You have no items in your shopping cart.
Search
Filters

California Judges Benchbook: Search and Seizure 2020

Unique insights and invaluable information from the late Hon. George Brunn bring clarity to this increasingly complicated area of the law. Published in conjunction with the California Center for Judicial Education and Research.

 

 

“Fourth Amendment law and procedure has continued to receive the active attention of the courts and the state legislature in the 12 years since I wrote the first edition. Paradoxically, as the exclusionary rule has shrunk, the law has become more complicated. I have extensively reworked the book to discuss new developments and to make it more useful. Some topics, such as e-mail search warrant applications, are covered here for the first time. Discussion of other subjects, such as good faith, have been reorganized and expanded.”
Hon. George Brunn

Unique insights and invaluable information from the late Hon. George Brunn bring clarity to this increasingly complicated area of the law. Published in conjunction with the California Center for Judicial Education and Research.

  • The Fourth Amendment and Exclusionary Rule
  • Search warrants, including those electronically generated
  • Temporary detentions and searches incident to arrest
  • Penal Code §1538.5 motions
OnLAW CR94180

Web access for one user to the 2020 Edition, 

 

$ 125.00
Print CR34182

2020 edition, softbound

$ 125.00
“Fourth Amendment law and procedure has continued to receive the active attention of the courts and the state legislature in the 12 years since I wrote the first edition. Paradoxically, as the exclusionary rule has shrunk, the law has become more complicated. I have extensively reworked the book to discuss new developments and to make it more useful. Some topics, such as e-mail search warrant applications, are covered here for the first time. Discussion of other subjects, such as good faith, have been reorganized and expanded.”
Hon. George Brunn

Unique insights and invaluable information from the late Hon. George Brunn bring clarity to this increasingly complicated area of the law. Published in conjunction with the California Center for Judicial Education and Research.

  • The Fourth Amendment and Exclusionary Rule
  • Search warrants, including those electronically generated
  • Temporary detentions and searches incident to arrest
  • Penal Code §1538.5 motions

1

The Fourth Amendment and the Exclusionary Rule

  • I. SCOPE OF CHAPTER §1.1
  • II. DEVELOPMENT OF THE EXCLUSIONARY RULE
    • A. Constitutional Provisions §1.2
    • B. Origin of Exclusionary Rule §1.3
    • C. The Exclusionary Rule in California
      • 1. Pre-Cahan §1.4
      • 2. Cahan to Mapp §1.5
      • 3. Mapp to Proposition 8 §1.6
      • 4. Proposition 8 to the Present §1.7
      • 5. Chart: The Exclusionary Rule in California Courts §1.8
  • III. RELATION OF FOURTH AMENDMENT TO EXCLUSIONARY RULE
    • A. Underlying Issues When Fourth Amendment and Exclusionary Rule Invoked §1.9
    • B. Meaning of "Search" and "Seizure" §1.10
    • C. Nature and Function of Exclusionary Rule
      • 1. Evidentiary Nature of Rule §1.11
      • 2. Effect of Violation on Jurisdiction §1.12
      • 3. Purposes of Exclusionary Rule §1.13
      • 4. Exceptions to Exclusionary Rule §1.14
  • IV. APPLICATION OF EXCLUSIONARY RULE TO VARIOUS PROCEEDINGS
    • A. Application to Stages of a Criminal Case
      • 1. Pretrial Phases
        • a. Grand Jury Testimony and Indictment §1.15
        • b. Bail and Probable Cause Hearing §1.16
        • c. Preliminary Hearing §1.17
        • d. Diversion/Deferred Entry of Judgment §1.18
      • 2. Trial: Impeachment of Defendant §1.19
      • 3. Posttrial Phases
        • a. Sentencing §1.20
        • b. Parole and Probation Revocation Hearing §1.21
    • B. Application to Other Proceedings
      • 1. Juvenile Court §1.22
      • 2. Civil and Quasi-Criminal Proceedings §1.23
      • 3. Administrative Proceedings §1.24
  • V. SEARCHES AND SEIZURES BY PRIVATE CITIZENS
    • A. General Rule §1.25
    • B. Police Participation or Instigation §1.26
    • C. Acts of Security Guards §1.27
    • D. Acts of Tribal Police Officers §1.28
  • VI. GOOD FAITH AND BAD FAITH
    • A. Leon and Its Extensions
      • 1. The Leon Good-Faith Exception
        • a. Basic Principle §1.29
        • b. Meaning of Good Faith §1.30
        • c. Illustrative Applications
          • (1) Warrant Lacks Probable Cause §1.31
          • (2) Defective or Overbroad Descriptions §1.32
          • (3) Unsworn Statement §1.33
        • d. Neutrality of Magistrate §1.34
        • e. Search Warrant Based on Illegally Obtained Evidence §1.35
        • f. Affidavit Containing False Statements or Omissions §1.36
        • g. Sealed Affidavit §1.37
      • 2. The Krull Extension of Leon
        • a. Search Based on Prior Law or Precedent §1.38
        • b. Reliance on Invalid Search Condition §1.39
      • 3. The Evans Extension of Leon
        • a. Erroneous Warrant Information §1.40
        • b. Erroneous Information Regarding Search Condition §1.41
    • B. Good-Faith Mistakes
      • 1. Mistakes of Fact §1.42
      • 2. Mistakes of Law §1.43
    • C. Bad Faith: Pretext Stops and Searches §1.44
  • VII. FRUIT OF THE POISONOUS TREE
    • A. Excludable Evidence §1.45
    • B. Attenuation
      • 1. Basic Principles §1.46
      • 2. Applications
        • a. Confessions Following Illegal Arrest, Detention, or Search
          • (1) Voluntariness and Miranda Warnings §1.47
          • (2) Chart: Attenuation as to Confessions After Unlawful Arrest or Detention §1.48
          • (3) Confession After Confrontation With Product of Illegal Search §1.49
          • (4) Fruits of Unlawful Confession §1.50
        • b. Identification Evidence
          • (1) Fingerprints and Other Physical Evidence of Identity §1.51
          • (2) Showups and Lineups §1.52
          • (3) Photo Lineups §1.53
          • (4) In-Court Identification §1.54
        • c. Testimony of Witness §1.55
        • d. Consent §1.56
        • e. Search Warrants §1.57
        • f. Discovery of Outstanding Arrest Warrant §1.58
        • g. Discovery of Probation Search Condition §1.59
        • h. Resisting Arrest §1.60
        • i. Subsequent Investigation §1.61
    • C. Independent Source
      • 1. Basic Principles §1.62
      • 2. Practical Problems §1.63
    • D. Inevitable Discovery
      • 1. Basic Principles §1.64
      • 2. Applications §1.65
      • 3. Limitation: Argument That Search Warrant Could Have Been Obtained §1.66
    • E. Trial Use of Assertion of Fourth Amendment Rights §1.67
    • F. Knock-Notice Violations §1.68

