13.15
        • b.  Breach of Covenant Other Than Nonpayment of Rent  13.16
        • c.  Subletting, Waste, Nuisance, or Use for Unlawful Purpose  13.17
        • d.  Expiration of Term
          • (1)  Fixed Term  13.18
          • (2)  Periodic Tenancy  13.19
    • K.  Tenant Continues in Possession  13.20
    • L.  Fraud, Force, or Violence  13.21
    • M.  Compliance With Implied Warranty of Habitability  13.22
    • N.  Statute of Limitations  13.23
    • O.  Checklist: Demurrable Defects in Complaint  13.23A
    • P.  Form: Demurrer to Complaint  13.24
  • III.  MOTION TO STRIKE  13.25
    • A.  Irrelevant, False, or Improper Allegations  13.26
    • B.  Defects Not Subject to Demurrer  13.27
    • C.  Improper Request for Damages  13.28
    • D.  Necessary Allegations for Finding Statutory Damages  13.29
    • E.  Rental Value of Premises After Suit Brought  13.30
    • F.  Attorney Fee Provision in Lease  13.31
    • G.  Verification  13.32
    • H.  Failure to State “§1161a” in Caption  13.32A
    • I.  Sample Form: Motion to Strike  13.33
  • IV.  PROCEDURE FOR DEMURRER AND MOTION TO STRIKE
    • A.  Answer May Be Filed With Demurrer  13.34
    • B.  Timing of Hearing on Demurrer and Motion to Strike  13.35
    • C.  Supporting Memorandum  13.36
    • D.  Right to Amend Complaint  13.36A
    • E.  Effect of Overruling of Demurrer  13.37
    • F.  Frivolous Demurrers  13.38
    • G.  Motion to Strike  13.39
  • V.  ADDITIONAL FORMS: DEMURRER AND MOTION TO STRIKE
    • A.  Form: Notice of Hearing: Demurrer and Motion to Strike  13.40
    • B.  Form: Memorandum Supporting Demurrer to Complaint (30-Day Notice Case)  13.41
    • C.  Form: Memorandum Supporting Demurrer to Complaint (3-Day Notice Case)  13.42
    • D.  Form: Memorandum Supporting Demurrer to Complaint (Judicial Council Form Complaint)  13.43
    • E.  Form: Memorandum Supporting Demurrer to Complaint (Breach of Lease Covenant)  13.44
    • F.  Form: Memorandum Supporting Demurrer (Rent-Controlled Jurisdiction)  13.45
    • G.  Form: Memorandum Supporting Demurrer and Alternative Motion to Strike (Previous Action Between Parties)  13.46
    • H.  Form: Memorandum Supporting Motion to Strike Allegation of Improper Damages  13.47
  • VI.  FILING FEES  13.48
  • VII.  EXTENSION OF TIME TO PLEAD  13.49
  • VIII.  MOTION FOR JUDGMENT ON PLEADINGS  13.50
  • IX.  SPECIAL (ANTI-SLAPP) MOTION TO STRIKE  13.51

14

Answering and Alleging Affirmative Defenses

  • I.  RIGHT TO ANSWER  14.1
  • II.  USE OF JUDICIAL COUNCIL FORMS  14.2
  • III.  TIME TO ANSWER; E-FILING; COURT FEES  14.3
  • IV.  GOOD CAUSE TO EXTEND TIME TO ANSWER
    • A.  Length of Extension  14.4
    • B.  Steps Tenant Should Take to Get Extension of Time to File Answer  14.5
    • C.  Form: Ex Parte Application for Order Extending Time to Plead  14.5A
  • V.  DENIALS  14.6
  • VI.  BASES FOR DENIALS  14.7
  • VII.  AFFIRMATIVE DEFENSES  14.8
    • A.  Priority of Title After Foreclosure Sale  14.9
    • B.  Implied Warranty of Habitability and Retaliatory Eviction  14.10
    • C.  “Equitable” Defenses  14.11
    • D.  Laches  14.12
    • E.  Other Affirmative Defenses  14.13
    • F.  Illegal Discrimination  14.13A
      • 1.  Violation of Unruh Civil Rights Act as Defense  14.14
        • a.  Application of Unruh Act to Landlords  14.15
        • b.  Prohibition of Arbitrary Discrimination Under Unruh Act  14.16
        • c.  Minimum Income Policy  14.17
        • d.  Examples of Reach of Unruh Act  14.18
      • 2.  Discrimination Based on Age
        • a.  Discrimination Against Families With Children  14.19
        • b.  Senior Citizen Housing  14.20
      • 3.  Discrimination Under Federal Fair Housing Laws  14.21
      • 4.  Discrimination Under California Fair Employment and Housing Act  14.22
      • 5.  Family Day Care Home  14.22A
      • 6.  Immigration Status  14.22B
      • 7.  Domestic Violence  14.22C
      • 8.  Medicinal or Adult Marijuana Use  14.22D
      • 9.  Summoning Law Enforcement or Emergency Assistance  14.22E
    • G.  Other Violations of Housing Statutes and Ordinances
      • 1.  Certificate of Occupancy Violations  14.23
      • 2.  Landlord’s Duty to Repair; “Repair and Deduct” Statutes (CC §§1941–1942.5)  14.24
      • 3.  Violation of Tenantability Statutes (CC §1942.4)  14.24A
        • a.  Indications That Premises Are Untenantable  14.25
        • b.  Conditions Rebuttably Presumed to Breach Habitability Requirements  14.26
        • c.  If Tenant Causes Condition of Premises  14.27
        • d.  Tenant’s Remedies  14.28
        • e.  Waiver of Tenant’s Rights  14.29
      • 4.  Statutory Violations Under Rent Control  14.30
    • H.  Fraud  14.31
    • I.  Adhesion Contract  14.32
    • J.  Waiver and Estoppel  14.33
    • K.  Express Promise to Repair  14.34
      • 1.  Dependent or Independent Covenants  14.35
      • 2.  Oral Promise Made Before Written Lease  14.36
        • a.  Consideration  14.37
        • b.  Statute of Frauds  14.38
        • c.  Parol Evidence Rule as Applied to Leases  14.39
        • d.  Dependency of Covenants  14.40
      • 3.  Tenant’s Arguments for Admission of Oral Promise Made Before or at Time of Execution of Written Agreement  14.41
      • 4.  Oral Promise Made Before Entry Into Oral Lease  14.42
      • 5.  Promise Made Subsequent to Lease  14.43
      • 6.  When Tenant Makes Promise to Repair  14.43A
    • L.  Implied Covenant of Good Faith  14.44
    • M.  Actual Partial Eviction  14.45
    • N.  Notice Served More Than One Year After Rent Due  14.46
    • O.  Breach of Covenant of Quiet Enjoyment  14.47
    • P.  Offsets  14.48
    • Q.  When Tenant Has Vacated Premises  14.49
  • VIII.  VERIFICATION  14.50
  • IX.  FILING ANSWER AFTER RULING ON DEMURRER  14.51
  • X.  EXTENSION OF TIME TO PLEAD  14.52
  • XI.  AMENDING ANSWER  14.53
  • XII.  CROSS-COMPLAINTS  14.54
    • A.  When Tenant Has Vacated Premises  14.55
    • B.  When Landlord Fails to Challenge Cross-Complaint  14.56
    • C.  Procedure  14.57
  • XIII.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Answer—Unlawful Detainer (Judicial Council Form UD-105)  14.58
    • B.  Form: Answer to Judicial Council Form Complaint With Affirmative Defenses  14.59
    • C.  Form: General Denial (Judicial Council Form PLD-050)  14.60

15

Affirmative Defenses—Implied Warranty of Habitability

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Adoption of Implied Warranty of Habitability: Hinson v Delis; Green v Superior Court  15.1
    • B.  Definition of Implied Warranty of Habitability  15.2
    • C.  Supreme Court Rationale in Adopting Implied Warranty Doctrine  15.3
    • D.  Landlord May Be Held in Breach Even if Another Is Responsible for Defect  15.4
    • E.  Time Within Which Landlord Must Correct Defects  15.5
  • II.  USES OF IMPLIED WARRANTY OF HABITABILITY DOCTRINE  15.6
    • A.  When Warranty Used in Suit for Affirmative Damages and Other Relief  15.7
    • B.  Procedure When Using Warranty as Defense in Unlawful Detainer Action  15.8
    • C.  Effect of Tenant Prevailing at Trial on Warranty Defense  15.9
  • III.  ESTABLISHING BREACH OF WARRANTY
    • A.  Facilities Covered  15.10
      • 1.  Government-Owned Housing  15.11
      • 2.  Portions of Premises Covered by Warranty of Habitability  15.12
    • B.  Housing and Building Code Violations
      • 1.  Sources of Housing and Building Code Standards  15.13
      • 2.  Examples of Housing and Building Code Violations  15.13A
      • 3.  Jury Instructions Relating to Code Violations  15.14
      • 4.  Defects Actionable Under Implied Warranty or Negligence But Not Covered by Housing and Building Codes  15.15
    • C.  Failure to Protect Tenants From Criminal Acts  15.16
      • 1.  Determining Whether Landlord Has a Duty to Protect Against Criminal Acts  15.17
      • 2.  Examples of Duty Not Found or Duty Held Not Breached  15.18
      • 3.  Examples of Duty Found or Landlord Held in Breach  15.19
      • 4.  Breach of Duty Raised by Allegation of Breach of Implied Warranty  15.20
      • 5.  Level of Security at Time Tenant Moves Into Premises  15.21
      • 6.  Proving Causation  15.21A
    • D.  Seriousness of Defects
      • 1.  Requirement That Defects Be Serious  15.22
      • 2.  Examples of Defects Held Serious Enough to Constitute Breach of Implied Warranty  15.23
      • 3.  Evidence of Breach  15.24
        • a.  Proving That Existing Conditions Violate Code  15.25
        • b.  Presumption of Breach of Habitability Standards  15.26
        • c.  Viewing the Premises  15.27
    • E.  Special Problems
      • 1.  Premises Uninhabitable at Inception of Tenancy  15.28
      • 2.  Premises Become Uninhabitable After Tenant Is Served With Notice of Termination  15.29
      • 3.  Waiver of Warranty  15.30
      • 4.  Defect Caused by Tenant’s Wrongful Action  15.31
      • 5.  Defects Caused by Acts of Nature  15.32
  • IV.  NOTICE OF DEFECT  15.33
  • V.  REASONABLE TIME TO REPAIR NOT REQUIRED  15.34
  • VI.  PROTECTIVE ORDERS  15.35
    • A.  When Protective Orders Are Appropriate  15.36
    • B.  Advantages to Tenant of Voluntary Deposit Into Attorney’s Trust Account  15.37
  • VII.  DAMAGES FOR BREACH OF IMPLIED WARRANTY  15.38
    • A.  Relief Based on Affirmative Defense of Breach of Implied Warranty  15.39
      • 1.  Period During Which Damages Accrue  15.40
      • 2.  Tenant Must Pay “Reasonable Rent” Even if Warranty Breached  15.41
      • 3.  Various Approaches to Measuring Damages  15.42
        • a.  “Difference-in-Value” Approach  15.43
        • b.  “Discomfort-and-Annoyance” Approach  15.44
        • c.  “Percentage-Reduction-of-Use” Approach  15.45
      • 4.  Limits on Amount by Which Rent May Be Reduced  15.46
      • 5.  Amount of Rent Reduction in Subsidized Housing  15.46A
      • 6.  Nominal Damage Awards  15.47
    • B.  Actions Brought Under CC §1942.4  15.48
    • C.  Actions Based on Tort of Breach of Implied Warranty  15.49
    • D.  Hybrid View of Warranty of Habitability—Contract and Tort  15.50
  • VIII.  EFFECT OF RECENT PURCHASE OF PROPERTY BY LANDLORD  15.51
  • IX.  LACK OF CERTIFICATE OF OCCUPANCY  15.52

