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California Juvenile Dependency Practice 2020

Provides the essentials of dependency law, and covers all stages of a case, as well as information specific to the representation of children, parents, de facto parents and counties.

Provides the essentials of dependency law, and covers all stages of a case, as well as information specific to the representation of children, parents, de facto parents and petitioners.

  • Detention hearing, jurisdictional hearing, dispositional hearing, review hearings, and the Section 366.26 hearing
  • Modification, supplemental and subsequent petitions
  • Appeals and writs
  • Responsibilities of attorneys representing each party
  • Child’s right to counsel
  • A detailed chapter, with forms, on the specific issues covered by the Indian Child Welfare Act
  • Checklists and chart of dependency proceeding chronology
  • Sample Judicial Council forms and attorney-drafted forms throughout
  • Fully updated with cases, statutes, and court rules
OnLAW CR94120

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Provides the essentials of dependency law, and covers all stages of a case, as well as information specific to the representation of children, parents, de facto parents and petitioners.

  • Detention hearing, jurisdictional hearing, dispositional hearing, review hearings, and the Section 366.26 hearing
  • Modification, supplemental and subsequent petitions
  • Appeals and writs
  • Responsibilities of attorneys representing each party
  • Child’s right to counsel
  • A detailed chapter, with forms, on the specific issues covered by the Indian Child Welfare Act
  • Checklists and chart of dependency proceeding chronology
  • Sample Judicial Council forms and attorney-drafted forms throughout
  • Fully updated with cases, statutes, and court rules

1

Introduction to Dependency Law

Christopher N. Wu

  • I.  INTRODUCTION TO THE MODERN ERA OF DEPENDENCY LAW  1.1
    • A.  1974 and 1980: Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act of 1974 (CAPTA) (Pub L 93–247); Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980 (Pub L 96–272)  1.2
    • B.  1987: California Senate Bill 243  1.3
    • C.  1995: Cal Rules of Ct 39.1B Writ (Now Cal Rules of Ct 8.452)  1.4
    • D.  1997: Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 (Pub L 105–89)  1.5
    • E.  2008: The Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008 (Pub L 110–351)  1.6
    • F.  2014: Preventing Sex Trafficking and Strengthening Families Act (Pub L 113–183)
      • 1.  The Federal Framework  1.6A
      • 2.  California Implementation of Pub L 113–183  1.6B
    • G.  Since 2011: Realignment and Katie A. Implementation  1.7
    • H.   2015: The Continuum of Care Reform  1.7A
    • I.  2018: The Family First Prevention Services Act (Pub L 115–123)  1.7B
  • II.  EXAMINING THE PRESENT AND LOOKING TOWARD THE FUTURE
    • A.  Assessments of Child Welfare and Court Activities
      • 1.  Child and Family Services Reviews  1.8
      • 2.  Title IV-E Foster Care Eligibility Reviews  1.9
      • 3.  Child Welfare System Improvement and Accountability Act of 2001  1.10
      • 4.  Pew Commission on Children in Foster Care and National Judicial Summits  1.11
      • 5.  California Blue Ribbon Commission on Children in Foster Care  1.12
      • 6.  Assembly Select Committee on Foster Care and California Child Welfare Council  1.13
    • B.  Judicial Focus on Dependency Law and Practice
      • 1.  National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges  1.14
      • 2.  State Court Improvement Program  1.15
      • 3.  Center for Families, Children & the Courts (CFCC)  1.16
      • 4.  Unified Family Court  1.17
      • 5.  Judicial Branch Budget Cuts  1.18
    • C.  Changes in Dependency Practice
      • 1.  Nearly Universal Legal Representation for Parents and Children  1.19
      • 2.  Ethical Considerations for Child’s Attorney  1.20
      • 3.  Child Welfare Law Specialist Certification  1.21
      • 4.  Resources for Dependency Attorneys  1.22
  • III.  CONCLUSION: THE FUTURE OF DEPENDENCY LAW  1.23