2

Search Warrants

  • I. SCOPE OF CHAPTER §2.1
  • II. CONSTITUTIONAL AND STATUTORY FRAMEWORK
    • A. Constitutional Provisions §2.2
    • B. Statutory Definition of Search Warrant §2.3
    • C. Statutory Grounds for Issuance §2.4
    • D. Limitations in Particular Situations
      • 1. Documents of Lawyers, Doctors, Psychotherapists, and Clergy Members
        • a. No Suspicion of Person Whose Place Is to Be Searched: Special Master Procedure §2.5
        • b. Suspicion of Criminal Activity by Person Whose Place Is to Be Searched §2.6
        • c. Checklist: Issuance of Search Warrants for Documents of Lawyers, Doctors, Psychotherapists, or Clergy Members §2.7
      • 2. News Media
        • a. Penal Code §1524(g) §2.8
        • b. Federal Statute §2.9
      • 3. Obscenity §2.10
      • 4. Bodily Intrusions
        • a. In General §2.11
        • b. HIV Testing §2.12
      • 5. Motorized Battering Rams §2.13
    • E. Territorial Jurisdiction §2.14
    • F. Military Searches §2.15
  • III. AFFIDAVIT REQUIREMENTS
    • A. Written Affidavits
      • 1. General Rule §2.16
      • 2. Attachments and Papers in Addition to Affidavit §2.17
      • 3. Subscription §2.18
      • 4. Partial Loss of Affidavit §2.19
    • B. Sworn Oral Statements §2.20
    • C. Fax, Email, or Electronic Transmission of Affidavit §2.21
    • D. Probable Cause
      • 1. Basic Standard §2.22
      • 2. Contrast to Probable Cause for Arrest Warrant §2.23
      • 3. General Principles for Applying Standard §2.24
      • 4. Key Determinations of Probable Cause §2.25
      • 5. Facts, Opinions, Expertise, Informants §2.26
        • a. Opinions and Conclusions §2.27
          • (1) Affiant’s Experience or Expertise §2.28
          • (2) Logic or Common Sense §2.29
          • (3) Opinions of Persons Other Than Affiant §2.30
        • b. Reliability or Credibility of Information
          • (1) Police Officers’ Personal Observations §2.31
          • (2) Hearsay §2.32
          • (3) Police Informants §2.33
          • (4) Citizen Informants §2.34
          • (5) Illustrative Decisions Dealing With Informants §2.35
      • 6. Fair Probability §2.36
      • 7. "Contraband or Evidence of a Crime" §2.37
      • 8. "Will Be Found in a Particular Place" §2.38
        • a. Inferences From Known Facts
          • (1) Permissible Inferences §2.39
          • (2) Impermissible Inferences §2.40
        • b. Current and Stale Information
          • (1) Basic Principles §2.41
          • (2) Character of Criminal Activity §2.42
        • c. Anticipatory Warrants §2.43
    • E. Misstatements and Omissions
      • 1. Basic Principles §2.44
      • 2. Omissions Relating to Police Informants §2.45
      • 3. Multiple Omissions §2.46
      • 4. Search Warrants Based on Prior Search §2.47
      • 5. Sting Operations §2.48
    • F. Other Matters Outside Affidavit
      • 1. Extrinsic Evidence to Clarify Ambiguities §2.49
      • 2. Examination of Informant by Magistrate §2.50
    • G. Sealing of Affidavit; Hearing §2.51
  • IV. WARRANT REQUIREMENTS
    • A. Summary of Requirements §2.52
    • B. Neutral Magistrate
      • 1. Basic Principles §2.53
      • 2. Illustrative Situations §2.54
    • C. In Writing §2.55
    • D. Form of Search Warrant; Questions for Issuing Magistrates §2.56
    • E. Signature §2.57
      • 1. Effect of Omitting Signature §2.58
      • 2. Issuance of Search Warrants by Fax, Email, or Electronic Transmission §2.59
    • F. Direction to Peace Officer §2.60
    • G. Naming the Affiant §2.61
    • H. Specification of Grounds §2.62
    • I. Description of Persons and Places to Be Searched and Property to Be Seized §2.63
      • 1. Description of Person to Be Searched §2.64
      • 2. Description of Place to Be Searched
        • a. Key Issues §2.65
        • b. Buildings With Multiple Occupants; Search of Wrong Apartment §2.66
        • c. Erroneous Address §2.67
      • 3. Description of Property to Be Seized
        • a. Purpose and Definition of Particularity Requirements: "Meaningful Restriction" Test §2.68
        • b. "Meaningful Restriction" Test in Action
          • (1) Generic Descriptions §2.69
          • (2) Papers and Other Documentary Evidence §2.70
          • (3) Indicia-of-Occupancy Clauses §2.71
      • 4. Special Requirement for Search of Premises of Certain Professionals §2.72
      • 5. Judicial Techniques for Upholding Searches Based on Deficient Descriptions
        • a. In General §2.73
        • b. Reference to Affidavit §2.74
        • c. On-Scene Identification by Civilians §2.75
        • d. Severance of Invalid Portions of Search Warrant §2.76
    • J. Tracking Device Search Warrant §2.77
  • V. EXECUTION OF WARRANTS
    • A. Time of Execution
      • 1. 10-Day Requirement
        • a. General Rule §2.78
        • b. Computation of Period §2.79
        • c. Timely Service Followed by Delays §2.80
        • d. Effects of Noncompliance §2.81
        • e. Reissuance of Search Warrant §2.82
        • f. Public Access to Records During 10-Day Period §2.83
      • 2. Night Service
        • a. Statutory Provisions §2.84
        • b. 10 p.m. Deadline §2.85
        • c. Good Cause
          • (1) Determined From Affidavit as Whole §2.86
          • (2) Sufficiency of Showing §2.87
        • d. Insertion of Direction for Night Service in Warrant §2.88
        • e. Effect of Violation of Pen C §1533 §2.89
    • B. Knock-Notice
      • 1. Statutory and Constitutional Bases §2.90
      • 2. Requirements Not Limited to Searches and Arrests §2.91
      • 3. Purposes of Knock-Notice §2.92
      • 4. "Breaking" and Consent
        • a. Meaning of "Break" §2.93
        • b. Consent
          • (1) Effect of Consent; Test §2.94
          • (2) Nonverbal Consent §2.95
          • (3) Consent Obtained by Ruse §2.96
      • 5. Meaning of "House" §2.97
      • 6. Compliance With Pen C §1531
        • a. Summary of Requirements §2.98
        • b. Notice of Presence §2.99
        • c. Announcement of Authority §2.100
        • d. Announcement of Purpose §2.101
        • e. Opportunity to Surrender Premises §2.102
      • 7. Substantial Compliance
        • a. Meanings of "Substantial Compliance" §2.103
        • b. Announcement of Purpose §2.104
        • c. Compliance With Objectives of Statute §2.105
      • 8. Excused Noncompliance: Unoccupied Premises and Exigent Circumstances
        • a. Basic Principles §2.106
        • b. Insufficient Exigent Circumstances; "No-"Knock" Warrants §2.107
        • c. Illustrations of Sufficient Exigent Circumstances §2.108
      • 9. Effect of Unexcused Knock-Notice Violations §2.109
    • C. Conduct of Search
      • 1. Detention and Search of Occupants During Execution of Warrant
        • a. Detention §2.110
        • b. Search §2.111
      • 2. Seizure of Property Not Described in Search Warrant
        • a. In General §2.112
        • b. The Plain View Exception
          • (1) Basic Principles §2.113
          • (2) Good Faith ("Bona Fide Effort") §2.114
          • (3) Linkage Between the Property in Plain View and Criminal Behavior ("Reasonably Identifiable as Contraband") §2.115
        • c. Police Interceptions of Telephone Calls at Scene of Search §2.116
      • 3. Presence of Third Parties §2.117
      • 4. Videotaping of Search §2.118
      • 5. Use of Dogs §2.119
      • 6. Unduly Prolonged or Intense Search §2.120
      • 7. Multiple Searches §2.121
      • 8. Who May Execute §2.122
      • 9. Information to Householders
        • a. Copy of Warrants §2.123
        • b. Receipt §2.124
        • c. Instructions on Reclaiming Property §2.125
        • d. Return of Warrant and Inventory §2.126
      • 10. Execution of Search Under Special Master Procedure §2.127
      • 11. Securing Premises Pending Issuance of Warrant
        • a. Probable Cause Plus Exigency Rule §2.128
        • b. Exigent Circumstances §2.129