16

Affirmative Defenses—Retaliatory Evictions

  • I.  LEGAL FRAMEWORK  16.1
  • II.  SEVERAL SOURCES OF LAW MAY APPLY SIMULTANEOUSLY  16.2
    • A.  Civil Code §1942.5
      • 1.  Retaliation for Tenants’ Exercising Rights or Complaining About Habitability (CC §1942.5(a))
        • a.  Protected Parties and Acts  16.3
        • b.  Limitations on Protection
          • (1)  Tenant Cannot Be in Default in Payment of Rent  16.4
          • (2)  Tenant May Not Invoke CC §1942.5(a) More Than Once a Year  16.5
          • (3)  Protective Period Under CC §1942.5 Limited to 180 Days  16.6
          • (4)  Defense Limited in Ellis Act Evictions  16.6A
      • 2.  Retaliation for Tenant Union Activity (CC §1942.5(d))  16.7
      • 3.  Retaliation for Exercise of “Rights Under Law” (CC §1942.5(d))  16.8
        • a.  Additional Examples of Acts Protected by CC §1942.5(d)  16.9
        • b.  Examples of Acts Protected Before Enactment of CC §1942.5  16.10
      • 4.  Tenant Cannot Waive Rights (CC §1942.5(f))  16.11
      • 5.  Notice and Burden of Proof (CC §1942.5(g))  16.12
      • 6.  Procedure for Proving Retaliation When Landlord Includes Grounds in Notice (CC §1942.5(g))  16.13
      • 7.  Remedies (CC §1942.5(h)–(i)); Actual and Punitive Damages; Attorney Fees  16.14
      • 8.  Remedies Not Exclusive (CC §1942.5(j))  16.15
    • B.  Public Policy; Retaliation for Refusal to Commit Crime  16.16
    • C.  Victims of Domestic Violence  16.16A
    • D.  Immigration Status and Citizenship Issues  16.16B
    • E.  Summoning Law Enforcement or Emergency Assistance to the Premises  16.16C
    • F.  Other Statutory Rights
      • 1.  Retaliation Based on Tenant’s Assertion of Statutory Rights; Implied Protection  16.17
      • 2.  Retaliation Based on Tenant’s Assertion of Statutory Rights; Express Statutory Protection  16.18
      • 3.  Common Law  16.19
      • 4.  Local Rent Control Ordinances  16.20
      • 5.  Constitution  16.21
  • III.  LIMITATIONS ON RETALIATORY EVICTION DEFENSE  16.21A
  • IV.  PROOF OF RETALIATORY MOTIVE
    • A.  Sole or Dominant Motive  16.22
    • B.  Treatment of Mixed Motives in Labor Law  16.23
    • C.  Presumptions and Burden of Proof  16.24
    • D.  Evidence  16.25
    • E.  Analogies Drawn From Labor Law to Prove Retaliatory Motive  16.26
    • F.  Form: Affirmative Defense on Ground of Retaliatory Eviction  16.27

17

Special Considerations Governing Evictions in Rent-Controlled Cities

Myron Moskovitz

Sonya Bekoff Molho

Steven A. MacDonald

Denise McGranahan

Sallyann Molloy

  • I.  SCOPE OF LOCAL RENT CONTROL ORDINANCES
    • A.  Local Control Versus State Preemption  17.1
    • B.  Statewide Vacancy Decontrol
      • 1.  Existing Housing  17.1A
        • a.  Phase-in Periods  17.1B
        • b.  Lease Restrictions on Subletting Allowed  17.1C
        • c.  Exceptions to Preemptive Effect  17.1D
      • 2.  New Construction and Single-Unit Exclusions  17.1E
        • a.  Phase-in Periods for Condominiums and Single-Family Homes  17.1F
        • b.  Exceptions to Preemptive Effect  17.1G
      • 3.  Demolition and Reconstruction  17.1H
  • II.  PRACTICE CONSIDERATIONS IN RENT CONTROL JURISDICTIONS  17.2
  • III.  CITIES SUBJECT TO RENT CONTROL  17.3
  • IV.  EVICTIONS AND RENT CONTROL
    • A.  Overview of Eviction Control Ordinances
      • 1.  State Laws Versus Local Ordinances  17.4
      • 2.  Negotiating Around Eviction Controls; Tenant Buyouts  17.4A
    • B.  Just Cause for Eviction  17.5
      • 1.  Failure to Pay Rent  17.6
      • 2.  Failure to Cure Violation of Rental Agreement  17.7
      • 3.  Conduct Constituting a Nuisance  17.8
      • 4.  Use of Premises for Illegal Purpose  17.9
      • 5.  Refusal to Permit Landlord’s Access to Premises  17.10
      • 6.  Refusal to Execute New Lease  17.11
      • 7.  Subletting  17.12
      • 8.  Violation of Lease Restricting Occupancy  17.12A
        • a.  Exception: Relative or Domestic Partner of Tenant  17.12B
        • b.  Exception: Surviving Relative of Deceased Tenant  17.12C
        • c.  Exception: Landlord Knowingly Accepts Rent From Occupant  17.12D
      • 9.  Rehabilitation of Unit  17.13
      • 10.  Demolition or Conversion of Units—Ellis Act Evictions  17.14
        • a.  Constitutional Challenges; Preemption; Contractual Waivers  17.14A
        • b.  Effect of Other State Laws  17.14B
      • 11.  Occupancy by Owner or Owner’s Relative  17.15
        • a.  Representing Tenants in Evictions for Owner Occupancy  17.16
        • b.  Good Faith in Owner-Occupancy and Other Types of Evictions  17.17
          • (1)   Litigation Privilege Limitation  17.17A
          • (2)   Negotiated Evictions  17.17B
          • (3)   Anti-SLAPP Limitation  17.17C
      • 12.  Grounds Not Stated in Ordinance: Termination of Manager; Foreclosure  17.18
      • 13.  Failure to Use Premises as Principal Residence  17.18A
    • C.  Notice and Pleading Requirements  17.19
    • D.  Burdens of Proof  17.20
    • E.  Defenses to Evictions  17.21
    • F.  Statute of Limitations  17.22
    • G.  Damages for Unlawful Evictions  17.23
    • H.  Attorney Fees  17.24
    • I.  Relocation Payments  17.24A
  • V.  NEGOTIATING AND DEFENDING ELLIS ACT EVICTIONS
    • A.  Preliminary Considerations
      • 1.  Scope of Ellis Act  17.25
      • 2.  Representing Organized Tenants  17.26
      • 3.  Factual Investigation
        • a.  Review Notices and Status of All Affected Units  17.27
        • b.  Explain Ellis Process to Client  17.28
        • c.  Ascertain Client’s Age, Health, and Economic Status  17.29
        • d.  Investigate Unexpired Leases  17.30
    • B.  Relocation Benefits  17.31
      • 1.  Benefits Available for Displaced Tenants Regardless of Income or Age  17.32
      • 2.  Landlord’s Misrepresentation of Availability of Benefits  17.33
      • 3.  Documentation Proving Eligibility  17.34
      • 4.  Other Issues Affecting Payment of Benefits
        • a.  Timely Payment  17.35
        • b.  Waiver of Relocation Fees  17.36
        • c.  One Fee per Unit  17.37
        • d.  Services In Lieu of Fees  17.38
        • e.  Failure to Pay Fees  17.39
    • C.  Technical Defenses Based on Notice and Filing Requirements  17.40
    • D.  Unexpired Leases  17.41
    • E.  Tenant’s Options Regarding Unlawful Detainer Action Under Ellis Act
      • 1.  Answering the Complaint  17.42
      • 2.  Retaliatory Eviction Defense Limited  17.43
      • 3.  Failure to Take All Units Off Market  17.44
      • 4.  Other Possible Defenses  17.45
    • F.  Discovering Violations After Eviction
      • 1.  Use of Ellis Act to Move Out Long-Term Tenants  17.46
      • 2.  Use of Post-Ellis Property for Home Ownership  17.47
        • a.  Effect of State and Local Subdivision Laws  17.48
        • b.  Effect of State and Local Laws Regulating Apartment Conversions  17.49

18

Special Considerations Governing Evictions From Federally Assisted Housing

Catherine M. Bishop

Nancy Ann Palandati

Deborah A. Collins

  • I.  “FEDERALLY ASSISTED LOW-INCOME HOUSING” DEFINED  18.1
  • II.  ASCERTAINING WHETHER TENANT LIVES IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED HOUSING AND, IF SO, WHAT KIND  18.2
  • III.  TYPES OF FEDERALLY ASSISTED HOUSING PROGRAMS  18.3
    • A.  Public Housing  18.3A
    • B.  Section 8  18.3B
    • C.  HUD-Assisted and -Subsidized Housing  18.3C
    • D.  HUD-Assisted Units Threatened With Prepayment of Mortgage or Opt-Out of Section 8 Contract  18.3D
    • E.  Rural Housing Service (RHS) Subsidized Rental Housing  18.3E
    • F.  Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC)  18.3F
    • G.  Other State and Local Programs  18.3G
  • IV.  SUBSTANTIVE RIGHTS IN EVICTION ACTIONS
    • A.  Application of Federal, State, and Local Laws  18.4
    • B.  Evictions After Foreclosure; Preemptive Laws Governing Evictions  18.4A
    • C.  Good Cause Requirement  18.5
      • 1.  Public Housing  18.6
      • 2.  Project-Based Section 8 and HUD-Assisted and -Subsidized Housing  18.7
      • 3.  Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher Program  18.8
      • 4.  Rural Housing Service (RHS) Rental Housing  18.9
      • 5.  State and Local Housing Programs for Low-Income Families  18.10
      • 6.  Other Programs for Low-Income Families  18.11
    • D.  Facts Constituting Good Cause  18.12
      • 1.  Failure to Pay Rent  18.13
      • 2.  Serious Tenant Wrongdoing, Including Criminal Activity
        • a.  Violation of Lease or State or Federal Law  18.14
        • b.  Drug or Criminal Activity
          • (1)  Statutory Authorization and Standards for Eviction  18.15
          • (2)  Federal Standards Upheld in Rucker  18.16
          • (3)  When State Law Standards Apply  18.16A
          • (4)  Aftermath of Rucker; Unresolved Issues  18.17
          • (5)  Permission to Obtain Criminal Records, Drug Treatment Information  18.17A
        • c.  Exception: Victims of Domestic Violence Protected  18.17B
      • 3.  Violation of Program Regulations  18.18
      • 4.  Examples of Improper Grounds for Evicting Tenant  18.19
    • E.  Defending Evictions
      • 1.  Project Owner’s Abuse of Power  18.20
      • 2.  Defensive Strategies in PHA Evictions  18.20A
      • 3.  Bankruptcy Discharge of Delinquent Rent in Public or Subsidized Housing  18.20B
  • V.  EVICTION PROCEDURES: NOTICE AND ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING OR MEETING  18.21
    • A.  Notice Requirements  18.22
    • B.  Pretermination Grievance Hearing or Meeting  18.23
    • C.  Notice and Hearing Required Before Forfeiture Under Federal Antidrug Statute  18.24
    • D.  Relief From Forfeiture  18.25
  • VI.  DAMAGES MAY BE AWARDED FOR WRONGFUL EVICTION FROM FEDERALLY ASSISTED HOUSING  18.26
  • VII.  ENJOINING EVICTIONS FROM FEDERALLY ASSISTED HOUSING  18.27

19

Special Considerations Governing Evictions in Commercial Tenancies

Myron Moskovitz

Clifford R. Horner

  • I.  OVERVIEW OF LEASE TERMINATION AND UNLAWFUL DETAINER IN COMMERCIAL TENANCIES  19.1
    • A.  Commercial Evictions Distinguished from Residential  19.1A
    • B.  Recovering Possession When Tenant Abandons Premises  19.1B
  • II.  THREE-DAY NOTICE TO PAY RENT OR QUIT
    • A.  Lease Provisions May Affect Eviction Procedures  19.2
    • B.  Statutory Requirements
      • 1.  Estimated Rent (CCP §1161.1)  19.3
      • 2.  When Rent Is Not Estimated  19.4
      • 3.  Additional Rent  19.4A
      • 4.  When 3-day Notice Does Not Demand All Past Due Rent  19.4B
      • 5.  Service Requirements  19.5
      • 6.  Payment of Rent by Third Party  19.5A
      • 7.  Landlord’s Acceptance of Partial Tender of Rent  19.6
    • C.  Tenant Strategies  19.6A
  • III.  THREE-DAY NOTICE FOR VIOLATION OF COVENANT OR CONDUCT OTHER THAN NONPAYMENT OF RENT  19.7
    • A.  Covenants Restricting Assignments
      • 1.  Common Law Rules  19.8
      • 2.  Statutory Law  19.9
    • B.  Covenants Regarding Tenant Improvements  19.9A
    • C.  Covenants Prohibiting Waste or Requiring Tenant to Maintain and Repair Premises  19.9B
    • D.  Covenants Restricting Changes in Use  19.10
  • IV.  TERMINATION NOTICES FOLLOWING FORECLOSURE  19.10A
  • V.  TERMINATION UNDER EXPRESS LEASE PROVISIONS  19.10B
  • VI.  DEFENDING EVICTION BY ASSERTING BREACH OF LEASE BY LANDLORD
    • A.  Covenant to Repair; Implied Warranty of Habitability
      • 1.  Dependent Versus Independent Covenants  19.11
      • 2.  Argument Favoring Adoption of Dependent Covenant Doctrine in Commercial Leases  19.12
        • a.  Minimize Litigation  19.13
        • b.  Eliminate Unfair Burdens on Tenant  19.14
        • c.  Protect Tenant’s Right to Pursue Livelihood  19.15
        • d.  No Impact on Summary Nature of Unlawful Detainer  19.16
        • e.  Out-of-State Decisions Favor Interdependent Covenants  19.17
      • 3.  Effect of Toxic Mold Legislation  19.17A
    • B.  Covenant of Quiet Enjoyment  19.18
    • C.  Other Contractual Defenses  19.18A
    • D.  Implied Warranty of Fitness  19.19
    • E.  Implied Covenant of Good Faith  19.20
      • 1.  Duty to Maintain Third Party Leases  19.21
      • 2.  Sublessor Required to Exercise Option to Extend Master Lease  19.22
      • 3.  “No Compete” Covenant Applied to Expansion of Shopping Center  19.23
      • 4.  Good Faith Covenant Applied in Favor of Landlord  19.24
  • VII.  NONCONTRACTUAL DEFENSES TO COMMERCIAL EVICTION ACTIONS
    • A.  Retaliatory Eviction  19.25
    • B.  Good Cause to Terminate Petroleum Distributorship  19.26
    • C.  Equitable Defenses  19.27
  • VIII.  LANDLORD’S RIGHT OF ENTRY PENDING EVICTION  19.28
  • IX.  DISPOSING OF TENANT’S PROPERTY LEFT ON THE PREMISES  19.29