2

How Children Enter the Dependency System: Referral, Investigation, and Detention

Hon. Amy M. Pellman

  • I.  HOW CHILDREN ENTER THE DEPENDENCY SYSTEM
    • A.  Goals of Dependency System  2.1
    • B.  Reports of Suspected Child Abuse or Neglect  2.2
      • 1.  Permitted Reporters  2.3
      • 2.  Mandated Reporters  2.4
      • 3.  Hospitals  2.5
      • 4.  Application to Commence Proceedings  2.6
    • C.  Social Worker’s Investigation  2.7
      • 1.  Emergency Investigation  2.8
      • 2.  All Investigations  2.9
    • D.  Child Welfare Services  2.10
    • E.  Social Worker’s Recommendation
      • 1.  Child Welfare Services Not Required  2.11
      • 2.  Case Plan for Services  2.12
      • 3.  Recommendations Short of Removing Child From Home  2.13
        • a.  When Petition May Not Be Necessary  2.14
        • b.  Written Promise to Appear; Setting for Hearing  2.15
        • c.  Informal Supervision  2.16
  • II.  TEMPORARY CUSTODY  2.17
    • A.  Services to Keep Child in Home  2.18
    • B.  Who May Take Custody of Child
      • 1.  Peace Officer  2.19
      • 2.  Social Worker  2.20
      • 3.  Hospital Hold  2.21
      • 4.  Need for Warrant  2.22
      • 5.  Need for Notice and Judicial Approval of Investigatory Medical Examination, Testing, or Treatment  2.23
    • C.  Notice to Parents That Child Is in Custody  2.24
      • 1.  Parent’s Right to Have Phone Number  2.25
      • 2.  Child’s Right to Make Phone Calls  2.26
    • D.  Immediate Investigation and Release  2.27
      • 1.  Emergency Placement with Relative or Nonrelative Extended Family Member (NREFM)  2.28
      • 2.  Placement With Siblings  2.29
    • E.  Time Limits on Custody  2.30
  • III.  DETENTION (INITIAL) HEARING
    • A.  Setting Matter for Hearing  2.31
    • B.  Notice of Hearing  2.32
    • C.  Nature of Detention or Initial Hearing  2.33
    • D.  Temporary Restraining Orders
      • 1.  Ex Parte Orders  2.34
      • 2.  Orders After Notice and Hearing  2.35
      • 3.  Appeal  2.36
      • 4.  Records Search  2.37
      • 5.  Exclusion Order  2.38
      • 6.  Notice to Law Enforcement Agencies  2.39
      • 7.  Penalties for Violation  2.40
    • E.  Judicial Officers
      • 1.  Power of Referees and Commissioners
        • a.  Referees  2.41
        • b.  Commissioners  2.42
      • 2.  Right to Review of Referee’s Order  2.43
      • 3.  Temporary Judges  2.44
      • 4.  Challenge to Judicial Officer  2.45
    • F.  Venue  2.46
    • G.  Right to Counsel
      • 1.  Counsel for Parent  2.47
      • 2.  Counsel for Child or Court Appointed Special Advocate (CASA)  2.48
      • 3.  Counsel for Department  2.49
    • H.  Parent’s Need for Guardian Ad Litem  2.50
    • I.  Conduct of Detention Hearing
      • 1.  Who May Be Present  2.51
      • 2.  Advisement of Rights  2.52
      • 3.  Securing Parent’s Mailing Address  2.53
      • 4.  Parentage Inquiry  2.54
        • a.  Presumed Parent  2.55
        • b.  Biological Parent  2.56
        • c.  Alleged Parent  2.57
      • 5.  Health and Education Information  2.58
      • 6.  Indian Child Welfare Act Inquiry and Ongoing Requirements  2.58A
    • J.  Requirements for Detention  2.59
      • 1.  Prima Facie Showing That Child Comes Within Welf & I C §300  2.60
      • 2.  Continuance in Parent’s Home Contrary to Child’s Welfare  2.61
      • 3.  Existence of Welf & I C §319(c)(1)–(4) Criteria  2.62
    • K.  Presentation of Evidence  2.63
      • 1.  Department’s Evidence  2.64
      • 2.  Motions Akin to Demurrer  2.65
      • 3.  Evidence on Behalf of Parent or Child  2.66
      • 4.  Continuance  2.67
      • 5.  Child’s Testimony  2.68
  • IV.  COURT’S FINDINGS AND ORDERS  2.69
    • A.  Notice  2.70
    • B.  Findings Required for Federal Funding  2.71
    • C.  Dismissal or Release  2.72
    • D.  Findings in Support of Detention  2.73
    • E.  Child Welfare Services  2.74
      • 1.  Services When Child Ordered Detained  2.75
      • 2.  Time Limits for Services  2.76
      • 3.  Importance of Services  2.77
      • 4.  When Child Not Detained  2.78
    • F.  Order for Temporary Placement
      • 1.  Court’s Temporary Placement Alternatives in General  2.79
      • 2.  Relatives  2.80
      • 3.  Nonrelative Extended Family Member  2.81
    • G.  Visitation  2.82
    • H.  Other Placements  2.83
    • I.  Setting Jurisdictional Hearing  2.84
  • V.  REHEARING  2.85
  • VI.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Request for Restraining Order—Juvenile (Judicial Council Form JV-245)  2.86
    • B.  Form: Notice of Hearing and Temporary Restraining Order—Juvenile (CLETS—JUV) (Judicial Council Form JV-250)   2.87
    • C.  Form: Application and Order for Reissuance of Request for Order and Temporary Emergency Orders (Judicial Council Form FL-306) [Deleted]  2.88
    • D.  Form: Notification of Mailing Address (Judicial Council Form JV-140)  2.89
    • E.  Form: Paternity Questionnaire   2.90
    • F.  Form: Statement Regarding Parentage (Juvenile Dependency) (Judicial Council Form JV-505)  2.91
    • G.  Form: Your Child’s Health and Education (Juvenile Dependency) (Judicial Council Form JV-225)  2.92
    • H.  Form: Continuance—Dependency Detention Hearing (Judicial Council Form JV-405)  2.93
    • I.  Form: Findings and Orders After Detention Hearing (Welf & I C §319) (Judicial Council Form JV-410)  2.94
    • J.  Form: Sibling Attachment: Contact and Placement (Judicial Council Form JV-403)  2.95
  • VII.  DIAGRAM: CHRONOLOGY OF A DEPENDENCY PROCEEDING  2.96