3

Temporary Detentions and Searches Incident to Temporary Detentions

  • I. INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE OF CHAPTER §3.1
  • II. APPLICATION OF FOURTH AMENDMENT
    • A. Stop and Frisk as Seizure and Search §3.2
    • B. Effects of Unlawful Detention or Frisk §3.3
  • III. WHAT CONSTITUTES A TEMPORARY DETENTION
    • A. Temporary Detentions in the Spectrum of Police-Civilian Contacts §3.4
    • B. Differentiating Detentions From Less Intrusive Contacts
      • 1. Contacts Not Amounting to Seizure ("Consensual Encounters") §3.5
      • 2. Test to Determine Temporary Detention
        • a. Mendenhall Test §3.6
        • b. Variants of Mendenhall Test §3.7
        • c. Who Is a Reasonable Person §3.8
        • d. Objective Nature of Test §3.9
      • 3. Police-Pedestrian Contacts
        • a. In Airports
          • (1) In General §3.10
          • (2) Asking Person to Step Aside and Talk §3.11
          • (3) Advising Person of Freedom to Leave §3.12
          • (4) Transforming Encounter Into Detention §3.13
          • (5) Other Circumstances §3.14
        • b. On Streets §3.15
          • (1) Casual Banter §3.16
          • (2) Request for Identification and Explanation of Presence §3.17
          • (3) Request or Command §3.18
          • (4) Officers in Patrol Vehicle §3.19
          • (5) Warrant Check §3.20
          • (6) Observations During Officer’s Approach §3.21
          • (7) Foot Chase §3.22
          • (8) Request to Accompany Officers to Police Station §3.23
      • 4. Police Contacts With Persons in Vehicles
        • a. Drivers §3.24
        • b. Passengers §3.25
        • c. Parked Vehicles §3.26
      • 5. Factory Surveys §3.27
      • 6. Chart: Factors in Determining Whether Contact Was Consensual or a Detention §3.28
    • C. Temporary Detention Distinguished From More Serious Contacts §3.29
  • IV. REQUIREMENTS FOR TEMPORARY DETENTIONS RELATED TO CRIME INVESTIGATIONS AND TRAFFIC VIOLATIONS
    • A. Standard
      • 1. Objective Basis §3.30
      • 2. Totality of Circumstances §3.31
      • 3. Level of Suspicion §3.32
      • 4. Objective Nature of Standard §3.33
      • 5. Availability of Less Intrusive Means §3.34
    • B. Issues Concerning Application of Standard
      • 1. Conduct Equally Consistent With Innocent Activity §3.35
      • 2. Training and Experience of Officer §3.36
      • 3. Sources of Information
        • a. Informants §3.37
        • b. Police Dispatch Reports; Information and Requests From Other Officers §3.38
      • 4. Detentions Within the Home
        • a. General Principles §3.39
        • b. Detentions Related to Search Warrants §3.40
      • 5. Descriptions of Suspects and Vehicles
        • a. Guidelines
          • (1) Description Not Always Necessary §3.41
          • (2) Descriptions Sufficient for Selective Investigation §3.42
          • (3) Time and Place of Detention in Relation to Crime §3.43
          • (4) Broad Descriptions Adequate in Context §3.44
        • b. Chart: Illustrative Cases Finding Descriptions Adequate §3.45
        • c. Chart: Illustrative Cases Finding Descriptions Inadequate §3.46
      • 6. "Fit" and Group Characteristics
        • a. Ethnicity; Gang Membership §3.47
        • b. Drug Courier Profile §3.48
      • 7. Effect of Mistakes §3.49
      • 8. Burden of Proof §3.50
      • 9. Reasonable Suspicion as a Question of Law §3.51
    • C. Illustrative Situations
      • 1. Reasonable Suspicion and Past Conduct §3.52
      • 2. Persons Carrying Objects §3.53
      • 3. Observation of Exchanges §3.54
      • 4. Presence in High Crime Area §3.55
      • 5. Unprovoked Flight §3.56
      • 6. Other Reactions to Police Presence
        • a. Evasive Conduct §3.57
        • b. Furtive Gestures §3.58
        • c. Nervousness §3.59
        • d. Eye Contact §3.60
      • 7. Driving Under the Influence §3.61
      • 8. Other Traffic Stops
        • a. Traffic, Equipment, and Registration Violations §3.62
        • b. Driving on a Revoked License §3.63
        • c. Speed Traps §3.64
        • d. License Check §3.65
        • e. Pretext Stop §3.66
      • 9. No Suspicious Conduct by Driver; Suspicion Relates Only to Passenger §3.67
      • 10. Weapons Violations §3.68
      • 11. Detention to Interview Detainee About Crimes of Others §3.69
    • D. Duration and Scope of Detention
      • 1. In General §3.70
      • 2. Time Limits
        • a. Investigative Stops §3.71
        • b. Traffic Stops
          • (1) Basic Principles §3.72
          • (2) Extension of Traffic Stop §3.73
      • 3. Scope of Detention: Officer’s Actions
        • a. Warrant Checks §3.74
        • b. Questioning During Traffic Stop §3.75
        • c. Consent Searches §3.76
        • d. Ordering Out of Car §3.77
        • e. Preventing Reentry §3.78
        • f. Placing Detainee Into Patrol Car §3.79
        • g. Handcuffing §3.80
        • h. Use of Force §3.81
        • i. Transporting Suspect From Scene §3.82
        • j. Production of Identification §3.83
        • k. Combination of Coercive Circumstances §3.84
  • V. DETENTIONS NOT BASED ON SUSPICION OF CRIMINAL ACTIVITY
    • A. Vehicle Roadblocks and Checkpoints
      • 1. Basic Principles §3.85
      • 2. Purpose of Detention
        • a. Dragnets §3.86
        • b. Dangerous Crime §3.87
        • c. Inspections §3.88
        • d. Sobriety and Drug Checkpoints §3.89
      • 3. Balancing Test: Minimizing Intrusiveness §3.90
      • 4. Explicit, Neutral Limitations on Officer Discretion §3.91
    • B. Border Detentions
      • 1. Near the Border §3.92
      • 2. At the Border §3.93
    • C. Roving Stops for Game Inspections §3.94
    • D. Juveniles §3.95
  • VI. SEARCHES INCIDENT TO TEMPORARY DETENTIONS
    • A. In General §3.96
    • B. Searches for Weapons
      • 1. Pat Search
        • a. Purpose and Grounds §3.97
        • b. Reason to Believe That Detainee Is Armed §3.98
        • c. Scope of Patdown §3.99
        • d. Effect of Exceeding Proper Scope of Patdown §3.100
      • 2. Search Beyond Patdown
        • a. Reaching Into Suspect’s Clothing
          • (1) Basic Principles §3.101
          • (2) Objects That Feel Like Weapons §3.102
          • (3) Objects That Feel Like Contraband Rather Than Weapons §3.103
        • b. Removing Objects From Suspect and Examining Them §3.104
      • 3. Search of Belongings §3.105
      • 4. Search of Vehicles for Weapons §3.106
    • C. Search for Identification
      • 1. Persons §3.107
      • 2. Vehicles §3.108