20

Effect of Sale of Property on Unlawful Detainer Proceedings

  • I.  EFFECT OF SALE OF PROPERTY ON TENANCY  20.1
    • A.  Sale Before Eviction Action Is Begun  20.2
    • B.  Sale After Eviction Action Has Begun  20.3
  • II.  EVICTING AFTER SALE
    • A.  Use of 3-Day Notice Under CCP §1161a(b)  20.4
    • B.  Use of 30-Day Notice on Residential Owner’s Tenant or 60-Day or 90-Day Notice After Foreclosure  20.5
      • 1.  Eviction Criteria and 30-Day Notice Under CCP §1161a(c)  20.5A
      • 2.  Eviction Criteria and Notice Periods Under CCP §§1161a and 1161b  20.6
      • 3.  Additional Preforeclosure Notice of Sale  20.7
      • 4.  90-Day Notice Under Federal Law Has Expired  20.8
    • C.  Litigating Title in Unlawful Detainer Action
      • 1.  Plaintiff’s Burden of Proof in Postsale Eviction  20.8A
      • 2.  Defending on Tenant’s Having Interest Superior to That of New Owner  20.8B
      • 3.  Defending on Plaintiff’s Lack of Title  20.9
    • D.  Effect of Local Eviction Control Ordinances  20.10
    • E.  Effect of Section 8 Eviction Controls  20.11
    • F.  Postforeclosure Bank Eviction Policies  20.12
    • G.  Defending Postforeclosure Evictions: Title Dispute, Improper Foreclosure, or Improper Notice Following Foreclosure  20.13
    • H.  Effect of Eviction Action on Suit to Set Aside Sale  20.13A
  • III.  UTILITY CUTOFFS  20.14

21

Effect of Filing Bankruptcy on Proceedings in Unlawful Detainer

  • I.  EFFECT OF TENANT FILING BANKRUPTCY
    • A.  Automatic Stay on Evictions  21.1
    • B.  Exceptions to Stay for Residential Tenancies
      • 1.  Stay Not Applicable After Entry of Judgment for Eviction Unless Tenant Shows Ability to Cure Default in Rent Payment  21.1A
      • 2.  Stay Not Applicable When Eviction Is Based on Endangerment of Property or Illegal Use of Controlled Substance  21.1B
    • C.  Significant Changes Under 2005 Act  21.1C
    • D.  Rent-Controlled Units as Protectable Property of the Estate  21.1D
  • II.  LITIGATION ARISING FROM AUTOMATIC STAY
    • A.  Landlord May Seek Relief From Automatic Stay  21.2
    • B.  Tenant May Seek Damages for Violation of Stay  21.2A
  • III.  PENALTIES FOR IMPROPER FILING OF BANKRUPTCY  21.3
  • IV.  LEASE CLAUSES PURPORTING TO TERMINATE LEASE ON FILING OF BANKRUPTCY  21.4
  • V.  TERMINATION OF UTILITIES AND OTHER SERVICES  21.5
  • VI.  ASSUMPTION OF LEASE  21.6
  • VII.  SECURITY DEPOSITS  21.7
  • VIII.  DISADVANTAGES TO TENANT OF FILING FOR BANKRUPTCY  21.8
  • IX.  FILING PETITION IN BANKRUPTCY AS TACTIC IN UNLAWFUL DETAINER ACTION  21.9

22

Summary Judgment

  • I.  PURPOSE OF MOTION FOR SUMMARY JUDGMENT  22.1
  • II.  TIMING OF MOTION  22.2
  • III.  BURDEN OF PROOF  22.2A
  • IV.  FACTUAL BASES FOR TENANT’S MOTION FOR SUMMARY JUDGMENT  22.3
  • V.  MOVING PARTY’S SUPPORTING PAPERS  22.4
  • VI.  OPPOSING PARTY’S COUNTERDECLARATIONS; CONTINUANCES; COURT ORDERS  22.5
  • VII.  SUMMARY ADJUDICATION OF ISSUES  22.6

23

Discovery

  • I.  PURPOSE OF DISCOVERY  23.1
  • II.  STATUTORY METHODS OF DISCOVERY  23.2
  • III.  DISCOVERY IN UNLAWFUL DETAINER ACTIONS
    • A.  Shortened Notice and Response Periods  23.3
    • B.  Limitations on Discovery; CC §3339.10  23.3A
  • IV.  DEFENSE STRATEGY SHOULD INCLUDE PLAN FOR DISCOVERY  23.4
  • V.  FORMAL AND INFORMAL DISCOVERY METHODS  23.5
  • VI.  FORMULATING A DISCOVERY PLAN
    • A.  When to Make and Implement Plan  23.6
    • B.  Coordinating Various Discovery Techniques  23.7
    • C.  Timeline for Initiating Tenant Discovery Directed to Landlord  23.8
    • D.  Actions to Take if Discovery Cannot Be Completed Before Trial Date  23.9
  • VII.  PURSUING DISCOVERY BEFORE ACTION IS FILED  23.10
    • A.  Methods of Discovery Available Before Action Is Filed  23.11
    • B.  Procedure for Pursuing Discovery Before Action Is Filed  23.12
    • C.  Usefulness of Pursuing Discovery Before Action Is Filed  23.13
  • VIII.  DISCOVERY AFTER SUMMONS AND COMPLAINT ARE SERVED  23.14
    • A.  Time Limits on Responding to Discovery Requests  23.15
    • B.  Preventing Setting of Trial Date Before Discovery Is Complete  23.16
    • C.  Petitioning for Writ of Mandate if Court Refuses to Extend Trial Date  23.17
  • IX.  METHODS OF DISCOVERY  23.18
    • A.  Oral Depositions  23.19
      • 1.  Usefulness of Depositions  23.20
      • 2.  Expense of Depositions  23.21
      • 3.  Procedure for Oral Depositions
        • a.  When Deposition May Be Taken  23.22
        • b.  Setting Depositions of Parties  23.23
        • c.  Setting Depositions of Nonparties  23.24
        • d.  Witness and Mileage Fees  23.25
        • e.  Procedures at Deposition  23.26
        • f.  Inspection of Documents at Deposition  23.27
        • g.  Reviewing, Correcting, and Approving Deposition  23.28
    • B.  Written Interrogatories  23.29
      • 1.  Usefulness of Written Interrogatories  23.30
      • 2.  Disadvantages of Written Interrogatories  23.31
      • 3.  Limit on Number of Interrogatories That May Be Propounded  23.32
      • 4.  Form: Declaration for Additional Discovery  23.33
      • 5.  Procedure for Propounding Written Interrogatories  23.34
    • C.  Pretrial Demand for Production of Documents or Inspection  23.35
      • 1.  Usefulness of Demand for Production  23.36
      • 2.  Introduction Into Evidence of Documents Produced  23.37
      • 3.  Tactical Considerations in Requesting Production  23.38
      • 4.  Protective Orders Against Request for Production  23.39
    • D.  Requests for Admissions  23.40
      • 1.  Usefulness of Requests for Admissions  23.41
      • 2.  Procedure for Requests for Admissions  23.42
      • 3.  Form: Declaration in Support of Request for Additional Admissions  23.43
      • 4.  Effect of Failure to Respond to Request for Admissions  23.44
      • 5.  Effect of Failure to Admit Fact Later Found True  23.45
      • 6.  Requests for Admissions May Not Be Combined With Other Discovery Requests  23.46
      • 7.  Effect of Admission Made in Response to Request  23.47
      • 8.  Admissions and Responses Are Not Filed But Retained by Parties  23.48
  • X.  SANCTIONS FOR REFUSAL TO RESPOND TO DISCOVERY REQUESTS  23.49
    • A.  Categories of Sanctions That May Be Imposed  23.50
    • B.  What Constitutes Misuse of Discovery Process  23.51
    • C.  Specific Sanctions That Court May Impose  23.52
  • XI.  ADDITIONAL FORMS
    • A.  Form: Defendant’s Specially Prepared Interrogatories to Plaintiff  23.53
    • B.  Form: Defendant’s Request for Production of Documents  23.54

24

Rights of Occupants Not Named in Lease

  • I.  OCCUPANTS WHO ARE NOT NAMED IN LEASE  24.1
  • II.  PREJUDGMENT CLAIM OF RIGHT TO POSSESSION  24.2
    • A.  Service of Prejudgment Claim to Right to Possession Form
      • 1.  Service by Marshal, Sheriff, or Process Server  24.3
      • 2.  Time of Service  24.4
      • 3.  Service on Occupants Other Than Tenant or Subtenant  24.5
    • B.  Effect of Proper Service by Landlord of Prejudgment Claim Form  24.6
    • C.  Effect of Inadequate Service by Landlord of Prejudgment Claim Form  24.7
    • D.  Form: Prejudgment Claim of Right to Possession (Judicial Council Form CP10.5)  24.8
  • III.  POSTJUDGMENT CLAIM OF RIGHT TO POSSESSION  24.9
    • A.  Removal of Occupant by Sheriff or Marshal  24.10
    • B.  Procedure by Occupant in Making Postjudgment Claim of Right to Possession  24.11
    • C.  Form: Claim of Right to Possession and Notice of Hearing (Judicial Council Form CP10)  24.12
  • IV.  HEARING ON CLAIM OF RIGHT TO POSSESSION  24.13
  • V.  PROCEDURE AT HEARING ON CLAIM OF RIGHT TO POSSESSION  24.14
  • VI.  PROCEEDING WITH ENFORCEMENT OF WRIT OF POSSESSION  24.15