3

Petition, Case Plan, Discovery, Subpoenas, and Pretrial Motions

Carmela F. Simoncini

  • I.  DEPENDENCY PETITION (Welf & I C §300)
    • A.  Purpose of Dependency Petition: Protection of Child  3.1
    • B.  Social Worker Files Welf & I C §300 Petition  3.2
    • C.  Application to Commence Proceedings  3.3
    • D.  Contents of Petition (Welf & I C §332)
      • 1.  Mandatory Judicial Council Forms  3.4
      • 2.  Basic Allegations  3.5
      • 3.  Verification  3.6
    • E.  Legal Sufficiency of Petition (Welf & I C §300)  3.7
      • 1.  Physical Abuse (Welf & I C §300(a))  3.8
      • 2.  Serious Physical Harm or Illness (Welf & I C §300(b))  3.9
      • 3.  Serious Emotional Damage (Welf & I C §300(c))  3.10
      • 4.  Sexual Abuse (Welf & I C §300(d))  3.11
      • 5.  Severe Physical Abuse of Child Under Age 5 (Welf & I C §300(e))  3.12
      • 6.  Death of Another Child (Welf & I C §300(f))  3.13
      • 7.  No Provision for Support (Welf & I C §300(g))  3.14
      • 8.  Adoption (Welf & I C §300(h))  3.15
      • 9.  Cruelty (Welf & I C §300(i))  3.16
      • 10.  Abused or Neglected Sibling (Welf & I C §300(j))  3.17
      • 11.  If Petition Seeks to Deny Reunification  3.18
    • F.  Notice of Hearing on Petition and Service
      • 1.  Detention or Initial Hearing
        • a.  When Social Worker Gives Notice  3.19
        • b.  When Court Clerk Issues Notice With Petition Attached  3.19A
      • 2.  Jurisdictional Hearing on Petition  3.20
        • a.  Service of Notice and Petition  3.21
        • b.  Service Methods  3.22
        • c.  Presumed or Alleged Parents  3.23
      • 3.  Citation to Appear  3.24
    • G.  Amending Petition  3.25
  • II.  CASE PLAN
    • A.  Case Plan Goals  3.26
    • B.  Case Plan Elements  3.27
    • C.  Case Plan Deadline and Updates  3.28
  • III.  PREHEARING DISCOVERY
    • A.  Importance of Discovery  3.29
    • B.  Nature of Juvenile Dependency Discovery  3.30
    • C.  Discovery Under Rule 5.546
      • 1.  Discovery Without Request  3.31
      • 2.  Petitioner’s Duty to Disclose Favorable Evidence  3.32
      • 3.  Parent’s or Child’s Requested Discovery
        • a.  Items Listed in Cal Rules of Ct 5.546(d)  3.33
        • b.  Additional Evidence and Information  3.34
      • 4.  Petitioner’s Request  3.35
      • 5.  Privilege or Good Cause Not to Disclose  3.36
      • 6.  Discovery Motions  3.37
        • a.  When Time Is Short  3.38
        • b.  Review of Court’s Discovery Order  3.39
      • 7.  Sanctions  3.40
    • D.  Obtaining Information Under Specific Statutes
      • 1.  Public Agency Records (Welf & I C §317(f))  3.41
      • 2.  Medical Records (Evid C §1158)  3.42
      • 3.  Mental Health Records (Welf & I C §5328(d))  3.43
      • 4.  Health Records for CASA (Welf & I C §107)  3.44
      • 5.  Child’s Release of Medical Information (CC §56.11)  3.45
    • E.  Court’s Inherent Power to Order Discovery  3.46
    • F.  Discovery Issues
      • 1.  Signed Releases  3.47
      • 2.  Pending Parallel Proceedings  3.48
      • 3.  Other Requests for Juvenile Court Records  3.49
      • 4.  Applicability of Civil Discovery Act  3.50
  • IV.  SUBPOENAS
    • A.  Subpoena and Subpoena Duces Tecum  3.51
    • B.  Service  3.52
    • C.  Introducing Subpoenaed Material Into Evidence  3.53
  • V.  PRETRIAL MOTIONS  3.54
    • A.  Motions to Continue  3.55
      • 1.  One-Day Continuance (Welf & I C §322)  3.56
      • 2.  Witness Availability (Welf & I C §354)  3.57
      • 3.  Other Continuances (Welf & I C §352)  3.58
    • B.  Motion to Amend Petition  3.59
    • C.  Motion to Appoint Experts
      • 1.  Authority  3.60
      • 2.  Moving for Appointment of Expert  3.61
    • D.  Motion for Change of Venue  3.62
    • E.  Motion to Suppress Evidence  3.63
    • F.  Demurrer  3.64
      • 1.  Authority  3.65
      • 2.  Procedure  3.66
    • G.  Motion to Appoint Guardian Ad Litem
      • 1.  For the Child  3.67
      • 2.  For the Parent  3.68
    • H.  Request for Mediation  3.69
  • VI.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Application for Commencement of Juvenile Court Proceedings  3.70
    • B.  Form: Application to Commence Proceedings by Affidavit and Decision by Social Worker (Judicial Council Form JV-210)  3.71
    • C.  Form: Application to Review Decision by Social Worker Not to Commence Proceedings (Judicial Council Form JV-212)  3.72
    • D.  Form: Continuance—Dependency General (Judicial Council Form JV-406)  3.73
    • E.  Form: Juvenile Dependency Petition (Version One) (Welf & I C §300) (Judicial Council Form JV-100)  3.74
    • F.  Form: Juvenile Dependency Petition (Version Two) (Welf & I C §300) (Judicial Council Form JV-110)  3.75
    • G.  Form: Additional Children Attachment (Juvenile Dependency Petition) (Judicial Council Form JV-101(A))  3.76
    • H.  Form: Letter Requesting Discovery  3.77
    • I.  Form: Motion for Appointment of Expert  3.78
    • J.  Form: Demurrer to Petition  3.79
    • K.  Form: Order for Prisoner’s Appearance at Hearing Affecting Parental Rights (Judicial Council Form JV-450)  3.80
    • L.  Form: Prisoner’s Statement Regarding Appearance at Hearing Affecting Parental Rights (Judicial Council Form JV-451)  3.80A
    • M.  Form: Ex Parte Application for Order Shortening Time, and Order  3.81