4

Arrest and Searches Incident to Arrest

  • I. SCOPE OF CHAPTER §4.1
  • II. ARREST AND THE FOURTH AMENDMENT
    • A. Role of Fourth Amendment §4.2
    • B. Key Requirements for Valid Arrest §4.3
    • C. Consequences of Arrest in Violation of Fourth Amendment §4.4
  • III. MEANING OF ARREST
    • A. Differences Between Fourth Amendment and Statutory Meaning §4.5
    • B. Arrest as Custody and Restraint §4.6
  • IV. ARREST WITHOUT WARRANT: AUTHORITY AND GROUNDS
    • A. Authority to Arrest §4.7
      • 1. Authority of Peace Officers to Arrest
        • a. Felony Arrests §4.8
        • b. Misdemeanors and Infractions
          • (1) Statutory Requirements; Effects of Violation §4.9
          • (2) Components of In-the-Presence Rule §4.10
          • (3) Ability to Testify to Elements of Offense §4.11
          • (4) Reasonable Contemporaneity §4.12
          • (5) Custodial Arrest for Minor Offenses §4.13
        • c. Arrest on "Suspicion of" Offense or for Investigation §4.14
        • d. Warrantless Arrest of Probationer §4.15
        • e. Authority to Arrest Minors
          • (1) For Criminal Conduct §4.16
          • (2) For Noncriminal Conduct, Curfew Violations, Truancy, or Sickness §4.17
        • f. Authority to Take Mentally Ill Person Into Custody §4.18
        • g. Territorial Limitations
          • (1) Penal Code §830.1 §4.19
          • (2) Status of Arrest Unauthorized by Pen C §830.1(a) §4.20
        • h. Arrests by Federal Law Enforcement Officers §4.21
      • 2. Authority of Private Persons to Arrest
        • a. In General §4.22
        • b. Citizen’s Arrest §4.23
    • B. Probable Cause
      • 1. Comparison to Probable Cause to Search §4.24
      • 2. Objective Standard §4.25
      • 3. Degree of Suspicion §4.26
      • 4. Knowledge at Time of Arrest §4.27
      • 5. Subjective Belief of Officer §4.28
      • 6. Totality of Circumstances §4.29
      • 7. Training, Experience, and Expertise of Officer §4.30
      • 8. Information and Directives Obtained by the Arresting Officer From Others §4.31
      • 9. Disappearance of Probable Cause After Arrest §4.32
      • 10. Observation of Hand-to-Hand Exchanges §4.33
      • 11. Description of Suspect
        • a. Key Inquiries §4.34
        • b. Illustrations §4.35
      • 12. Probable Cause to Arrest Companion of Principal Suspect
        • a. Persons on Foot §4.36
        • b. Vehicle Occupants §4.37
        • c. Passenger in Vehicle With Contraband §4.38
        • d. Contraband in Residence §4.39
    • C. Flight Plus Grounds to Detain §4.40
    • D. Effect of Mistakes §4.41
  • V. ARREST WARRANTS
    • A. Need for Arrest Warrant §4.42
    • B. Types of Arrest Warrants
      • 1. Felony and Misdemeanor Warrants §4.43
      • 2. Failure to Appear Warrants §4.44
      • 3. Other Arrest Warrants §4.45
    • C. Arrest Warrant Differentiated From Other Process
      • 1. Summons
        • a. Corporations §4.46
        • b. Individuals §4.47
      • 2. Citation §4.48
    • D. Probable Cause
      • 1. Basic Principles §4.49
      • 2. Probation or Parole Violation §4.50
      • 3. Showing of Probable Cause
        • a. General Need for Affidavit §4.51
        • b. Types of Warrant for Which Affidavit Is Not Required §4.52
        • c. Sworn Oral Statement §4.53
        • d. Fax, Email, or Electronic Transmission of Affidavit §4.54
        • e. Lost Affidavit §4.55
        • f. Inadequate or No Showing of Probable Cause §4.56
      • 4. John Doe Warrants; Description of Person to Be Arrested §4.57
    • E. Attack on Arrest Warrant Affidavit for Misstatements or Omissions §4.58
    • F. Checklist: Statutory Requirements for Arrest Warrant Contents §4.59
    • G. Form of Arrest Warrant; Questions for Issuing Magistrates §4.60
    • H. Issuance of Arrest Warrant by Fax, Email, or Electronic Transmission §4.61
  • VI. TIME, PLACE, AND MANNER OF ARREST
    • A. Nighttime Arrest
      • 1. When Permitted §4.62
      • 2. Judicial Authorization §4.63
    • B. Residential Arrests: Payton-Ramey-Steagald Requirements
      • 1. Arrests in Suspect’s Residence
        • a. Need for Arrest Warrant §4.64
        • b. Reason to Believe Suspect Is at Home
          • (1) Basic Principles §4.65
          • (2) Objective Standard; Mistakes §4.66
      • 2. Arrests in Residence of Third Party
        • a. Need for Search and Arrest Warrants §4.67
        • b. Probable Cause to Believe Suspect Is Present §4.68
      • 3. Arrests in Motel Rooms, Motor Homes, and Other Places §4.69
      • 4. Permitted and Prohibited Police Activities §4.70
        • a. Arrest at or Near Threshold §4.71
        • b. Arrest of Person Who Retreats Into House §4.72
        • c. Arrest After Defendant Is Asked or Ordered to Step Outside §4.73
        • d. Entry Into Residence by Ruse §4.74
        • e. Entry for Purposes Other Than Arrest §4.75
      • 5. Exigent Circumstances
        • a. Basic Principles §4.76
        • b. Hot Pursuit
          • (1) General Rule; Chase Not Required §4.77
          • (2) Conditions §4.78
        • c. Danger of Destruction or Disappearance of Evidence
          • (1) Factors §4.79
          • (2) Illustrations §4.80
        • d. Other Exigencies §4.81
      • 6. Effect of Payton-Ramey-Steagald Violation §4.82
    • C. Knock-Notice
      • 1. Elements §4.83
      • 2. Chart: Relation of Pen C §§844 and 1531 §4.84
      • 3. Right to Challenge Knock-Notice Violation ("Standing") §4.85
      • 4. Parolees and Probationers §4.86
      • 5. Investigative Entries §4.87
      • 6. Reasonable Grounds to Believe Arrestee Is Present §4.88
      • 7. Refusal of Admittance §4.89
      • 8. Exceptions §4.90
    • D. Notice of Arrest; Showing Warrant §4.91
    • E. Limitations on the Use of Force
      • 1. Basic Principles §4.92
      • 2. Effect of Using Excessive Force on Admissibility of Evidence §4.93
    • F. Detention of Occupants During Service of Arrest Warrant §4.94
  • VII. POST-ARREST REQUIREMENTS
    • A. Right to Make Telephone Calls §4.95
    • B. Duty to Take Arrestee Promptly Before Magistrate
      • 1. 48-Hour Rule §4.96
      • 2. Consequences of Unreasonable Delay §4.97
    • C. Post-Arrest Judicial Determination of Probable Cause
      • 1. 48-Hour Rule §4.98
      • 2. Conditions That Necessitate Timely Probable Cause Determination §4.99
      • 3. Procedural Matters
        • a. Time of Determination §4.100
        • b. Advisement of Right to Determination §4.101
        • c. Nonadversary Determination §4.102
        • d. Issues Court May Consider §4.103
        • e. Dismissal; Refiling §4.104
      • 4. Consequences of McLaughlin Violation §4.105
  • VIII. SEARCHES INCIDENT TO ARREST
    • A. Search of the Person
      • 1. At Scene of Arrest
        • a. Basic Principles
          • (1) Custodial Arrest §4.106
          • (2) Noncustodial Arrest §4.107
        • b. Search Preceding Arrest §4.108
        • c. Use of Force; Choke Holds §4.109
        • d. Citizen’s Arrest
          • (1) Purely Private Arrest §4.110
          • (2) Joint Action by Police and Citizen §4.111
          • (3) Store Detectives and Other Private Security Personnel §4.112
          • (4) Police Officers as Citizens §4.113
          • (5) Bail Bondsmen §4.114
      • 2. At Police Station and Other Places of Pretrial Detention
        • a. Booking Search
          • (1) Purposes §4.115
          • (2) Scope §4.116
          • (3) Time §4.117
          • (4) Custodial Traffic Arrest: Opportunity to Post Bail §4.118
          • (5) Arrest of Minor for Truancy or Curfew Violation §4.119
        • b. Search After Initial Booking §4.120
      • 3. Bodily Intrusions and Strip Searches
        • a. Basic Principles §4.121
        • b. Blood Samples
          • (1) General Rule §4.122
          • (2) Reasonable Manner of Taking Sample §4.123
          • (3) Probable Cause §4.124
          • (4) Exigent Circumstances §4.125
          • (5) Implied Consent §4.126
        • c. Strip and Body Cavity Searches §4.127
        • d. DNA Samples; Print Impressions §4.128
        • e. Blood-Alcohol Breath Tests §4.129
    • B. Search Beyond Person of Arrestee
      • 1. Areas Within Arrestee’s Immediate Control
        • a. Chimel Rule §4.130
        • b. Illustrative Cases §4.131
      • 2. Vehicles
        • a. Belton to Gant §4.132
        • b. Conditions for Applicability of Rule §4.133
      • 3. Protective Sweep
        • a. Definition and Purpose §4.134
        • b. Conditions for Valid Sweep §4.135
        • c. Factual Basis for Sweep
          • (1) Slight Showing Often Sufficient §4.136
          • (2) Protective Sweep After Defendant Removed From Premises or Arrested Outside §4.137
          • (3) Arrest of Confederates §4.138
          • (4) Delay in Conducting Sweep §4.139
          • (5) Dangerousness of Arrestee §4.140
          • (6) Lack of Information §4.141
        • d. Scope of Protective Sweep §4.142