25

Trial

  • I.  SETTING CASE FOR TRIAL
    • A.  Request and Counter-Request to Set Trial  25.1
    • B.  Form: Request/Counter-Request to Set Case for Trial—Unlawful Detainer (Judicial Council Form UD-150)  25.1A
    • C.  Setting Date for Trial  25.2
    • D.  Effects of Local Practices  25.3
      • 1.  Trial by Temporary Judge  25.4
      • 2.  Procedure After Trial Date Is Set  25.5
    • E.  Resetting Trial Date  25.6
      • 1.  Procedure if Parties Do Not Agree on New Trial Date  25.7
      • 2.  Determining Whether Moving Party Has Shown Good Cause  25.8
      • 3.  Determining Whether There Is Reasonable Probability Plaintiff Will Prevail at Trial  25.9
      • 4.  Determining Damages Landlord Might Suffer  25.10
      • 5.  Reduction of Damages Based on Diminution of Value or Setoff  25.11
      • 6.  Order to Deposit Potential Damages  25.12
      • 7.  Advancing Trial Date on Tenant’s Failure to Make Deposit  25.13
      • 8.  Costs of Escrow Recoverable by Prevailing Party  25.14
      • 9.  Distribution of Funds Held in Escrow After Trial  25.15
  • II.  IF TENANT VACATES PREMISES BEFORE TRIAL  25.16
  • III.  CASE MANAGEMENT CONFERENCE  25.17
  • IV.  RIGHT TO JURY TRIAL  25.18
    • A.  Jury Instructions  25.19
    • B.  Waiver of Jury Trial
      • 1.  Bases for Waiver  25.20
      • 2.  Requesting Jury Trial After Waiver  25.21
      • 3.  Tenant’s Right to Jury Trial on Equitable Issues  25.22
        • a.  Examples of Legal Issues  25.23
        • b.  Examples of Equitable Defenses  25.24
    • C.  Jury Verdicts
      • 1.  General and Special Verdicts  25.24A
      • 2.  Judgment Based on Jury Verdict  25.24B
  • V.  DISQUALIFYING JUDGE  25.25
    • A.  Challenge for Cause (CCP §170.1)  25.26
      • 1.  Conditions That May Not Be Used as Grounds to Disqualify Judge  25.27
      • 2.  Bias or Prejudice  25.28
      • 3.  Procedure for Disqualification  25.29
    • B.  Peremptory Challenges (CCP §170.6)
      • 1.  Grounds for Challenge  25.30
      • 2.  Procedure for Peremptory Challenges  25.31
      • 3.  Time Limits for Moving to Challenge  25.32
      • 4.  Effect of Challenge; Reviewable by Writ  25.33
    • C.  Tactical Considerations  25.34
  • VI.  SUBPOENAS
    • A.  Subpoenas for Witnesses  25.35
    • B.  Subpoena Not Necessary to Require Attendance of Party or Agent  25.36
    • C.  Service of Subpoena  25.37
    • D.  Fees for Appearing in Court in Response to Subpoena  25.38
    • E.  Subpoena Duces Tecum (Books and Papers)  25.39
      • 1.  Service of Subpoena Duces Tecum; Affidavit of Good Cause Necessary  25.40
      • 2.  Fees for Appearing in Court in Response to Subpoena Duces Tecum  25.41
      • 3.  Subpoena Duces Tecum Not Necessary for Party  25.42
    • F.  Penalties for Disobeying Subpoena  25.43
  • VII.  EVIDENCE PROBLEMS
    • A.  Prima Facie Case; Nonsuit  25.44
    • B.  Proof of Tenant’s Possession  25.45
    • C.  Proof of Service of Notice  25.46
    • D.  Proof of Rent Due  25.47
    • E.  Judicial Notice  25.48
    • F.  Use of Books and Records  25.49
    • G.  Laying Foundation for Admission of Business Record  25.50
    • H.  Proof of Damages  25.51
    • I.  Waiver of Rent During Trial  25.52
    • J.  Proving Retaliatory Eviction  25.53
      • 1.  Strength of Retaliatory Motive  25.54
      • 2.  Evidence of “Just Cause” to Evict  25.55
      • 3.  Evidence of Retaliatory Motive
        • a.  Evidence Inferred by Conduct  25.56
        • b.  Indirect Evidence  25.57
    • K.  Fees for Appointment of Interpreter  25.58
  • VIII.  TRIAL BRIEFS  25.59
  • IX.  CONTINUANCES  25.60
    • A.  Grounds for Continuance  25.61
      • 1.  Unavailability of Counsel  25.62
      • 2.  Unavailability of Party  25.63
      • 3.  Unavailability of Witness  25.64
      • 4.  Other Grounds for Granting Continuance  25.65
      • 5.  Unexpected Testimony  25.66
    • B.  Procedure for Obtaining Continuance  25.67
      • 1.  Good Cause Required  25.68
      • 2.  Stipulation for Continuance  25.69
      • 3.  Conditions for Obtaining Continuance  25.70
      • 4.  Appealability of Order Denying Continuance  25.71
  • X.  DEFAULTS AT TRIAL  25.72
  • XI.  CONFORMING PLEADINGS TO PROOF
    • A.  General Law for Ordinary Civil Actions  25.73
    • B.  Special Law for Unlawful Detainer Complaints
      • 1.  Amendment Based on Trial Evidence  25.74
      • 2.  Amendments Before Trial Excluded  25.75
      • 3.  Permissible Scope of Amendments  25.76
    • C.  Amended Versus Supplemental Complaint  25.77
  • XII.  STATEMENT OF DECISION  25.78
  • XIII.  ADDITIONAL FORMS
    • A.  Form: Defendant’s Motions in Limine  25.79
    • B.  Defendant’s Proposed Jury Instructions
      • 1.  Form: Caption; Standard and Special Jury Instructions  25.80
      • 2.  Form: Instruction on Definitions in Unlawful Detainer Actions  25.81
      • 3.  Form: Instruction on Burden of Proof: Plaintiff  25.82
      • 4.  Form: Instruction on Burden of Proof: Defendant  25.83
      • 5.  Form: Instruction on Tenant’s Exercise of Rights Under the Law: Definition  25.84
      • 6.  Form: Instruction on Unclean Hands Defense  25.85
      • 7.  Form: Instruction on Rent and Damages: Preliminary Instruction  25.86
      • 8.  Form: Instruction on Requirement of Strict Compliance With Notice Laws and Procedures  25.87
      • 9.  Form: Instruction on Retaliatory Eviction: Preliminary Instruction  25.88
      • 10.  Form: Instruction on Service of Notice Requirements  25.89
      • 11.  Form: Instruction on Notice Not Personally Served; Computation of Time  25.90
      • 12.  Form: Instruction on Retaliatory Eviction; CC §1942.5  25.91
      • 13.  Form: Instruction on Contract Performance as Precondition to Enforcement  25.92
      • 14.  Form: Instruction on Notice Requirements: 3-day Notice  25.93
      • 15.  Form: Instruction on Rent and Damages: Definitions  25.94
      • 16.  Form: Instruction on Rent and Damages: Fair Rental Value Defined  25.95
      • 17.  Form: Instruction on Statutory Damages; “Malice”  25.96
      • 18.  Form: Instruction on Controlled Rent Increases: Preliminary Instruction  25.97
      • 19.  Form: Instruction on Whether Premises Is Covered by Berkeley Rent Control Law  25.98
      • 20.  Form: Instruction on Habitability Obligation: Preliminary Instruction  25.99
      • 21.  Form: Instruction on Habitability Obligation: Sources of Law and Standards  25.100
      • 22.  Form: Instruction on Habitability Obligation: Calculating Damages  25.101
      • 23.  Form: Instruction on Habitability Obligation: Evidentiary Burdens  25.102
      • 24.  Form: Instruction on Habitability Obligation: Presence of Asbestos  25.103
      • 25.  Form: Instruction on Habitability Obligation: Definitions  25.104
      • 26.  Form: Instruction on Habitability Obligation: Not Dependent on Landlord’s Financial Ability  25.105
      • 27.  Form: Instruction on Habitability Obligation: Duty to Inspect  25.106
      • 28.  Form: Instruction on Case Consolidation  25.107
    • C.  Form: Petition for Writ of Mandate and Application for Temporary Stay; Supporting Memorandum (CCP §1085)  25.108
    • D.  Form: Order Directing Issuance of Alternative Writ of Mandate (CCP §1085)  25.109
    • E.  Form: Alternative Writ of Mandate (CCP §1085)  25.110

26

Judgment

  • I.  JUDGMENTS IN UNLAWFUL DETAINER ACTIONS  26.1
  • II.  CONDITIONING JUDGMENT FOR TENANT ON PAYMENT OF RENT  26.2
  • III.  TENANT MUST BE IN POSSESSION  26.3
  • IV.  WHAT COURT CAN AWARD
    • A.  Judgment Can Grant Possession of Premises  26.4
    • B.  “Rent” and “Damages”  26.5
      • 1.  Determining Whether Amount Due Is Rent or Damages; Period Covered  26.6
      • 2.  Rent  26.7
      • 3.  Apportionment of Rent  26.8
      • 4.  Damages
        • a.  Damages Occurring Before Holdover  26.9
        • b.  Reasonable Rental Value During Holdover  26.10
        • c.  Damages Against Subtenant  26.11
        • d.  Damages After Judgment  26.12
        • e.  Statutory Damages for Malicious Holdover  26.13
    • C.  Forfeiture  26.14
    • D.  Notice May Specify Election to Declare Forfeiture  26.15
    • E.  Interest May Be Awarded  26.16
    • F.  Costs May Be Awarded  26.17
    • G.  Attorney Fees Authorized by Lease or Statute  26.18
      • 1.  Reciprocity of Attorney Fee Provision  26.19
      • 2.  Award of Fees Under Invalid Rental Agreement  26.20
      • 3.  Prevailing Party  26.21
      • 4.  Entitlement to Attorney Fees on Tender and Deposit of Amount Owed  26.22
      • 5.  Prevailing Party When Tenant Raises Habitability as Affirmative Defense  26.23
      • 6.  Size of Fee Award; Local Fee Schedules  26.24
      • 7.  Fees Awardable After Settlement Offer Rejected  26.25
      • 8.  Fees Awardable Beyond Court’s Jurisdictional Limit  26.26
      • 9.  Fees Awardable to Public Interest Attorneys  26.27
      • 10.  Fees Awardable for All Issues Argued  26.28
      • 11.  Attorney Fees Payable to Party—Not to Attorney  26.29
      • 12.  Attorney Fees Awardable as Sanctions Regardless of Lease Provision  26.30
      • 13.  Effect of Voluntary Dismissal
        • a.  Under CC §1717  26.31
        • b.  Under Statute or Ordinance  26.31A
      • 14.  Fees Awardable for Enforcement of Right Important to Public Interest  26.32
      • 15.  Procedures for Requesting Fees  26.33
      • 16.  Related Statutes Providing for Award of Attorney Fees  26.34
    • H.  Limitation on Award for Judgments in Superior Court of Less Than $10,000  26.35
    • I.  Witness Fees May Be Awarded  26.36
    • J.  Costs of Execution of Judgment May Be Recovered  26.37
  • V.  EFFECT OF JUDGMENT ON CONSUMER CREDIT REPORTING  26.38
  • VI.  RES JUDICATA AND COLLATERAL ESTOPPEL EFFECT OF JUDGMENT  26.38A
  • VII.  UNLAWFUL DETAINER JUDGMENT FORMS
    • A.  Form: Order for Judgment for Defendant Conditioned on Payment of Rent After Trial (Warranty of Habitability)  26.39
    • B.  Form: Judgment—Unlawful Detainer (Judicial Council Form UD-110)  26.40
    • C.  Form: Judgment—Unlawful Detainer Attachment (Judicial Council Form UD-110S)  26.41
    • D.  Form: Stipulation for Entry of Judgment (Unlawful Detainer) (Judicial Council Form UD-115)  26.42
    • E.  Form: Stipulation for Dismissal or Judgment; Repairs, Payment of Rent, Tenant Remains  26.43
    • F.  Form: Stipulation for Dismissal or Judgment; Tenant Vacates Premises  26.44
  • VIII.  EFFECT OF SERVICE OF NOTICE OF ENTRY OF JUDGMENT  26.45

27

Posttrial Motions

  • I.  POSTTRIAL MOTIONS COVERED  27.1
  • II.  FIVE-DAY STATUTORY STAY OF EXECUTION (FOR APPLICATION FOR RESTORATION OF POSSESSION)  27.2
  • III.  DISCRETIONARY STAY OF EXECUTION
    • A.  Pending Hearing on Posttrial Motions  27.3
    • B.  Temporary Stay Based on Hardship  27.4
    • C.  Form: Ex Parte Application for Stay of Execution  27.5
    • D.  Form: Memorandum in Support of Ex Parte Application for Stay of Execution  27.6
    • E.  Form: Ex Parte Application for Order Staying Eviction (Hardship); Order of Court  27.6A
    • F.  Form: Declaration Supporting Motion for Stay of Eviction or Petition for Relief From Forfeiture (Hardship)  27.6B
    • G.  Form: Memorandum Supporting Motion for Stay of Execution  27.6C
    • H.  Form: Order Staying Eviction  27.6D
  • IV.  MOTION FOR JUDGMENT NOTWITHSTANDING VERDICT  27.7
    • A.  GROUNDS FOR JUDGMENT NOTWITHSTANDING VERDICT  27.8
    • B.  Procedures for Making and Opposing Motion  27.9
    • C.  Time of Ruling on Motion  27.10
    • D.  Form: Notice of Motion for Judgment Notwithstanding Verdict  27.11
    • E.  Form: Order Granting or Denying Judgment Notwithstanding Verdict  27.12
  • V.  MOTION FOR NEW TRIAL  27.13
    • A.  Grounds for Motion for New Trial  27.14
    • B.  Court’s Power to Vacate or Modify Judgment  27.15
    • C.  Motion for New Trial Procedures  27.16
    • D.  Time for Making Motion for New Trial  27.17
    • E.  Form: Notice of Motion for New Trial  27.18
    • F.  Form: Declaration in Support of Notice of Motion for New Trial  27.19
    • G.  Hearing on Motion  27.20
    • H.  Court’s Time to Rule on Motion  27.21
  • VI.  MOTION TO SET ASIDE AND VACATE JUDGMENT  27.22
    • A.  Notice of Motion  27.23
    • B.  Time for Making and Opposing Motion  27.24
    • C.  Form: Notice of Motion to Vacate Judgment and Enter Different Judgment  27.25
    • D.  Form: Order Granting Motion to Vacate Judgment and Enter Different Judgment (CCP §663)  27.26
  • VII.  APPLICATION FOR RELIEF FROM FORFEITURE  27.27
    • A.  Grounds for Relief From Forfeiture  27.28
    • B.  Rent Must Be Paid and Other Covenants Performed  27.29
    • C.  Procedure for Seeking Relief From Forfeiture  27.30
    • D.  Form: Notice of Application and Petition for Relief From Forfeiture  27.31
    • E.  Form: Memorandum in Support of Application and Petition for Relief From Forfeiture  27.31A
    • F.  Effect of Grant or Denial of Relief  27.32