4

Jurisdictional Hearing

Malvina E. J. Abbott

John E. Philips

  • I.  HEARING OVERVIEW
    • A.  Purpose of Jurisdictional Hearing  4.1
    • B.  Legal Sufficiency of Petition  4.2
    • C.  Pretrial Conferences or Hearings  4.3
    • D.  When Hearing Will Be Held
      • 1.  Setting Hearing Date  4.4
      • 2.  Continuance
        • a.  Requesting Continuance  4.5
        • b.  When Continuance May Be Granted  4.6
    • E.  Who May Attend Hearing
      • 1.  Proceedings Confidential  4.7
      • 2.  Persons Entitled to Attend  4.8
    • F.  Conduct of Hearing
      • 1.  Judicial Officer  4.9
      • 2.  Information to and Inquiries of Parties  4.10
      • 3.  Reading of Petition  4.11
      • 4.  Advising of Rights  4.12
    • G.  Parent Response  4.13
      • 1.  Denial of Allegations  4.14
      • 2.  Other Pleas
        • a.  Admission or No Contest Plea  4.15
        • b.  Submission to Jurisdictional Determination  4.16
        • c.  Court Findings on Admission, No Contest, or Submission  4.17
  • II.  EVIDENCE AT CONTESTED HEARING  4.18
    • A.  Admissibility of Social Worker’s Reports
      • 1.  Social Worker Must Be Available  4.19
      • 2.  Hearsay in Report  4.20
    • B.  Rebuttable Presumptions of Jurisdiction
      • 1.  Based on Nature of Child’s Injuries  4.21
      • 2.  Based on Sexual Abuse Conviction  4.22
    • C.  Privilege Against Self-Incrimination  4.23
    • D.  Child’s Testimony
      • 1.  Protecting Child Witness  4.24
      • 2.  Child’s Statements in Social Worker’s Reports  4.25
      • 3.  Child Dependency Hearsay Exception
        • a.  Scope of Exception  4.26
        • b.  Due Process Safeguards  4.27
        • c.  Factors That May Affect Reliability  4.28
        • d.  Factors That May Corroborate Child’s Statement  4.29
    • E.  Expert Testimony
      • 1.  Purpose of Expert Testimony  4.30
      • 2.  Psychotherapist Testimony  4.31
    • F.  Ordering Psychological Evaluations  4.32
    • G.  Polygraph Admissibility  4.33
  • III.  AFTER PRESENTATION OF EVIDENCE
    • A.  Motion to Dismiss  4.34
    • B.  If Allegations Not Proved  4.35
    • C.  If Allegations Proved  4.36
    • D.  Appeal  4.37
    • E.  Effect of Jurisdictional Finding  4.38
  • IV.  INTERCOUNTY TRANSFERS
    • A.  When Applicable  4.39
    • B.  Determination of Residence; Child’s Custody  4.40
    • C.  Transfer-Out Hearings  4.41
    • D.  Transfer-In Hearings  4.42
    • E.  Motion to Dismiss  4.43
    • F.  Review of Transfers  4.44
  • V.  INTERSTATE TRANSFERS
    • A.  When Child Resides in Another State  4.45
    • B.  Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement Act (UCCJEA) (Fam C §§3400–3465)  4.46
    • C.  Interstate Compact on Placement of Children (ICPC) (Fam C §§7900–7913)
      • 1.  Purpose of Compact  4.47
      • 2.  Sending and Receiving Agencies  4.48
      • 3.  Placements  4.49
      • 4.  When ICPC Does Not Apply  4.50
      • 5.  Resources for Questions  4.51
  • VI.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Waiver of Rights—Juvenile Dependency (Judicial Council Form JV-190)  4.52
    • B.  Form: Findings and Orders After Jurisdictional Hearing (Welf & I C §356) (Judicial Council Form JV-412)  4.53
    • C.  Form: Juvenile Court Transfer Orders (Judicial Council Form JV-550)  4.54
  • VII.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Evaluating Legal Sufficiency of Petition  4.55
    • B.  Checklist: Findings Required to Be in Order  4.56