5

Warrantless Searches

  • I. INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE OF CHAPTER §5.1
  • II. PLAIN VIEW AND MISCELLANEOUS INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES
    • A. Reasonable Expectation of Privacy
      • 1. Basic Principles §5.2
      • 2. Threshold Questions for Determining Presence of Reasonable Privacy Expectations §5.3
      • 3. Subjective Expectation of Privacy §5.4
      • 4. Reasonableness of Expectation
        • a. Basic Principles §5.5
        • b. Common Habits in Use of Property §5.6
        • c. Efforts to Conceal §5.7
        • d. Matters Observable by Public §5.8
    • B. Plain View
      • 1. Basic Principles §5.9
        • a. Place Where Officers Had Right to Be §5.10
        • b. Incriminating Character Immediately Apparent §5.11
        • c. Right of Access §5.12
        • d. Senses Other Than Sight §5.13
      • 2. Particular Locations
        • a. No Violation of Reasonable Privacy Expectations
          • (1) Public Street or Sidewalk; Temporary Shelter §5.14
          • (2) Residential Locations Open to Public or Tenants §5.15
          • (3) Adjacent Room; Neighboring Property §5.16
          • (4) Commercial Premises Open to Public §5.17
          • (5) Public Parkland §5.18
          • (6) Public Airspace §5.19
        • b. Violation of Reasonable Privacy Expectations
          • (1) Yard of Residence §5.20
          • (2) Planter Areas; Trellises §5.21
          • (3) Private Residential Garage §5.22
        • c. Borderline Situations §5.23
        • d. "Open Fields" and "Curtilage" §5.24
        • e. Unusual Vantage Points §5.25
    • C. Investigative Techniques
      • 1. Aiding the Senses
        • a. Basic Principles §5.26
        • b. Optical Aides
          • (1) Flashlights §5.27
          • (2) Binoculars §5.28
          • (3) Cameras: Aerial Photography §5.29
          • (4) Magnetometers and X-Rays §5.30
          • (5) Thermal Imaging Devices §5.31
          • (6) Night Vision Goggles §5.32
          • (7) Surveillance Meters §5.33
          • (8) Electronic Tracking Devices §5.34
          • (9) Software to Identify Address of Wireless Device §5.35
        • c. Aural Aids: Wiretaps and Other Listening Devices §5.36
        • d. Aiding the Sense of Smell
          • (1) Canine Sniffs §5.37
          • (2) Manipulating Baggage to Aid Officer’s Sense of Smell §5.38
      • 2. Videotaping §5.39
      • 3. Controlled Deliveries §5.40
      • 4. Pen Registers and Trap and Trace Devices §5.41
      • 5. Inspection of Bank and Other Third Party Records §5.42
      • 6. Search of Abandoned, Discarded, or Disclaimed Property
        • a. Basic Principle §5.43
        • b. Meaning of Abandonment
          • (1) Relinquishment of Privacy Expectation §5.44
          • (2) Illustrative Cases §5.45
        • c. Discarding
          • (1) Discarding as Abandonment §5.46
          • (2) Limitations §5.47
        • d. Packages Consigned to Shipment §5.48
        • e. Garbage §5.49
        • f. Fire Damage §5.50
        • g. Disclaimers §5.51
  • III. WARRANTLESS SEARCHES OF MOTOR VEHICLES
    • A. Bases for Searches §5.52
      • 1. Examination of Vehicle From Outside §5.53
      • 2. Abandoned Vehicle §5.54
      • 3. Examination of Vehicle Identification Number §5.55
      • 4. Entries Into Vehicles to Look for Registration or License §5.56
      • 5. Search Incident to Temporary Detention §5.57
      • 6. Search Incident to Arrest §5.58
      • 7. Inventory Search of Impounded Vehicle §5.59
      • 8. Search Under "Automobile Exception" §5.60
      • 9. Search Under "Instrumentality Exception" §5.61
      • 10. Parole or Probation Status of Passenger §5.62
      • 11. Safety Inspections §5.63
      • 12. Border Searches §5.64
    • B. Inventory Searches of Impounded Vehicles
      • 1. Basic Principles §5.65
      • 2. Requirements for Lawful Impoundment Not Based on Probable Cause
        • a. Limited Purpose of Impoundment §5.66
        • b. Right to Impound §5.67
        • c. Standard Criteria §5.68
      • 3. Additional Requirements for Inventory Search
        • a. Not to Further Criminal Investigation §5.69
        • b. Standardized Procedures §5.70
    • C. Automobile Exception
      • 1. Basic Principles §5.71
      • 2. Justifications §5.72
      • 3. Applications to Particular Vehicles
        • a. Parked Vehicles §5.73
        • b. Motor Homes §5.74
        • c. Houseboats §5.75
        • d. Bicycles §5.76
      • 4. Opportunity to Obtain Search Warrant §5.77
      • 5. Scope of Search
        • a. Basic Principles §5.78
        • b. Containers §5.79
        • c. Belongings of Passengers; Search of Persons §5.80
      • 6. Time and Place of Search §5.81
    • D. Instrumentality Exception §5.82
    • E. Entries Into Vehicles for Other Purposes
      • 1. To Look for Registration or License §5.83
      • 2. Safety Inspections §5.84
    • F. Chart: Comparison of Permitted Warrantless Vehicle Searches §5.85
  • IV. ENTRIES TO PRESERVE LIFE OR PROPERTY
    • A. Imminent Danger §5.86
    • B. Factual Basis for Entry
      • 1. Basic Principles §5.87
      • 2. Victim’s Denial of Problem §5.88
      • 3. Failure to Take Steps Short of Entry §5.89
    • C. Belief and Motive of Officer §5.90
    • D. Conduct Consistent With Asserted Justification §5.91
    • E. Homicides and Other Violent Offenses
      • 1. Basic Principles §5.92
      • 2. Illustrations
        • a. Police Conduct Lawful §5.93
        • b. Police Conduct Unlawful §5.94
    • F. Others Who May Need Aid §5.95
    • G. Missing Persons; Unattended Children §5.96
    • H. Burglary in Progress §5.97
    • I. Chemical Odors §5.98
    • J. Fires §5.99
    • K. Subsequent Entries
      • 1. After a Fire §5.100
      • 2. After Other Emergencies
        • a. Reentry Generally Unlawful §5.101
        • b. Continuing Emergency §5.102
        • c. Uninterrupted Police Presence §5.103
  • V. CONSENT SEARCHES
    • A. Overview §5.104
    • B. Manifestation and Withdrawal of Consent
      • 1. Manifestation
        • a. Basic Principles §5.105
        • b. Nonverbal Consent §5.106
      • 2. Withdrawal
        • a. Right to Withdraw §5.107
        • b. Effective Withdrawals §5.108
        • c. Ineffective Withdrawals §5.109
    • C. Scope of Consent
      • 1. Consent to Enter §5.110
      • 2. Consent to Search
        • a. Objective Reasonableness §5.111
        • b. Broad Scope §5.112
        • c. Searches Not Within Scope §5.113
    • D. Validity of Consent
      • 1. Basic Principles §5.114
      • 2. Factors Affecting Voluntariness
        • a. Giving Directions or Orders §5.115
        • b. Statements Concerning Search Warrants §5.116
        • c. Display of Weapons §5.117
        • d. Advice That Consent Can Be Refused §5.118
        • e. Miranda Admonition §5.119
        • f. Custody; Handcuffs §5.120
        • g. Number of Officers; Time §5.121
        • h. Condition of Person Consenting §5.122
        • i. Efforts to Mislead
          • (1) By Police §5.123
          • (2) By Person Consenting §5.124
      • 3. Factors Entitled to Little or No Weight §5.125
      • 4. Unlawful Police Conduct §5.126
      • 5. Consent by Represented Defendant §5.127
      • 6. Race Discrimination §5.128
    • E. Third Party Consent
      • 1. Actual and Apparent Authority
        • a. Basic Principles §5.129
        • b. Common Authority §5.130
        • c. Objective Standard §5.131
        • d. Knock-Notice §5.132
      • 2. Applications
        • a. Landlords and Innkeepers
          • (1) No Authority to Consent §5.133
          • (2) Exceptions §5.134
        • b. Joint Owners, Occupants, and Spouses
          • (1) Actual Authority §5.135
          • (2) Apparent Authority §5.136
          • (3) No Authority §5.137
        • c. Parents and Children
          • (1) Consent by Parent §5.138
          • (2) Consent by Child §5.139
        • d. Real Estate Agents §5.140
        • e. Bailees §5.141
  • VI. PROBATION AND PAROLE SEARCHES
    • A. Nature of Search Conditions §5.142
    • B. Validity of Search Conditions
      • 1. Probationers §5.143
      • 2. Parolees §5.144
      • 3. Defendants Placed on Postrelease Community Supervision §5.145
      • 4. Defendant Placed on Mandatory Supervision §5.146
      • 5. O.R. Release Orders §5.147
      • 6. Diversion §5.148
      • 7. Nonconsensual Blood Test as Condition of Probation §5.149
      • 8. Reliance on Invalid Search Condition §5.150
    • C. Searches of Electronic Devices §5.151
    • D. Scope of Search
      • 1. Limited by Scope of Search Condition §5.152
      • 2. Construction of Search Conditions §5.153
      • 3. Authority to Limit Search Conditions §5.154
    • E. Change of Probationary Status §5.155
    • F. Use of Search Condition as Pretext §5.156
    • G. Arbitrary or Harassing Searches §5.157
    • H. Police Information Concerning Search Condition
      • 1. Lack of Information §5.158
      • 2. Erroneous Information §5.159
    • I. Detention of Others During Search §5.160
  • VII. SEARCHES BY SCHOOL AUTHORITIES
    • A. Basic Principles §5.161
    • B. Illustrative Applications §5.162
    • C. Additional Issues
      • 1. Application of Exclusionary Rule §5.163
      • 2. Individual Suspicion §5.164