28

Enforcement of Judgment—Removing Tenant and Tenant’s Belongings

  • I.  REMOVING TENANT  28.1
    • A.  Contents of Writ  28.2
    • B.  Sending Scare Notice to Tenant After Judgment Is Entered  28.3
    • C.  Procedures for Serving and Enforcing Writ of Possession  28.4
    • D.  Sheriff Must Evict if Tenant Does Not Vacate Within 5 Days  28.5
    • E.  Effect of Failure by Sheriff to Act by Return Date of Writ  28.6
    • F.  Form: Writ of Execution (Judicial Council Form EJ-130)  28.7
    • G.  Writ of Possession Not Subject to Collateral Attack  28.7A
  • II.  SHERIFF’S DEPARTMENT PRACTICES AND CHARGES  28.8
  • III.  DISPOSITION AND RECOVERY OF TENANT’S PERSONAL PROPERTY
    • A.  Personal Property Not Removed by Tenant  28.9
    • B.  Recovery of Personal Property After Eviction  28.10
    • C.  Treating Tenant’s Personal Property as Lost or Abandoned  28.11
    • D.  Claim by Tenant for Personal Property (CC §1965)  28.12
    • E.  Advantages and Disadvantages of Requesting Surrender  28.13
    • F.  Form: Claim for Return of Personal Property Under CC §1965  28.14
  • IV.  DISPOSITION OF LOST PROPERTY  28.15
  • V.  DISPOSITION OF PROPERTY ABANDONED BY TENANT  28.16
    • A.  Landlord Must Store Abandoned Property in Safe Place  28.17
    • B.  Notice Requirements for Disposal of Abandoned Property  28.18
    • C.  Release of Property to Owner on Payment of Costs  28.19
    • D.  Storage Costs  28.20
    • E.  Sale of Unclaimed Property; Liability of Landlord  28.21
  • VI.  EXECUTION ON TENANT’S PERSONAL PROPERTY IN LANDLORD’S POSSESSION  28.22
  • VII.  SETTING ASIDE IMPROPER EXECUTION SALE  28.23
  • VIII.  SUPPLEMENTAL COST BILL  28.24
  • IX.  MOTION TO QUASH OR RECALL WRIT OF EXECUTION OR POSSESSION  28.25
  • X.  COLLECTION OF MONEY JUDGMENT AND CLAIM OF EXEMPTION  28.26
    • A.  Form: Claim of Exemption (Judicial Council Form EJ-160)  28.27
    • B.  Hearing on Objections to Claim of Exemption  28.28
    • C.  Judgment on Claim of Exemption  28.29
  • XI.  WAGE GARNISHMENTS  28.30

29

Appeals

  • I.  APPEAL PROCEDURES  29.1
    • A.  Limited Civil Cases: Timeline for Action After Entry of Judgment  29.2
    • B.  Unlimited Civil Cases: Timeline for Action After Entry of Judgment  29.3
  • II.  APPEALABLE JUDGMENTS AND ORDERS  29.4
  • III.  VACATING PREMISES DOES NOT MOOT TENANT’S APPEAL  29.5
  • IV.  FRIVOLOUS APPEALS  29.6
  • V.  OBTAINING IMMEDIATE TEMPORARY STAY OF ENFORCEMENT OF JUDGMENT  29.7
  • VI.  STAY PENDING APPEAL  29.8
    • A.  Evaluating Need for Stay Pending Appeal  29.9
    • B.  Proper Judge  29.10
    • C.  Grounds on Which Stay May Be Granted  29.11
  • VII.  UNDERTAKING ON APPEAL  29.12
  • VIII.  FORM: WAIVER OF SECURITY  29.13
  • IX.  FORM: NOTICE OF MOTION FOR STAY  29.14
  • X.  REVIEW OF DENIAL OF STAY  29.15
  • XI.  CLEAR ABUSE OF DISCRETION MUST BE SHOWN  29.16
  • XII.  SCOPE OF TRIAL COURT JURISDICTION PENDING APPEAL  29.17
  • XIII.  EVALUATING WHETHER TO APPEAL  29.18
  • XIV.  SUMMARY OF APPELLATE PROCEDURE
    • A.  Applicable Rules  29.19
    • B.  Appeals From Limited Civil Cases  29.20
    • C.  Appeals From Other Superior Court Actions  29.21
    • D.  Standard of Review  29.22
    • E.  Initiating Appeal
      • 1.  Notice of Appeal  29.23
      • 2.  Form: Notice of Appeal  29.24
      • 3.  Form: Notice of Appeal/Cross-Appeal (Limited Civil Case) (Judicial Council Form APP-102)  29.25
      • 4.  Form: Appellant’s Notice Designating Record on Appeal (Limited Civil Case) (Judicial Council Form APP-103)  29.26
      • 5.  Filing Deadlines Applicable to Appeals From Limited Civil Cases  29.27
      • 6.  Filing Deadlines Applicable to Other Superior Court Judgments  29.28
      • 7.  Record on Appeal  29.29
        • a.  Electronic Recording or Agreed Statement  29.30
        • b.  Form: Proposed Statement on Appeal (Limited Civil Case) (Judicial Council Form APP-104)  29.31
        • c.  Requesting Reporter’s Transcript  29.32
    • F.  Filing Briefs in Appellate Division of Superior Court  29.33
    • G.  Filing Briefs in Court of Appeal  29.34
    • H.  Purpose of Oral Argument; Submitting New Authorities  29.35
    • I.  Decision on Appeal and Rehearing  29.36
    • J.  Relief for Tenant After Reversal  29.37
    • K.  Costs and Attorney Fees on Appeal  29.38
    • L.  Abandonment of Appeal  29.39
    • M.  Transfer to Court of Appeal
      • 1.  Transfer of Appeal of Limited Civil Case From Superior Court to Court of Appeal  29.40
      • 2.  When Transfer Is Denied by Court of Appeal  29.41

30

Civil Writs

  • I.  CIVIL WRITS IN GENERAL  30.1
  • II.  NATURE AND SCOPE OF WRIT  30.2
    • A.  Conditions Under Which Writ of Mandate Will Issue  30.3
    • B.  Alternative and Peremptory Writs of Mandate  30.4
    • C.  Factors in Deciding Whether to Seek Writ  30.5
  • III.  OBTAINING STAY OF EXECUTION PENDING APPEAL OR DECISION ON PETITION FOR WRIT OF MANDATE  30.6
  • IV.  PERSUADING COURT THAT WRIT SHOULD BE GRANTED  30.7
    • A.  Inadequacy of Other Remedy Must Be Shown  30.8
    • B.  No Direct Appeal  30.9
    • C.  Common Situations in Which Relief by Writ Is Sought  30.10
    • D.  Direct Appeal Possible  30.11
  • V.  PROCEDURE IN OBTAINING WRIT
    • A.  Relief Must First Be Sought in Lower Court  30.12
    • B.  Court in Which Writ Petition Must Be Filed  30.13
    • C.  Applicable Statutes and Rules of Court  30.14
    • D.  Names of Parties  30.15
    • E.  Time Limitation  30.16
    • F.  Procedures in Superior Court  30.17
    • G.  Pleadings in Mandamus Proceeding  30.18
      • 1.  Contents of Petition  30.19
      • 2.  Common Errors in Petitions for Writ  30.20
      • 3.  Opposition to Issuance of Writ  30.21
    • H.  Hearing  30.22
    • I.  Issuance of Peremptory Writ  30.23
    • J.  Mootness  30.24
    • K.  Damages and Costs  30.25
  • VI.  REVIEW OF SUPERIOR COURT ACTION ON WRIT  30.26
  • VII.  APPEAL FROM COURT OF APPEAL DECISION TO SUPREME COURT  30.27

31

Return of Security Deposit and Disposition of Last Month’s Rent

  • I.  TENANT’S RIGHTS IN SECURITY DEPOSIT AND LAST MONTH’S RENT  31.1
  • II.  PAYMENTS TO LANDLORD ON SIGNING OF LEASE THAT ARE NOT CONSIDERED “SECURITY”  31.2
  • III.  SECURITY “DISGUISED” AS ADVANCE RENT  31.3
  • IV.  EFFECT OF DESIGNATION OF DEPOSIT AS “LAST MONTH’S RENT” RATHER THAN “SECURITY DEPOSIT”  31.4
  • V.  LIMITATIONS ON AMOUNT OF SECURITY THAT MAY BE REQUIRED  31.5
  • VI.  TENANT’S CLAIM TO SECURITY HAS PRIORITY OVER THAT OF LANDLORD’S CREDITORS  31.6
  • VII.  SECURITY MAY NOT BE NONREFUNDABLE  31.7
  • VIII.  PROVING AMOUNT OF SECURITY DEPOSIT  31.8
  • IX.  LIMITS ON LANDLORD’S USE OF SECURITY DEPOSIT  31.9
  • X.  LANDLORD’S DUTY TO RETURN DEPOSIT  31.10
    • A.  Tenant’s Right to Request Inspection of Premises and Cure Deficiencies; Use of Deposit  31.10A
    • B.  Tenant’s Right to Refund of Security Deposit Balance and Accounting  31.10B
  • XI.  LANDLORD’S SALE OR OTHER TRANSFER OF PREMISES  31.11
  • XII.  INTEREST ON SECURITY DEPOSIT  31.12
  • XIII.  DAMAGES FOR LANDLORD’S IMPROPER RETENTION OF DEPOSIT  31.13
  • XIV.  EFFECT ON UNLAWFUL DETAINER  31.14

CALIFORNIA EVICTION DEFENSE MANUAL

(2d Edition)

June 2019

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

File Name

Book Section

Title

CH01

Chapter 1

Overview of Unlawful Detainer Law

01-020A

§1.20A

Checklist: Summary of Potential Tenant Responses to Landlord’s Actions

CH04

Chapter 4

Representing the Tenant; Office Procedures

04-007

§4.7

Telephone Intake Form

04-013

§4.13

Client Interview Questionnaire

04-028

§4.28

Representation Agreement—Private Practitioner

04-029

§4.29

Client Retainer Agreement—Legal Services Organization

04-029B

§4.29B

Checklist: Tenant Fee Agreement

04-031

§4.31

Requirement for Deposit of Rent Into Client Trust Account

CH11

Chapter 11

Service of Summons and Complaint; Motion to Quash Service of Summons

11-038

§11.38

Form: Motion to Quash Service of Summons; Supporting Memorandum; Declaration of Tenant

11-039

§11.39

Form: Order Granting Motion to Quash Service of Summons

CH12

Chapter 12

Default Judgments

12-010

§12.10

Stipulation to Set Aside Default and Default Judgment; Order

12-029A

§12.29A

Checklist: Obtaining Relief from Entry of Default

12-030

§12.30

Notice of Motion to Set Aside Default and Default Judgment; Supporting Memorandum

12-030A

§12.30A

Declaration Supporting Motion to Set Aside Default and Default Judgment

12-030B

§12.30B

Notice of Motion to Vacate Default; Supporting Memorandum

12-032

§12.32

Form: Order Setting Aside Default and Default Judgment

CH13

Chapter 13

Demurring and Moving to Strike

13-023A

§13.23A

Checklist: Demurrable Defects in Complaint

13-024

§13.24

Demurrer to Complaint

13-033

§13.33

Sample Form: Motion to Strike

13-040

§13.40

Notice of Hearing: Demurrer and Motion to Strike

13-041

§13.41

Memorandum Supporting Demurrer to Complaint (30-Day Notice Case)

13-042

§13.42

Memorandum Supporting Demurrer to Complaint (3-Day Notice Case)

13-043

§13.43

Memorandum Supporting Demurrer to Complaint (Judicial Council Form Complaint)

13-044

§13.44

Memorandum Supporting Demurrer to Complaint (Breach of Lease Covenant)

13-045

§13.45

Memorandum Supporting Demurrer (Rent-Controlled Jurisdiction)

13-046

§13.46

Memorandum Supporting Demurrer and Alternative Motion to Strike (Previous Action Between Parties)