5

Disposition

Hon. Sherri Sobel

  • I.  NATURE OF DISPOSITIONAL HEARING  5.1
  • II.  CONDUCT OF DISPOSITIONAL HEARING
    • A.  Application for De Facto Parent Status
      • 1.  Who May Obtain De Facto Parent Status  5.2
      • 2.  Role of De Facto Parents  5.3
      • 3.  Applying for De Facto Parent Status  5.4
    • B.  Time Requirements
      • 1.  Deadline to Conclude Dispositional Hearing  5.5
      • 2.  Continuances  5.6
    • C.  Evidence  5.7
      • 1.  Social Study  5.8
        • a.  Contents of Social Study  5.9
        • b.  Admissibility of Social Study  5.10
        • c.  When Social Study Provided  5.11
      • 2.  CASA Report  5.12
      • 3.  Guardianship Report  5.13
    • D.  Standard of Proof  5.14
  • III.  DEPENDENCY DETERMINATION
    • A.  No Declaration of Dependency
      • 1.  Dismissal  5.15
      • 2.  Informal Supervision  5.16
      • 3.  Voluntary Legal Guardianship  5.17
    • B.  Declaration of Dependency  5.18
      • 1.  Child Kept at Home  5.19
      • 2.  Educational or Developmental Services Decisions  5.20
      • 3.  Relinquishment  5.21
  • IV.  REMOVAL FROM PARENTAL CUSTODY  5.22
    • A.  Requirements for Removal Under Welf & I C §361(c)(1)  5.23
      • 1.  Substantial Danger  5.24
      • 2.  No Reasonable Way to Protect Child in Home  5.25
    • B.  Requirements for Removal Under Welf & I C §361(c)(2)–(5)  5.26
      • 1.  Parent Unwilling to Have Custody of Child (Welf & I C §361(c)(2))  5.27
      • 2.  Child Suffers Severe Emotional Damage (Welf & I C §361(c)(3))  5.28
      • 3.  Child or Sibling Was Sexually Abused (Welf & I C §361(c)(4))  5.29
      • 4.  Child Left Without Support (Welf & I C §361(c)(5))  5.30
    • C.  Additional Requirement for Removal of Indian Child (Welf & I C §361(c)(6))  5.31
    • D.  If Court Orders Removal (Welf & I C §361(e)–(d))  5.32
  • V.  PLACEMENT
    • A.  Placement With Previously Noncustodial Parent  5.33
      • 1.  Juvenile Court Custody Order (Welf & I C §361.2(b)(1))  5.34
      • 2.  Placement Subject to Jurisdiction Pending Report of Home Visit (Welf & I C §361.2(b)(2))  5.35
      • 3.  Placement Subject to Supervision (Welf & I C §361.2(b)(3))  5.36
    • B.  Placement With Relative  5.37
      • 1.  Relative’s Assessment: Resource Family Approval (Welf & I C §16519.5)  5.37A
      • 2.  Relative’s Criminal History  5.38
      • 3.  Interstate Compact  5.39
    • C.  Placement With Nonrelative Extended Family Member  5.40
    • D.  Disqualifying Convictions and Exemptions  5.41
    • E.  General Placement and Other Orders  5.42
  • VI.  REUNIFICATION  5.43
    • A.  Reunification Plan  5.44
      • 1.  Characteristics of Good Reunification Plan  5.45
      • 2.  Obtaining Department’s Proposed Plan  5.46
      • 3.  Parents With Special Needs  5.47
      • 4.  Alleged Parents  5.48
    • B.  Reunification Time Frames  5.49
    • C.  Reasons to Deny Reunification Services (Welf & I C §361.5)  5.50
      • 1.  Parent’s Whereabouts Unknown (Welf & I C §361.5(b)(1))  5.51
      • 2.  Parent Is Mentally Disabled (Welf & I C §361.5(b)(2))  5.52
      • 3.  Previous Dependency Adjudication (Welf & I C §361.5(b)(3))  5.53
      • 4.  Death of Another Child (Welf & I C §361.5(b)(4))  5.54
      • 5.  Parent’s Conduct (Welf & I C §361.5(b)(5))  5.55
      • 6.  Severe Sexual Abuse or Physical Injury (Welf & I C §361.5(b)(6))  5.56
        • a.  Definitions  5.57
        • b.  Facts Used to Deny Services  5.58
      • 7.  Parent Not Receiving Services for Sibling or Half-Sibling (Welf & I C §361.5(b)(7))  5.59
      • 8.  Child Conceived by Criminal Offense (Welf & I C §361.5(b)(8))  5.60
      • 9.  Willful Abandonment (Welf & I C §361.5(b)(9))  5.61
      • 10.  Removal of Sibling or Half-Sibling (Welf & I C §361.5(b)(10))  5.62
      • 11.  Parental Rights in Sibling or Half-Sibling Terminated (Welf & I C §361.5(b)(11))  5.63
      • 12.  Violent Felony (Welf & I C §361.5(b)(12))  5.64
      • 13.  Chronic Drug Abuse (Welf & I C §361.5(b)(13))  5.65