6

Handling Penal Code §1538.5 Motions

  • I. SCOPE OF CHAPTER §6.1
  • II. PURPOSES AND PRINCIPAL FEATURES OF STATUTE
    • A. Purposes §6.2
    • B. Principal Features §6.3
    • C. Exclusive Remedy §6.4
  • III. WHAT MOTIONS COME WITHIN PENAL CODE §1538.5
    • A. Overview §6.5
    • B. Statute May Be Invoked Only by Criminal Defendant
      • 1. Uncharged Persons §6.6
      • 2. Juvenile Offenders §6.7
      • 3. Party to Civil Proceeding §6.8
      • 4. Party to Administrative Proceeding §6.9
    • C. Motion Must Seek to Exclude Evidence
      • 1. Motion to Disclose Informant §6.10
      • 2. Meaning of Evidence §6.11
    • D. Posttrial Proceedings §6.12
    • E. Grounds for Motion
      • 1. Need to Make Fourth Amendment Claim
        • a. Basic Principle §6.13
        • b. Procedure When Pen C §1538.5 Unavailable §6.14
        • c. Consequences of Procedure Used §6.15
      • 2. Confessions and Admissions
        • a. Products of Unlawful Detention or Arrest §6.16
        • b. Other Statements
          • (1) Penal Code §1538.5 Unavailable §6.17
          • (2) Exception: Statement That Led to Other Evidence §6.18
      • 3. Chemical Tests
        • a. Penal Code §1538.5 Applicable §6.19
        • b. Penal Code §1538.5 Inapplicable
          • (1) Denial of Choice of Tests §6.20
          • (2) Other Claims §6.21
      • 4. Racial Profiling §6.22
      • 5. Identification Evidence §6.23
      • 6. Searches by Private Citizens §6.24
      • 7. Lost or Destroyed Evidence §6.25
      • 8. Possession of Contraband §6.26
      • 9. Out-of-State Searches §6.27
  • IV. "STANDING": DEFENDANT MAY ONLY CONTEST VIOLATION OF OWN RIGHTS
    • A. Nature of Inquiry §6.28
    • B. Factors §6.29
    • C. Residential Premises
      • 1. Range of Privacy Expectations §6.30
      • 2. Co-occupants §6.31
      • 3. Reasonable Privacy Expectation in Objects Rather Than Premises §6.32
      • 4. Privacy Expectation in Premises But Not in Items Searched or Seized §6.33
    • D. Commercial Premises §6.34
    • E. Vehicles
      • 1. Driver of Stolen Car §6.35
      • 2. Unauthorized Driver of Rental Car §6.36
      • 3. Passengers §6.37
      • 4. Others §6.38
      • 5. Presence at Time of Search §6.39
    • F. Transfer of Objects §6.40
    • G. Disclaimers; Contradictory Positions §6.41
    • H. Co-conspirators §6.42
  • V. TIME AND MANNER OF MAKING MOTIONS
    • A. Written Motion
      • 1. Basic Principles §6.43
      • 2. Specificity
        • a. Statutory Requirements §6.44
        • b. Case Law
          • (1) Burden of Raising Issue §6.45
          • (2) Warrantless Searches §6.46
          • (3) Search Warrants §6.47
    • B. Time for Filing Motion and Response
      • 1. Felonies
        • a. Motion at Preliminary Hearing §6.48
        • b. Motion After Filing of Information or Indictment
          • (1) 10-Day Notice §6.49
          • (2) 60-Day Rule §6.50
        • c. Prosecution Motion §6.51
        • d. Motion During Trial §6.52
      • 2. Misdemeanors §6.53
      • 3. Chart: Summary of Notice Requirements §6.54
  • VI. MOTIONS IN FELONY CASES
    • A. By Defendant
      • 1. At Preliminary Hearing
        • a. Basic Principles §6.55
        • b. Issues at Hearing §6.56
        • c. Continuances §6.57
        • d. Findings §6.58
        • e. Relitigation in Trial Court
          • (1) By the Defendant §6.59
          • (2) By the Prosecution §6.60
          • (3) Hearing by Judge Who Granted Previous Suppression Motion §6.61
      • 2. After Filing of Information or Indictment
        • a. Basic Principles §6.62
        • b. New Legal Theories §6.63
        • c. Admissibility of Additional Evidence
          • (1) Basic Principle §6.64
          • (2) Evidence Inadmissible at Preliminary Hearing §6.65
          • (3) Unavailable Witnesses §6.66
          • (4) Controverting New Evidence §6.67
        • d. Procedure to Determine Whether Evidence Could "Reasonably Have Been Presented at the Preliminary Hearing"
          • (1) Preliminary Fact §6.68
          • (2) Burden and Degree of Proof §6.69
          • (3) Evidentiary Problems §6.70
          • (4) In Camera Hearing §6.71
        • e. Extent to Which Findings Are Binding
          • (1) Basic Principles §6.72
          • (2) Finding Implied Only on Grounds Ruled On §6.73
          • (3) Factual and Legal Matters §6.74
          • (4) "Not Affected by Evidence Presented" at Pen C §1538.5(i) Hearing §6.75
        • f. Renewal or Reconsideration of Motion
          • (1) No Reconsideration After Decision on Merits §6.76
          • (2) Applications of Rule §6.77
          • (3) Exceptions §6.78
      • 3. At Trial
        • a. Motion Disfavored §6.79
        • b. Basic Principles §6.80
        • c. Illustrative Cases
          • (1) Officer Testifies for First Time at Trial §6.81
          • (2) Violation of Discovery Order §6.82
          • (3) "New" Case Decision §6.83
          • (4) Ineffective Representation §6.84
          • (5) Confession §6.85
          • (6) Reversal of Conviction §6.86