13-047

§13.47

Memorandum Supporting Motion to Strike Allegation of Improper Damages

CH14

Chapter 14

Answering and Alleging Affirmative Defenses

14-005A

§14.5A

Ex Parte Application for Order Extending Time to Plead

14-059

§14.59

Answer to Judicial Council Form Complaint With Affirmative Defenses

CH16

Chapter 16

Affirmative Defenses—Retaliatory Evictions

16-027

§16.27

Affirmative Defense on Ground of Retaliatory Eviction

CH23

Chapter 23

Discovery

23-033

§23.33

Declaration for Additional Discovery

23-043

§23.43

Declaration in Support of Request for Additional Admissions

23-053

§23.53

Defendant’s Specially Prepared Interrogatories to Plaintiff

23-054

§23.54

Defendant’s Request for Production of Documents

CH25

Chapter 25

Trial

25-079

§25.79

Defendant’s Motions in Limine

25-080

§25.80

Caption; Standard and Special Jury Instructions

25-081

§25.81

Instruction on Definitions in Unlawful Detainer Actions

25-082

§25.82

Instruction on Burden of Proof: Plaintiff

25-083

§25.83

Instruction on Burden of Proof: Defendant

25-084

§25.84

Instruction on Tenant’s Exercise of Rights Under the Law: Definition

25-085

§25.85

Instruction on Unclean Hands Defense

25-086

§25.86

Instruction on Rent and Damages: Preliminary Instruction

25-087

§25.87

Instruction on Requirement of Strict Compliance With Notice Laws and Procedures

25-088

§25.88

Instruction on Retaliatory Eviction: Preliminary Instruction

25-089

§25.89

Instruction on Service of Notice Requirements

25-090

§25.90

Instruction on Notice Not Personally Served; Computation of Time

25-091

§25.91

Instruction on Retaliatory Eviction; CC §1942.5

25-092

§25.92

Instruction on Contract Performance as Precondition to Enforcement

25-093

§25.93

Instruction on Notice Requirements: 3-day Notice

25-094

§25.94

Instruction on Rent and Damages: Definitions

25-095

§25.95

Instruction on Rent and Damages: Fair Rental Value Defined

25-096

§25.96

Instruction on Statutory Damages; “Malice”

25-097

§25.97

Instruction on Controlled Rent Increases: Preliminary Instruction

25-098

§25.98

Instruction on Whether Premises Is Covered by Berkeley Rent Control Law

25-099

§25.99

Instruction on Habitability Obligation: Preliminary Instruction

25-100

§25.100

Instruction on Habitability Obligation: Sources of Law and Standards

25-101

§25.101

Instruction on Habitability Obligation: Calculating Damages

25-102

§25.102

Instruction on Habitability Obligation: Evidentiary Burdens

25-103

§25.103

Instruction on Habitability Obligation: Presence of Asbestos

25-104

§25.104

Instruction on Habitability Obligation: Definitions

25-105

§25.105

Instruction on Habitability Obligation: Not Dependent on Landlord’s Financial Ability

25-106

§25.106

Instruction on Habitability Obligation: Duty to Inspect

25-107

§25.107

Instruction on Case Consolidation

25-108

§25.108

Petition for Writ of Mandate and Application for Temporary Stay; Supporting Memorandum (CCP §1085)

25-109

§25.109

Order Directing Issuance of Alternative Writ of Mandate (CCP §1085)

25-110

§25.110

Alternative Writ of Mandate (CCP §1085)

CH26

Chapter 26

Judgment

26-039

§26.39

Order for Judgment for Defendant Conditioned on Payment of Rent After Trial (Warranty of Habitability)

26-043

§26.43

Stipulation for Dismissal or Judgment; Repairs, Payment of Rent, Tenant Remains

26-044

§26.44

Stipulation for Dismissal or Judgment; Tenant Vacates Premises

CH27

Chapter 27

Posttrial Motions

27-005

§27.5

Ex Parte Application for Stay of Execution

27-006

§27.6

Memorandum in Support of Ex Parte Application for Stay of Execution

27-006A

§27.6A

Ex Parte Application for Order Staying Eviction (Hardship); Order of Court

27-006B

§27.6B

Declaration Supporting Motion for Stay of Eviction or Petition for Relief From Forfeiture (Hardship)

27-006C

§27.6C

Memorandum Supporting Motion for Stay of Execution

27-006D

§27.6D

Order Staying Eviction

27-011

§27.11

Notice of Motion for Judgment Notwithstanding Verdict

27-012

§27.12

Order Granting or Denying Judgment Notwithstanding Verdict

27-018

§27.18

Notice of Motion for New Trial

27-019

§27.19

Declaration in Support of Notice of Motion for New Trial

27-025

§27.25

Notice of Motion to Vacate Judgment and Enter Different Judgment

27-026

§27.26

Order Granting Motion to Vacate Judgment and Enter Different Judgment (CCP §663)

27-031

§27.31

Notice of Application and Petition for Relief From Forfeiture

27-031A

§27.31A

Memorandum in Support of Application and Petition for Relief From Forfeiture

CH28

Chapter 28

Enforcement of Judgment—Removing Tenant and Tenant’s Belongings

28-014

§28.14

Claim for Return of Personal Property Under CC §1965

CH29

Chapter 29

Appeals

29-013

§29.13

Form: Waiver of Security

29-014

§29.14

Form: Notice of Motion for Stay

29-024

§29.24

Notice of Appeal

 

Selected Developments

June 2019 Update

Law Enforcement and Emergency Assistance on the Premises. Effective January 1, 2019, the California legislature enacted CC §1946.8, a comprehensive tenant protection law that attempts to guide owners of residential housing through their dealings with tenants when the tenants (or residents, occupants, or other persons) actually summon to the premises law enforcement or emergency assistance. Section 1946.8 has multiple requirements and limitations that affect all aspects of the landlord-tenant relationship, from lease formation to preventing retaliatory eviction. See Stats 2018, ch 190, §1, discussed in §§14.22E, 14.59, 16.16C, 19.25, 25.91.

California Rules of Professional Conduct. The Rules of Professional Conduct applicable to attorneys practicing in California were renumbered and substantially amended in 2018; the book was updated to reflect these rule changes insofar as they particularly affect landlord-tenant practice. See §§1.3, 4.3, 4.9, 4.24A, 9.18–9.19, 21.9.

Fair Housing Laws and Evictions. Tenant hoarding in rental units can cause significant health and safety issues. Once hoarding is discovered, the landlord’s first reaction may be to terminate the tenancy or serve a Notice to Cure or Quit. But because hoarding is a mental disability, a different approach is often taken in the context of fair housing law and requirements for reasonable accommodations. See §§6.48, 13.17.

Rights and Obligations Before, During, and After Tenancy. The tenant may be able to recover punitive damages in an action for breach of the implied warranty of habitability under CC §3294 if the landlord’s conduct was willful, oppressive, or malicious. Fernandes v Singh (2017) 16 CA5th 932. See §§3.1, 3.5, 15.48, 16.14–16.15, 25.53.

In Ayala v Dawson (2017) 13 CA5th 1319, the tenants were collaterally estopped from bringing a suit for fraud claims when the underlying allegations of fraud were presented in prior unlawful detainer actions, were extensively and fully litigated, and the trial courts had made detailed findings of fact in rejecting the claims. See §§2.1, 20.9, 26.38A.

Local Eviction Controls and Constitutional Issues. West Hollywood amended its eviction control ordinance to include as a ground for eviction the unapproved use of rental premises for home sharing, unless the violation is the tenant’s first violation and the tenant cured the first violation within 30 days of receiving written notice. West Hollywood Rent Stabilization Ordinance §17.52.010(5). See §6.49A.

West Hollywood also prohibits home sharing in any rental unit, in any inclusionary housing or other income-restricted housing unit, in any location not approved for residential use (e.g., vehicle, trailer, tent, storage shed, or garage), or in any unit that has been subject to the Ellis Act within the prior 7 years. West Hollywood Rent Stabilization Ordinance §5.66.020. See §6.49A.

In December 2018, Los Angeles imposed new rules on renting out rooms and homes for short stays, as an amendment to its zoning ordinance, which became effective in July 2019. It allows owners to host such rentals only in their “primary residence,” not in a second home or investment property, which eliminates the use of units governed by the rent control ordinance as short-term rentals. Los Angeles Mun C §12.22.A.32. See §6.49A.

A local government entity has power to subpoena business records in its investigation and enforcement of ordinances regulating transient or short-term occupancies. City & County of San Francisco v HomeAway.com, Inc. (2018) 21 CA5th 1116. See §6.49A.

A tenant may not be evicted for using a rental unit for an illegal purpose simply because the unit lacks a certificate of occupancy or has been cited for occupancy or other housing code violations. Los Angeles Rent Stabilization Ordinance §151.09.A.4. If a building is approved for use as a single family dwelling but has been subdivided so that it contains two dwellings, the landlord must pay relocation assistance to the tenants of the affected rental units if the Department of Building and Safety cites the landlord for illegal use. Los Angeles Rent Stabilization Ordinance §151.09.G. See §§6.49, 17.9.

Some local ordinances regulate buyout agreements between landlords and tenants. Under the Los Angeles Rent Stabilization Ordinance §151.31, the required LARSO disclosure notice must be used and must be filed with the Housing Department within 60 days of signing the buyout agreement. See §17.4A.

A tenant facing an Ellis Act eviction may defend on the basis that the landlord lacked a bona fide intent to exit the rental housing market, and evidence that the landlord’s sale of an interest in the property to a lower-unit occupant was a sham is relevant to this inquiry and admissible. Coyne v De Leo (2018) 26 CA5th 801. See §§16.6A, 16,13, 16.25, 17.43–17.44.

A city may not impose a 10-year waiting period for alteration of nonconforming units withdrawn from rental use under the Ellis Act. Small Prop. Owners of San Francisco Inst. v City & County of San Francisco (2018) 22 CA5th 77. See §§17.14, 17.25.

Some local ordinances restrict the season in which an eviction can occur for an owner or relative move-in. For example, San Francisco Residential Rent Stabilization and Arbitration Ordinance §37.9(j) prohibits evictions of families with school-age children during the school year, and it was upheld against a state law preemption challenge in San Francisco Apartment Ass’n v City & County of San Francisco (2018) 20 CA5th 510. Santa Monica also prohibits no-fault evictions of an educator or a minor student during the school year. Santa Monica Mun C §4.27.050. See §§17.14–17.15.

Terminating Tenancies and Eviction Actions. Effective January 1, 2019, a landlord must accept rent payments tendered by a third party on behalf of a tenant, subject to the limitations and conditions specified in CC §1947.3(a)(3). This right is unwaivable and applies to both residential and commercial tenancies. CC §1947.3(e). See §§6.17, 6.31, 19.5A, 31.1, 31.5.

The contact information and disclosures required to be in the rental agreement for service of process must be kept current, and a new owner or manager must comply within 15 days of succeeding the previous owner or manager; eviction for nonpayment of rent cannot be initiated during the period of noncompliance. CC §1962(c). But the eviction bar applies only to successor owners who fail to make the required disclosures. DLI Props., LLC v Hill (2018) 29 CA5th Supp 1 (eviction bar was not applicable to landlord who entered into new lease with tenant after acquiring property in foreclosure sale). See §§6.29, 20.2.

Under CC §§3485–3486, city attorneys and landlords in specified jurisdictions are authorized to evict tenants to abate the nuisance caused by tenants’ “illegal conduct” involving weapons, ammunition, or controlled substances. Although for many jurisdictions these laws were set to expire in 2019, they were extended to January 1, 2024. See §§6.48–6.49.

Newly amended Pen C §396(f) regulates evictions and subsequent rent increases following (1) the proclamation of a state of emergency by the President of the United States or the Governor or (2) the declaration of a local emergency by an official, board, or other governing body vested with such authority in any city, county, or city and county. For details, see §9.9A.

A cause of action for unlawful detainer based on a 3-day notice to pay rent or cure violation of lease does not accrue until after 3 days have elapsed. For decades, landlords often served the notice on Friday, leaving the tenant only the weekend and Monday to pay the rent. If the tenant failed to pay the rent by Monday, the landlord could file the complaint on Tuesday. Effective September 1, 2019, however, calculation of the 3-day notice period under CCP §1161(2)–(3) will explicitly exclude weekends and other judicial holidays. Consequently, if a landlord serves a 3-day notice to pay rent or cure violation of lease on a Friday after September 1, 2019, the tenant will have until the following Wednesday to pay or cure. See §§6.7, 6.25–6.27, 6.36, 7.14.

After a tenant receives a summons and complaint for unlawful detainer, an answer or other responsive pleading must be filed within 5 calendar days. CCP §1167. Until September 1, 2019, computing the 5-day period to respond includes weekends but excludes other legal holidays (unless the last day for filing is a Saturday or Sunday, in which case the time to respond is extended through the next court day). CCP §1167. Effective September 1, 2019, however, computing the 5-day period to respond will explicitly exclude weekends and other judicial holidays. See §§6.25–6.27, 11.4, 14.3.