        • a.  Resisted Treatment  5.66
        • b.  Failed to Comply With Treatment Program  5.67
      • 14.  Parent Does Not Want Child (Welf & I C §361.5(b)(14)) and Waives Reunification Services  5.68
      • 15.  Parent Abducted Child (Welf & I C §361.5(b)(15))  5.69
      • 16.  Parent Is Registered Sex Offender (Welf & I C §361.5(b)(16))  5.69A
      • 17.  Sexual Exploitation of Child (Welf & I C §361.5(b)(17))  5.69B
    • D.  Services for Incarcerated, Institutionalized, Detained, or Deported Parent (Welf & I C §361.5(e))  5.70
      • 1.  Determining Detriment From Reunification Services  5.71
      • 2.  Incarcerated Parent’s Right to Appear in Court  5.72
      • 3.  Paternity Findings  5.73
      • 4.  Drug Treatment  5.74
    • E.  Convincing Court to Provide Services  5.75
  • VII.  COURT ORDERS
    • A.  Visitation
      • 1.  Importance of Visitation  5.76
      • 2.  Visitation Usually Required  5.77
        • a.  Court Makes Visitation Decision; Delegation Authority Limited  5.78
        • b.  Visitation With Certain Offenders  5.79
    • B.  Reunification Services Denied  5.80
      • 1.  Setting Selection and Implementation Hearing  5.81
      • 2.  Assessment Order  5.82
    • C.  Reunification Services Granted  5.83
    • D.  Setting 6-Month Review Hearing  5.84
    • E.  Required Findings and Advisements  5.85
    • F.  Other Orders  5.86
  • VIII.  TRANSFER  5.87
  • IX.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Custody Order—Juvenile—Final Judgment (Judicial Council Form JV-200)  5.88
    • B.  Form: Visitation (Parenting Time) Order—Juvenile (Judicial Council Form JV-205)  5.89
    • C.  Form: Relative/Extended Family Placement Report  5.90
    • D.  Form: Waiver of Reunification Services (Juvenile Dependency) (Judicial Council Form JV-195)  5.91
    • E.  Form: Caregiver Information Form (Judicial Council Form JV-290)  5.92
    • F.  Form: Notice of Hearing on Joinder—Juvenile (Judicial Council Form JV-540)  5.93
    • G.  Form: Blueprint for Services Regarding Child  5.94
    • H.  Form: Court Orders for Initiation of Educational Plan  5.95
    • I.  Form: Guardianship (Juvenile)—Consent and Waiver of Rights (Judicial Council Form JV-419)  5.96
    • J.  Form: Guardianship (Juvenile)—Child’s Consent and Waiver of Rights (Judicial Council Form JV-419A)  5.97
    • K.  Form: Findings and Orders After Dispositional Hearing (Welf & I C §361) (Judicial Council Form JV-415)  5.98
    • L.  Form: Dispositional Attachment: Dismissal of Petition With or Without Informal Supervision (Welf & I C §360(b)) (Judicial Council Form JV-416)  5.99
    • M.  Form: Dispositional Attachment: In-Home Placement With Formal Supervision (Welf & I C §361) (Judicial Council Form JV-417)  5.100
    • N.  Form: Dispositional Attachment: Appointment of Guardian (Welf & I C §360(a)) (Judicial Council Form JV-418)  5.101
    • O.  Form: Dispositional Attachment: Removal From Custodial Parent—Placement With Previously Noncustodial Parent (Welf & I C §§361, 361.2) (Judicial Council Form JV-420)  5.102
    • P.  Form: Dispositional Attachment: Removal From Custodial Parent—Placement With Nonparent (Welf & I C §§361, 361.2) (Judicial Council Form JV-421)  5.103
    • Q.  Form: Visitation Attachment: Parent, Legal Guardian, Indian Custodian, Other Important Person (Judicial Council Form JV-400)  5.104
    • R.  Form: Visitation Attachment: Sibling (Judicial Council Form JV-401)  5.105
    • S.  Form: Visitation Attachment: Grandparent (Judicial Council Form JV-402)  5.106
    • T.  Form: Child’s Information Sheet—Request to Change Court Order (Welf & I C §§353.1, 388) (Judicial Council Form JV-185)  5.107
    • U.  Form: Relative Information (Judicial Council Form JV-285)  5.108
    • V.  Form: Confidential Information (Judicial Council Form JV-287)  5.109
  • X.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: Possible Social Study Contents  5.110
    • B.  Checklist: Judge’s Dispositional Hearing  5.111