    • B. By Prosecution
      • 1. At Special Hearing Under Pen C §1538.5(j)
        • a. Basic Principles §6.87
        • b. Features of Statute
          • (1) De Novo Hearing §6.88
          • (2) Continuance §6.89
          • (3) Binding Effect of Prior Ruling §6.90
          • (4) Renewal of Reconsideration §6.91
      • 2. At Trial
        • a. Conditions for Relitigation §6.92
        • b. Issues §6.93
  • VII. MOTIONS IN MISDEMEANOR CASES
    • A. Pretrial Motion
      • 1. Basic Principles §6.94
      • 2. Continuance §6.95
      • 3. Reduced Wobblers Under Pen C §17(b)(5) §6.96
      • 4. Misdemeanor Charged With Felony
        • a. Felony Procedures Apply §6.97
        • b. Felony Dismissed Before Preliminary Hearing §6.98
        • c. Felony Dismissed at End of Preliminary Hearing §6.99
        • d. Felony Dismissed After Pen C §1538.5(i) Hearing §6.100
    • B. Motion at Trial §6.101
  • VIII. HEARING
    • A. Hearing by Magistrate Who Issued Search Warrant §6.102
    • B. Challenging Judge Under CCP §170.6 §6.103
    • C. Magistrate as Witness §6.104
    • D. Exclusion of Witnesses §6.105
    • E. Open and Closed Suppression Hearings §6.106
    • F. Chart: Statutory Right to Continuance §6.107
    • G. Burden and Standard of Proof
      • 1. Warrantless Searches
        • a. Initial Showing §6.108
        • b. Prosecution Burden §6.109
      • 2. Search and Arrest Warrants
        • a. Basic Principles §6.110
        • b. Good Faith; Independent Source §6.111
        • c. Attack on Warrant for Misstatements or Omissions
          • (1) Dual Burdens §6.112
          • (2) High Threshold Burden §6.113
          • (3) Lesser Showing for Discovery §6.114
          • (4) In Camera Hearings §6.115
        • d. Production of Arrest Warrant §6.116
      • 3. Reasonable Expectation of Privacy (Standing)
        • a. Basic Principle §6.117
        • b. Use of Prosecution Evidence §6.118
        • c. Waiver and Estoppel §6.119
      • 4. Fruit of Poisonous Tree §6.120
      • 5. Standard of Proof §6.121
    • H. Evidence and Presentation
      • 1. Order of Proof §6.122
      • 2. Practical Problems in Hearing Pen C §1538.5 Motions and Preliminary Hearings Concurrently §6.123
      • 3. No Affidavits §6.124
      • 4. Hearsay
        • a. Applicability of Hearsay Rule §6.125
        • b. Statements Providing Grounds to Detain, Arrest, or Search §6.126
        • c. Document Relevant Regardless of Truth §6.127
      • 5. Physical Production of Evidence; View of Premises §6.128
      • 6. Witness’s Assertion of Privilege Against Self-Incrimination §6.129
      • 7. Later Use of Defendant’s Testimony §6.130
    • I. Orders
      • 1. Stating Grounds §6.131
      • 2. Identification of Evidence §6.132
  • IX. APPELLATE REVIEW
    • A. Felonies
      • 1. Motion at Preliminary Hearing
        • a. Review Sought by Defendant §6.133
        • b. Review Sought by Prosecution §6.134
      • 2. Penal Code §1538.5(i) Motion
        • a. Review Sought by Defendant
          • (1) Pretrial §6.135
          • (2) Postconviction §6.136
        • b. Review Sought by Prosecution §6.137
      • 3. Penal Code §1538.5(j) Motion §6.138
      • 4. Motion at Trial §6.139
    • B. Misdemeanors
      • 1. Appeal by Defendant
        • a. Pretrial Appeal §6.140
        • b. Postconviction Appeal §6.141
      • 2. Appeal by Prosecution §6.142
    • C. Chart: Appellate Review of Pen C §1538.5 Motions §6.143
  • X. RELATED PROCEEDINGS
    • A. Suppression Motions in Juvenile Court §6.144
    • B. Suppression Issues Raised by Nonparty Under Pen C §1524(c)
      • 1. Right to Hearing §6.145
      • 2. Notice and Sealing §6.146
      • 3. Date, Time, and Place of Hearing §6.147
      • 4. Issues at Hearing; In Camera Inspection §6.148
      • 5. Orders Under Pen C §1524(c) §6.149
    • C. Objection to Motion for Order Authorizing Bodily Intrusion §6.150
    • D. Return of Property
      • 1. After Grant of Suppression Motion
        • a. Basic Principles §6.151
        • b. Chart: Time for Return §6.152
        • c. Evidentiary Hearing §6.153
      • 2. Motions Under Pen C §§1536, 1539(a), and 1540 §6.154
      • 3. Hearing to Determine Whether Seized Documents Are Privileged §6.155
      • 4. Nonstatutory Motions §6.156
      • 5. Motions Under Forfeiture Statutes §6.157
      • 6. Applications for Return of Exhibits §6.158
    • E. Production of Copies of Business Records Seized Under Search Warrant
      • 1. Demand and Declaration §6.159
      • 2. Meaning of "Business" and "Business Records" §6.160
      • 3. Costs of Producing Copies §6.161
      • 4. Response to Demand for Production §6.162
      • 5. Motion for Extension of Time §6.163
      • 6. Motion to Deny Copies
        • a. Grounds for Motion §6.164
        • b. Venue, Time for Filing, and Time of Hearing §6.165
        • c. Government’s Right to In Camera Hearing §6.166
        • d. In Camera Hearing: Procedure §6.167
    • F. Release of Defendant §6.168
    • G. Stay of Proceedings §6.169
    • H. Discretionary Dismissal §6.170