If attorney fees are ultimately sought in an action to enforce the settlement agreement in a unlawful detainer action, it is crucial to have well prepared invoices and a competent witness from the firm to document attorney fees actually incurred and to authenticate the invoices. See Copenbarger v Morris Cerullo World Evangelism, Inc. (2018) 29 CA5th 1. See §§9.20, 26.24, 27.32.

By amendment to the Civil Code in 2018, the law now provides a procedure for establishing a commercial tenant’s abandonment, initiated by notice not only under CC §1951.3 (for residential property) but also under newly added CC §1951.35 (for commercial property) when the landlord believes that the premises have been abandoned. See §§11.18, 19.1B. See also §§1.12, 3.4, 28.16.

The courts of appeal are split on whether the special provision in CCP §473(b) for mandatory relief from default on the basis of the attorney’s mistake applies to situations other than relief from a default or a default judgment (or a dismissal) after the defendant fails to answer the complaint. See, e.g., Jackson v Kaiser Found. Hosps., Inc. (2019) 32 CA5th 166, 177 (mandatory relief provision not available to undo plaintiff’s voluntary dismissal of her action, even though she represented that attorney advised her to dismiss pending suit without prejudice, premised on understanding that she could refile suit by specified date through counsel), and other recent cases cited in §12.14.

Throughout the state, an increasing number of courts are requiring the e-filing of civil actions (including unlawful detainers). As the name implies, e-filing allows or requires parties to transmit documents directly to a court electronically to create a faster, paperless system. See Note in §14.3.

Counsel using electronic filing of documents with the court need to be aware that if electronic filing fees remain unpaid for a period of 5 days after notice to the attorney of record by the electronic filing service provider, the court may sanction the attorney for nonpayment of fees if they remain unsatisfied for 20 days after notice of sanctions by the clerk. See CCP §411.20.5, cited in §14.3.

Procedures for defending evictions arising from discrimination on the basis of a tenant’s immigration or citizenship status are in newly amended CCP §1161.4, effective January 1, 2019, which allows a tenant or occupant to raise, as an affirmative defense in the unlawful detainer action, that the landlord violated §1161.4. It is a rebuttable presumption that a tenant or occupant has established the defense if the landlord commits specified acts. See discussions in §§14.22B, 16.16B, 23.3A, 25.91.

In an eviction action following foreclosure, the supreme court held that the purchaser at a foreclosure sale must await recordation of the trustee’s deed before serving the notice to quit on a tenant whose lease was subordinate to the mortgage and thus extinguished by the foreclosure. Dr. Leevil, LLC v Westlake Health Care Ctr. (2018) 6 C5th 474. See §20.4.

Effective June 23, 2018, the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, & Consumer Protection Act (Pub L 115–174, §304, 132 Stat 1296) revived and restored the Protecting Tenants at Foreclosure Act of 2009 (PTFA), which had previously expired. The text of the PTFA appears in Historical and Statutory Notes under 12 USC §5220 rather than being directly codified in the United States Code. See §§20.5, 20.8.

Because CCP §1161b will expire in its entirety by its own terms at the end of 2019 unless extended, on January 1, 2020, the current 90-day notice period for terminating month-to-month residential tenancies after a foreclosure will revert to a 30-day period as required by CCP §1161a and the revived PTFA will provide greater protection than California law. See §§20.6, 20.8.

An unlawful detainer judgment does not preclude the landlord from filing a separate civil action for collection of back-due rent that accrued in months other than the one month for which damages were awarded in the unlawful detainer action. Hong Sang Market, Inc. v Peng (2018) 20 CA5th 474. See §§19.4B, 22.1, 26.38A, 28.1. See also §§2.1, 2.4.

Although CCP §1161.3(a) prohibits evictions on the basis of domestic violence and other abuses, there is an exception in CCP §1161.3(b) that allows the landlord to terminate a tenancy after the tenant has availed himself or herself of specified statutory protections and other conditions are met. Further amendments to this law in 2018 added special nondisclosure requirements and other methods of documenting an occurrence of domestic violence. See §§14.22C, 14.22E, 16.16A, 18.17B. See also §§14.59, 15.19, 16.16C.

The California Supreme Court reviewed a case in which the trial court issued findings of fact but no statement of decision after it was requested by a party. See F.P. v Monier (2017) 3 C5th 1099. The court held that the trial court’s failure to issue the statement, as required by CCP §632, was not reversible per se but was subject only to harmless error review. See §25.78.

The Consumer Credit Reporting Agencies Act (CCRAA) and the Investigative Consumer Reporting Agencies Act (ICRAA) govern a landlord’s use of consumer credit or investigative reports as a basis for accepting or rejecting tenants. For a while the interplay of these laws was unclear; but the supreme court held that potential creditors can comply with both statutes without undermining the purpose of either and that the ICRAA was not unconstitutionally vague in Conner v First Student, Inc. (2018) 5 C5th 1026. See §26.38.

If a tenant does not claim his or her personal property after leaving the premises, the landlord may dispose of it under CC §1988 or §1993.07, which essentially provides for the property’s sale at public auction if it is worth more than $700 (residential) or the greater of $2500 or an amount equal to 1 month’s rent (commercial). This value for commercial tenancies was amended, up from $750, in 2018. See §28.21.

The legislature adjusts the statutory exemptions for enforcement of money judgments periodically; e.g., the Current Dollar Amounts of Exemptions From Enforcement of Judgments (Judicial Council Form EJ-156) was last updated April 1, 2019, and is updated every 3 years under CCP §§703.140(b), 703.150(a), (e). See §28.26.

Commercial Tenancies. Effective January 1, 2019, the landlord’s recovery of possession when a commercial tenant abandons the premises is governed by a Civil Code section that is separate from CC §1951.3, which now governs only residential tenancies. See §§1.12, 3.4, 11.18, 28.16. Under newly enacted CC §1951.35(a)–(c), a commercial landlord may recover possession of the premises without filing an unlawful detainer action after an abandonment if the landlord complies with specific notice and other statutory requirements. See §19.1B.

Effective January 1, 2019, a landlord must accept rent payments tendered by a third party on behalf of a tenant, subject to the limitations and conditions specified in CC §1947.3(a)(3). This right is unwaivable. CC §1947.3(e). See §19.5A.

The proper termination of a tenancy, even before entry of judgment for possession, also terminates the tenant’s right to enforce the covenant of quiet enjoyment. Multani v Knight (2018) 23 CA5th 837, 855 (landlord’s initiation of unlawful detainer action because of commercial tenant’s failure to pay rent terminated tenancy, thereby relieving landlord of any liability for subsequent sewage backup). See §19.18.

Anti-SLAPP Motions. Under CCP §425.16, tenants potentially have an important defense tool for retaliatory lawsuits brought by landlords against the tenants or their attorneys as provided in an anti-SLAPP motion. An amended discussion added several recently decided court of appeal cases interpreting the statute as it applies to mixed causes of action and what activities it protects. But in 1550 Laurel Owner’s Ass’n, Inc. v Appellate Div. (2018) 28 CA5th 1146, 1158, a case arising from the breach of a settlement agreement, the court of appeal concluded that CCP §92(d) “precludes a defendant from bringing a special motion to strike in a limited civil case.” See §§13.51, 17.17C.

Complaints filed by tenants for wrongful or retaliatory eviction (or wrongful endeavor to recover possession) by the landlord should always contain allegations of unprotected conduct to successfully defeat both an anti-SLAPP motion and the litigation privilege that can be raised defensively. See, e.g., Winslett v 1811 27th Ave., LLC (2018) 26 CA5th 239, cited in §§1.3, 13.51, 16.1, 17.17C.

Bringing a separate action for damages on the basis of an unlawful detainer judgment entered in favor of the tenant pending the landlord’s appeal on the judgment would be premature. The separate action would be subject to a demurrer under CCP §430.10(e) or an anti-SLAPP motion under CCP §425.16. See, e.g., Aron v WIB Holdings (2018) 21 CA5th 1069, a cautionary tale for both tenant and landlord attorneys, cited in §§2.7, 13.51, 27.17, 29.17.

In an action for declaratory relief and damages by a sublessee alleging that the sublessor breached the sublease, by among other things wrongfully maintaining an unlawful detainer action against the sublessee, a court of appeal ruled that the unlawful detainer action and service of related notices arose out of protected activity, although other causes of action arose out of unprotected activity (e.g., whether sublessee had duty to repair under terms of sublease). See Newport Harbor Offices & Marina, LLC v Morris Cerullo World Evangelism (2018) 23 CA5th 28, which also noted that the defendant only partially prevailed on its anti-SLAPP motion, so it remanded the case for further proceedings to determine whether attorney fees would be awarded and if so, the amount of fees. See §§13.51, 16.1, 16.15, 26.34.

In Hart v Darwish (2017) 12 CA5th 218, the court of appeal ruled that although a denial of an anti-SLAPP motion in an underlying lawsuit does not bar malicious prosecution liability for the underlying lawsuit, the denial of a motion for nonsuit on the merits in the underlying unlawful detainer action “conclusively establishes” that the prior suit was legally tenable, thus precluding a subsequent action for malicious prosecution; the supreme court granted review on September 13, 2017, then dismissed review and transferred the case back to the court of appeal in light of Parrish v Latham & Watkins (2017) 3 C5th 767. See §25.44.

Tenant Bankruptcies and Stay Relief to Complete Eviction. For stay violations that occur in the context of real property foreclosures and resulting evictions, the consequences can be severe. See, e.g., Sundquist v Bank of America (In re Sundquist) (Bankr ED Cal 2017) 566 BR 563, vacated in part on other grounds (Bankr ED Cal 2018) 580 BR 536 (bank liable for actual and punitive damages for willfully violating stay by, among other things, foreclosing on home and prosecuting unlawful detainer action after borrowers filed bankruptcy petition, forcing them to move, secretly rescinding foreclosure, failing to secure home from looting, and refusing to pay for personal property loss). See §21.2A.

Attorney fees incurred by the debtor for actions to remedy automatic stay violations by the landlord and to collect resulting damages, including attorney fees incurred on a successful appeal, are recoverable. Easley v Collection Serv. of Nevada (9th Cir 2018) 910 F3d 1286. See §21.2A.

A sanction of contempt cannot be issued for violating the automatic stay or a discharge injunction without a finding of fact that the violation was made with actual knowledge of the stay or injunction and that it applied to the creditor’s claim. See Lorenzen v Taggart (In re Taggart) (9th Cir 2018) 888 F3d 438, cert granted (2019) 139 S Ct 782 (creditor not held in contempt for violation of discharge injunction, based on showing that creditor had good faith belief that injunction did not apply to its claim, even when that belief might have been unreasonable). See §21.2A.

Payment of postpetition rent is governed by local Chapter 13 mandatory form plans as well as bankruptcy law; plans were adopted in 2018 by the bankruptcy courts in four districts in California and are available on the Internet. See summary in §21.6.

A bankruptcy court can vacate a prior discharge order that was improperly entered due to clerical mistake, oversight, or omission if the debtor was ineligible for the discharge by virtue of an illegal, repeated bankruptcy filing. Filice v U.S. (In re Filice) (Bankr ED Cal 2018) 580 BR 259. See §21.9.

About the Authors

MYRON MOSKOVITZ received his law degree from the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law. He served as law clerk to Justice Raymond E. Peters of the California Supreme Court, Director of Marysville Office of California Rural Legal Assistance, Chief Attorney of the National Housing Law Project, and Chairman of the State Commission of Housing & Community Development. He is a retired Professor of Law from Golden Gate University. He currently specializes in appellate practice and is the Legal Director of Moskovitz Appellate Team in Piedmont. In 2008, he was given the annual Spirit of CEB award for his contributions to CEB landlord-tenant titles. He regularly contributes articles to the CEB Real Property Law Reporter and more recently has been a speaker for State Bar and CEB appellate practice and civil litigation MCLE programs.

SONYA BEKOFF MOLHO, B.A., 1971, San Fernando Valley College (now California State University, Northridge); J.D., 1977, Loyola of Los Angeles Law School, has worked as an update author on this book since 2000. Ms. Molho has been a sole practitioner in Los Angeles continuously since 1978, representing primarily tenants. Her familiarity with tenant protection laws in both local ordinances and rent control regulations for the cities of Santa Monica and Los Angeles is especially helpful to the readers of this book. In 2012, she was given the annual Spirit of CEB award for her contributions to CEB landlord-tenant titles. She is also on the annual update team for CEB’s California Landlord-Tenant Practice (2d ed Cal CEB) and has been a speaker for both CEB and Rutter Group MCLE programs.

DIANA D. SAM, B.A., University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu; J.D., 1997, Golden Gate University School of Law, San Francisco, worked as an update author on this book from 2008 to 2013. Ms. Sam was formerly a partner at Kaplan & Sam in San Francisco, representing primarily landlords. Her solo practice office is currently located in Piedmont, where she continues her work as both trial and appellate counsel for landlords. Her familiarity with rent and eviction control laws in both local ordinances and rent control regulations for the cities of San Francisco and Oakland was especially helpful to the readers of this book.