6

Postdisposition Proceedings: 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-Month Reviews

Hon. Patricia Bresee

Deborah Dentler

  • I.  POSTDISPOSITION REVIEW IN GENERAL  6.1
    • A.  Review When Child Is in Parental Custody
      • 1.  Issues Cognizable at Family Maintenance Review Hearing  6.2
      • 2.  Limitation on Issues Cognizable at Family Maintenance Hearing: Procedures for Removing Child From Parental Custody  6.3
    • B.  Review Hearings When Child Is in Out-of-Home Placement
      • 1.  Supplemental Report  6.4
      • 2.  Due Process Considerations
        • a.  Notice and Copy of Supplemental Report  6.5
        • b.  Opportunity to Be Heard  6.6
      • 3.  Issues Court Must Consider at Each Hearing  6.7
        • a.  Substantial Risk of Detriment  6.8
        • b.  Appropriateness of Placement  6.9
        • c.  Reasonable Reunification Services  6.10
        • d.  Visitation  6.11
        • e.  Consequences of Failure to Provide Adequate Services  6.12
        • f.  Concurrent Planning for Reunification and Permanency  6.13
        • g.  Sibling Contact  6.14
        • h.  Subsequent Criminal History  6.15
        • i.  Specific Requirements for Hearing for Child Approaching Majority  6.15A
  • II.  SIX-MONTH REVIEW WHEN CHILD IS IN OUT-OF-HOME PLACEMENT
    • A.  In General  6.16
    • B.  Court’s Options When Child Not Returned to Parental Custody
      • 1.  Court Likely to Continue Reunification Services in Most Cases  6.17
      • 2.  Court May Terminate Reunification Services in Specified Circumstances
        • a.  When Child Was Under Age 3 at Time of Removal or Is Part of Sibling Group That Includes Such Child  6.18
        • b.  When Child Was Abandoned  6.19
        • c.  When Child Is Living With Formerly Noncustodial Parent  6.20
        • d.  Other Circumstances  6.21
  • III.  TWELVE-MONTH REVIEW WHEN CHILD IS IN PLACEMENT
    • A.  Purpose of 12-Month Hearing  6.22
    • B.  Juvenile Court’s Options If Child Is Not Returned
      • 1.  Circumstances in Which Court May Continue Reunification Services  6.23
      • 2.  Termination of Reunification Services  6.24
  • IV.  EIGHTEEN-MONTH PERMANENCY REVIEW WHEN CHILD IS IN PLACEMENT  6.25
  • V.  TWENTY-FOUR-MONTH PERMANENCY REVIEW WHEN CHILD IS IN PLACEMENT  6.25A
  • VI.  SPECIAL RULES RELATING TO COURT’S ORDER SETTING CASE FOR HEARING UNDER WELF & I C §366.26
    • A.  In General  6.26
    • B.  Notice of Hearing  6.27
    • C.  Required Contents of Order Setting Hearing  6.28
    • D.  Review of Order Setting Hearing  6.29
  • VII.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Findings and Orders After In-Home Status Review Hearing (Welf & I C §364) (Judicial Council Form JV-425)  6.30
    • B.  Form: Findings and Orders After In-Home Status Review Hearing—Child Placed With Previously Noncustodial Parent (Welf & I C §§364, 366.21) (Judicial Council Form JV-426)  6.31
    • C.  Form: Findings and Orders After 6-Month Prepermanency Hearing (Welf & I C §366.21(e)) (Judicial Council Form JV-430)  6.32
    • D.  Form: Six-Month Prepermanency Attachment: Child Reunified (Welf & I C §366.21(e)) (Judicial Council Form JV-431)  6.33
    • E.  Form: Six-Month Prepermanency Attachment: Reunification Services Continued (Welf & I C §366.21(e)) (Judicial Council Form JV-432)  6.34
    • F.  Form: Six-Month Prepermanency Attachment: Reunification Services Terminated (Welf & I C §366.21(e)) (Judicial Council Form JV-433)  6.35
    • G.  Form: Findings and Orders After 12-Month Permanency Hearing (Welf & I C §366.21(f)) (Judicial Council Form JV-435)  6.36
    • H.  Form: Twelve-Month Permanency Attachment: Child Reunified (Welf & I C §366.21(f)) (Judicial Council Form JV-436)  6.37
    • I.  Form: Twelve-Month Permanency Attachment: Reunification Services Continued (Welf & I C §366.21(f)) (Judicial Council Form JV-437)  6.38
    • J.  Form: Twelve-Month Permanency Attachment: Reunification Services Terminated (Welf & I C §366.21(f)) (Judicial Council Form JV-438)  6.39
    • K.  Form: Findings and Orders After 18-Month Permanency Hearing (Welf & I C §366.22) (Judicial Council Form JV-440)  6.40
    • L.  Form: Eighteen-Month Permanency Attachment: Child Reunified (Welf & I C §366.22) (Judicial Council Form JV-441)  6.41
    • M.  Form: Eighteen-Month Permanency Attachment: Reunification Services Terminated (Welf & I C §366.22) (Judicial Council Form JV-442)  6.42
    • N.  Form: Eighteen-Month Permanency Attachment: Reunification Services Continued (Welf & I C §366.22) (Judicial Council Form JV-443)  6.43
    • O.  Form: Notice of Review Hearing (Judicial Council Form JV-280)  6.44
    • P.  Form: Findings and Orders After 24-Month Permanency Hearing (Welf & I C §366.25) (Judicial Council Form JV-455)  6.45
    • Q.  Form: Twenty-Four-Month Permanency Attachment: Child Reunified (Welf & I C §366.25) (Judicial Council Form JV-456)  6.46
    • R.  Form: Twenty-Four-Month Permanency Attachment: Reunification Services Terminated (Welf & I C §366.25) (Judicial Council Form JV-457)  6.47
    • S.  Form: Attachment: Additional Findings and Orders for Child Approaching Majority—Dependency (Judicial Council Form JV-460)  6.48