7

Electronic Surveillance

  • I. SCOPE OF CHAPTER §7.1
  • II. CALIFORNIA ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS PRIVACY ACT (CalECPA) §7.2
    • A. Electronic Communications Information: When Government Entity Seeks Production of or Access to Electronic Communication Information From Service Provider, or Electronic Device Information From Person or Entity Other Than Device’s Authorized Possessor §7.3
    • B. Electronic Device Information: When Government Entity Seeks Access to Electronic Device Information by Physical Interaction or Electronic Communication With the Device §7.4
    • C. CalECPA Warrant Requirements §7.5
    • D. Voluntary Disclosure of Information by Service Provider §7.6
    • E. Emergency Request for Electronic Device Information §7.7
    • F. Special Master; Destruction of Unrelated Information §7.8
    • G. Remedies for Noncompliance §7.9
  • III. INTERCEPTION OF WIRE AND ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION §7.10
    • A. Grounds for Issuing Wiretap Order §7.11
    • B. Application for Order Authorizing Wiretap §7.12
    • C. Necessity Requirement §7.13
    • D. Contents of Order §7.14
    • E. Emergency Oral Approval of Interception §7.15
    • F. Duration of Court Order; Extensions §7.16
    • G. Recording and Protection of Intercepted Communications §7.17
    • H. Sealing of Applications and Orders §7.18
    • I. Privileged Communications §7.19
    • J. Notification of Parties to Intercepted Communications; Discovery §7.20
    • K. Use of Intercepted Communications by Law Enforcement; Discovery §7.21
    • L. Use of Interceptions Relating to Other Crimes §7.22
    • M. Penalties and Remedies for Violation §7.23
    • N. Suppression of Intercepted Communications §7.24
  • IV. ELECTRONIC TRACKING DEVICES
    • A. GPS Locators §7.25
    • B. Tracking Cell Phone Location §7.26
    • C. CalECPA Warrant Requirements §7.27
  • V. PEN REGISTERS AND TRAP AND TRACE DEVICES
    • A. In General §7.28
    • B. Definitions §7.29
    • C. Application and Order Authorizing Installation and Use by Peace Officer §7.30
    • D. Oral Application and Approval for Installation and Use by Peace Officer §7.31
    • E. Petition to Void or Modify Warrant, Order, or Process; Destruction of Information §7.32
    • F. Motion to Suppress Wire or Electronic Information §7.33
    • G. CalECPA Warrant Requirement §7.34
  • VI. CALIFORNIA INVASION OF PRIVACY ACT
    • A. Purpose of Act §7.35
    • B. Prohibited Activities §7.36
    • C. Exceptions to the Provisions of the Act §7.37
    • D. Exclusion of Evidence §7.38
    • E. Interceptions Pursuant to State Statute §7.39
OnLAW System Requirements:
Desktop: Windows XP, 7 or 8, Mac OS 10.8
Mobile: iOS6, iOS7, Android 4.2
Firefox, Chrome, IE and Safari browsers

Note: OnLAW may work with some devices running older versions of these Operating Systems or Windows RT; however, functionality is not guaranteed.

Please see FAQs for more details.
Products specifications
PRODUCT GROUP Publication
PRACTICE AREA Criminal Law
Products specifications
PRODUCT GROUP Publication
PRACTICE AREA Criminal Law