DEAN PRESTON, B.A., Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine; J.D., University of California, Hastings College of the Law, San Francisco, is the Executive Director of Tenants Together, California’s Statewide Organization for Renters’ Rights, San Francisco. He began working as an update author on this book in 2008 and since then periodically worked as an update author until 2012, primarily on chapters 18 and 21.

CATHERINE M. BISHOP received her J.D. from Catholic University Law School in 1973. Now retired, she was a senior staff attorney for many years with the National Housing Law Project, a legal services support center, where she wrote along with other staff the practice manual HUD Housing Programs: Tenants’ Rights and other articles regarding federally assisted housing programs.

LAURA L. LANE, B.A., 1988, Hunter College; M.A., 1992, San Francisco State University; J.D., 1996, University of California, Berkeley, School of Law, worked as an update author on chapters 1–4 and 8–15 in 2018. She is currently a Deputy City Attorney in Oakland, supervising the General Public Safety & Code Enforcement Unit. She was the director of the Housing Practice Group at the East Bay Community Law Center, a nonprofit law office in Berkeley that serves low-income people. Ms. Lane for years specialized in civil litigation involving rent control, code enforcement, and fair housing.

KENT K. QIAN, update author of chapters 18 and 20 between 2013 and 2016; B.S., 2004, Georgia Institute of Technology; M.S., 2006, Ohio State University; J.D., 2009, University of Chicago Law School. Mr. Qian joined the National Housing Law Project as a Skadden Fellow in 2009 and was a staff attorney there until 2016. He currently works as an assistant to the Oakland City Attorney in the General Public Safety & Code Enforcement Unit. Mr. Qian previously served as a law clerk at the Sargent Shriver National Center on Poverty Law.

LEONARD E. MARQUEZ, A.B., 1996, Princeton University; J.D., 1999, University of California, Los Angeles, School of Law, was the update author of chapter 19 in 2018. Currently a superior court judge in Contra Costa County, he was, until April 2018, a partner at Wendel, Rosen, Black & Dean LLP, Oakland, specializing in real estate litigation. He was also a contributing author for many years on CEB’s Office Leasing: Drafting and Negotiating the Lease (Cal CEB) and Retail Leasing: Drafting and Negotiating the Lease (Cal CEB).

BRITTANY K. McCORMICK, B.A., 2005, Boston College; M.A., 2008, University of Wisconsin; J.D., 2011, University of Minnesota Law School magna cum laude. She was a staff attorney with the National Housing Law Project (NHLP) in San Francisco and is currently a staff attorney with Mid-Minnesota Legal Aid in Minneapolis. She wrote revisions to chapter 20 on the 2014 and 2015 updates.

IRA JACOBOWITZ read at the Bar and was admitted to practice in California in 1980. He represented tenants in Oakland for over 20 years and served as a staff attorney for Collective Legal Services at The Eviction Defense Center, a nonprofit law corporation in Oakland. He made an enormous contribution to the 2000 update by replacing and modernizing all forms in the appendixes. Currently he is employed at the California Unemployment Insurance Appeals Board in Oakland.

CLIFFORD R. HORNER, who rewrote chapter 19 in 1999 and provided update material for that chapter in 2000–2002, received his J.D. from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law in 1991. He is a former partner with Morgan, Miller & Blair, Walnut Creek, where he specialized in commercial landlord-tenant and general real estate law. Currently he is a partner with the firm of Horner & Singer, LLP, Walnut Creek. He is a member and a former officer of the Real Estate Section of the Contra Costa County Bar Association and served on the Advisory Committee of CEB’s Real Property & Public Law Practice Group.

STEVEN A. MacDONALD, consulting editor, received his J.D. from Golden Gate University, San Francisco, and was admitted to the Bar in 1982. In 2003, he made substantial revisions to chapters 9 and 17. He is the managing partner of Steven Adair MacDonald & Assocs., PC, San Francisco, where he specializes in real property law, including commercial and residential landlord-tenant law, and represents both landlords and tenants. He wrote The San Francisco Rent Board User’s Guide, published in 2003. He was a member of the executive committee of the Real Property Section of the State Bar and served on the board of its Landlord-Tenant Subsection. He frequently lectures on landlord-tenant law for attorneys in California.

NANCY A. PALANDATI received her J.D. in 1993 from New College of California School of Law. Ms. Palandati was admitted to the bar in 1994 and has represented tenants in many types of evictions, including mobilehome/long-term RV tenancies, subsidized tenancies, and using affirmative defenses of habitability and failure to provide reasonable accommodation. In 2005, she contributed substantial revisions to chapter 18. In 2006 and 2007, she again updated chapter 18. She was the regional migrant attorney at California Rural Legal Assistance in Santa Rosa, and is currently in private practice in Guerneville, Sonoma County.

DAVID PALLACK received his J.D. in 1979 from the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Law. Mr. Pallack was admitted to the California bar in 1979, practiced for more than 30 years in the area of housing law, including subsidized housing, and currently is the Director of Litigation at Neighborhood Legal Services of Los Angeles County in Pacoima. In 2005, he contributed substantial revisions to chapter 18.

DARA L. SCHUR, author of the 1996 update to chapter 18, received her J.D. from the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law in 1979. She was an attorney with Western Center on Law and Poverty, a legal services support center, where she litigated and provides assistance to legal services advocates in the areas of landlord-tenant, fair housing, subsidized housing, and land use. A former member of the Executive Committee of the State Bar Legal Services Section, she has also worked in private practice and for several legal services programs. She also taught housing law at Boalt Hall and conducted numerous housing and litigation skills trainings. Currently Ms. Schur is an attorney with Disability Rights California in Oakland.

San Francisco Neighborhood Legal Assistance Foundation (SFNLAF) is the legal services field program for the City and County of San Francisco. Established in 1966, SFNLAF’s priorities are affordable housing, access to public benefits and health care, and curbing domestic violence. Among SFNLAF’s significant cases in the housing area was Green v Superior Court (1974) 10 C3d 616, which established the implied warranty of habitability in California. The following SFNLAF staff coauthored the 1993 edition:

LUZ F. BUITRAGO received her J.D. from Loyola University (Los Angeles) in 1984. She currently is in private practice in Berkeley, but she previously worked in the Oakland City Attorney’s office and was a Housing Unit staff attorney with the San Francisco Neighborhood Legal Assistance Foundation, where she represented individual tenants in eviction actions and worked with tenant groups and other organizations on housing issues and housing litigation. Before joining SFNLAF, she was a housing attorney with Contra Costa Legal Services Foundation.

ROBERT P. CAPISTRANO received his J.D. from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law in 1976. He currently works at Bay Area Legal Aid in Richmond and previously served as Director of Litigation of the San Francisco Neighborhood Legal Assistance Foundation and as a staff attorney in SFNLAF’s Central City, Housing, and Welfare Advocacy Units, and as Supervising Attorney of the Welfare Advocacy Unit.

ARNOLD C. ELLIS received his J.D. from Harvard Law School in 1974. Now deceased, he was the Supervising Attorney of San Francisco Neighborhood Legal Assistance Foundation, where he previously served as a staff attorney and then managing attorney of SFNLAF’s Western Addition Law Office. He has defended numerous unlawful detainer cases.

PHILLIP R. MORGAN received his J.D. from the University of Arizona in 1973. A former staff attorney with the Housing Unit of the San Francisco Neighborhood Legal Assistance Foundation, focusing on public housing, he also served as a Supervising Attorney with Southern Arizona Legal Aid in Tucson, Legal Services of Northeastern Wisconsin in Green Bay, and Maricopa County Legal Aid Society (now Community Legal Services) in Phoenix, Arizona.

J. WALLACE OMAN received his J.D. from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law in 1975. He worked for the National Paralegal Institute for two years and became a staff attorney for the Mission Law Office of the San Francisco Neighborhood Legal Assistance Foundation in 1977 and then a staff attorney in SFNLAF’s Housing Unit. He taught Tenant-Landlord Relations for the San Francisco State University Paralegal Certificate Program. He has also served as a consultant to advisory committees on tenant-landlord matters for the San Francisco Municipal Court. Mr. Oman is now in private practice in San Francisco.

CATHERINE DOWNS OROZCO received her J.D. from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law in 1985. She served as a judicial extern for Justice Cruz Reynoso of the California Supreme Court. She served as a staff attorney with the Housing Unit of the San Francisco Neighborhood Legal Assistance Foundation, where she litigated housing law cases for low-income clients. In addition to specializing in landlord-tenant law, she focused on a range of consumer protection issues.

Legal Services of Northern California (LSNC) is a nonprofit legal services program serving the lower income community of 23 northern California counties. It has eight offices and represents clients in the areas of housing, land use and planning, health, welfare, civil rights, education, and public benefits. LSNC’s website (https://lsnc.net) contains a broad range of poverty law information, including housing, health, and welfare issues. The following five LSNC attorneys specializing in housing and community and economic development contributed to a major rewrite of chapter 18 of the Eviction Defense Manual for the May 2000 and May 2001 updates:

WENDY LEE BOGDAN, B.A., 1986, University of California, Berkeley; J.D., 1998, University of California, Berkeley, School of Law. Ms. Bogdan was a staff attorney at Legal Services of Northern California and currently works as a Deputy General Counsel at the California Department of Fish and Wildlife in Sacramento.

DEBORAH A. COLLINS, B.A., 1975, University of Illinois; J.D., 1991, New College of California, San Francisco. Ms. Collins was the managing attorney of the Solano County office of Legal Services of Northern California in Vallejo. She wrote and supervised the work of the other authors for chapter 18 on the 2000 and 2001 updates. She worked for more than a decade at the Public Interest Law Project in Oakland and retired from practice in 2017.

ANNE H. PEARSON, B.A., 1990, M.A., 1990, University of Chicago; J.D., 1998, N.Y.U. School of Law. Ms. Pearson is an attorney with the San Francisco City Attorney’s Office and previously worked as a staff attorney with the Sacramento Office of Legal Services of Northern California.

R. MONA TAWATAO, B.A., 1983, University of California, San Diego; J.D., 1986, University of California, Los Angeles, School of Law. Ms. Tawatao is currently an attorney with Western Center on Law & Poverty in Sacramento and was regional counsel with Legal Services of Northern California.

BRIAN L. AUGUSTA, B.A., 1991, San Jose State University; J.D., 1999, Santa Clara University of Law. Mr. Augusta, now retired from practice, was a staff attorney with the Sacramento Office of Legal Services of Northern California.

About the 2019 Update Authors

THIELE R. DUNAWAY, A.B., 1974, Augustana College, Rock Island, Illinois; J.D., 1987, University of California, Berkeley, School of Law, was update author of chapters 29–30 in 2018 and 2019. She practices at Wendel, Rosen, Black & Dean LLP, Oakland, and is a member of Wendel, Rosen’s land use, environmental, and litigation practice groups, with an emphasis on matters that relate to land use, natural resources, climate change, business disputes, and appellate advocacy. Her land use compliance, litigation, and appellate work has included cases involving the California Environmental Quality Act (“CEQA”), the Subdivision Map Act, Section 404 permitting under the federal Clean Water Act, and the public trust doctrine. Wendel Rosen’s Environmental Practice Group was selected as one of the top three in the San Francisco Bay Area in The Recorder’s 2012 6th Annual “The Best” survey.

UBALDO FERNANDEZ, B.A., 2008, Boston University; J.D., 2013, University of California, Berkeley, School of Law, worked as an update author on chapters 1–4 and 8–15 in 2019. He currently serves as an Oakland Deputy City Attorney, in the General Public Safety & Code Enforcement Unit of the Advisory Division. Mr. Fernandez previously served as a commissioner on the City of Oakland Rent Board, and worked at the East Bay Community Law Center (EBCLC), initially as a staff attorney and as Interim Deputy Director of the EBCLC Housing Practice. He also was a staff attorney at California Rural Legal Assistance in Modesto, where he litigated housing and education cases. Mr. Fernandez is a lecturer at University of California, Berkeley School of Law where he teaches a seminar on housing law.

SONYA BEKOFF MOLHO, annual update author of multiple chapters beginning in 2000; see biography in the About the Authors section of this book.

OnLAW System Requirements:
Desktop: Windows XP, 7 or 8, Mac OS 10.8
Mobile: iOS6, iOS7, Android 4.2
Firefox, Chrome, IE and Safari browsers

Note: OnLAW may work with some devices running older versions of these Operating Systems or Windows RT; however, functionality is not guaranteed.

Please see FAQs for more details.
Products specifications
PRACTICE AREA Real Property
PRODUCT GROUP Publication
Products specifications
PRACTICE AREA Real Property
PRODUCT GROUP Publication