7

Subsequent, Supplemental, and Modification Petitions

Elaine S. Rosen

Beth L. Steigerwalt

  • I.  JUVENILE COURT PETITIONS  7.1
  • II.  SUBSEQUENT PETITION (Welf & I C §342)
    • A.  Purpose of Subsequent Petition  7.2
    • B.  Petition Contents  7.3
    • C.  Setting Hearing and Serving Notice  7.4
    • D.  Hearings  7.5
      • 1.  Jurisdictional Hearing  7.6
      • 2.  Dispositional Hearing  7.7
  • III.  SUPPLEMENTAL PETITION (Welf & I C §387)
    • A.  Purpose of Supplemental Petition  7.8
      • 1.  When Supplemental Petition Required  7.9
      • 2.  Transfer  7.10
    • B.  Who May File  7.11
    • C.  Petition Contents  7.12
    • D.  Setting Hearing  7.13
    • E.  Serving Notice  7.14
    • F.  Hearings  7.15
      • 1.  Jurisdictional Hearing  7.16
      • 2.  Dispositional Hearing  7.17
        • a.  Removal From Parental Custody  7.18
        • b.  Change in Relative Placement  7.19
        • c.  Reunification Services  7.20
    • G.  Dismissal of §387 Petition  7.21
  • IV.  MODIFICATION PETITION (Welf & I C §388)
    • A.  Purposes of Modification Petition  7.22
      • 1.  Account for Changed Circumstances or New Evidence  7.23
      • 2.  Serve Child’s Best Interests  7.24
      • 3.  Assert Sibling Relationship  7.25
      • 4.  Terminate Reunification Services  7.26
      • 5.  Resume Dependency Jurisdiction  7.26A
    • B.  Who May File  7.27
    • C.  When to File  7.28
    • D.  Court’s Possible Responses  7.29
    • E.  Prima Facie Showing for Hearing  7.30
      • 1.  Changed Circumstances or New Evidence  7.31
      • 2.  Child’s Best Interests  7.32
      • 3.  Sibling Relationship  7.33
      • 4.  Examples
        • a.  Cases in Which Evidentiary Hearing Was Granted  7.34
        • b.  Cases in Which Petition Was Denied Without Evidentiary Hearing  7.35
    • F.  Petition Contents  7.36
      • 1.  Specific Requirements  7.37
      • 2.  Must Not Be Conclusory  7.38
    • G.  Filing, Setting Hearing, and Notice  7.39
    • H.  Hearing
      • 1.  Burden of Proof  7.40
      • 2.  Conduct of Hearing  7.41
    • I.  Order on Petition  7.42
    • J.  Petition to Assume or Resume Dependency Jurisdiction Over Nonminor Dependent  7.42A
  • V.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Supplemental Petition for More Restrictive Placement (Attachment) (Welf & I C §387) (Judicial Council Form JV-150)  7.43
    • B.  Form: Request to Change Court Order (Judicial Council Form JV-180)  7.44
    • C.  Form: Court Order on Form JV-180, Request to Change Court Order (Judicial Council Form JV-183)  7.45
    • D.  Form: Order After Hearing on Form JV-180, Request to Change Court Order (Judicial Council Form JV-184)  7.46
    • E.  Form: Confidential Information—Request to Return to Juvenile Court Jurisdiction and Foster Care (Judicial Council Form JV-468)  7.47
    • F.  Form: Request to Return to Juvenile Court Jurisdiction and Foster Care (Judicial Council Form JV-466)  7.48

8

The §366.26 Hearing: Selection and Implementation of Permanent Plan

Carol B. Barnett

  • I.  NATURE OF §366.26 HEARING
    • A.  Purpose  8.1
    • B.  Scope  8.2
    • C.  Permanent Placement Plan Options  8.3
  • II.  SETTING §366.26 HEARING
    • A.  Advisement of Writ Review  8.4
    • B.  Setting Hearing for Only One Parent  8.5
    • C.  When Hearing May Be Set  8.6
      • 1.  At Dispositional Hearing  8.7
      • 2.  At 6-Month Review Hearing  8.8
      • 3.  At 12-Month Review Hearing  8.9
      • 4.  At 18-Month Permanency Review Hearing  8.10
    • D.  §366.26 Hearing Date  8.11
    • E.  Visitation; Important Relationships  8.12
    • F.  Social Worker’s Court Report  8.13
    • G.  Notice Requirements
      • 1.  Who Must Be Notified  8.14
      • 2.  Time Limitations  8.15
      • 3.  What Notice Must Contain and Manner of Service  8.16
      • 4.  Parent’s Whereabouts or Identity Unknown  8.17
    • H.  Continuances  8.18
    • I.  Appointment of Counsel  8.19
    • J.  Birth Certificates  8.19A
  • III.  REVIEW OF ORDER SETTING §366.26 HEARING
    • A.  Writ and Appeal  8.20
    • B.  Petition for Modification of Order Terminating Reunification Services  8.21
  • IV.  CONDUCT OF §366.26 HEARING
    • A.  Who May Be Present  8.22
    • B.  Effect of Raising Parentage Issues  8.23
    • C.  Termination of Both Parents’ Rights  8.24
    • D.  Child’s Wishes and Testimony  8.25
    • E.  Caregivers’ and Foster Parents’ Role; Notice and Preference as Prospective Adoptive Parents  8.26
    • F.  Determining Adoptability  8.27
    • G.  Preference for Termination of Parental Rights  8.28
    • H.  Exceptions to Termination  8.29
      • 1.  Relative as Legal Guardian  8.30
      • 2.  Parental Relationship Benefits Child (“Benefit” Exception)  8.31
        • a.  Case-by-Case Basis  8.32
        • b.  Bonding Studies  8.33
      • 3.  Child Objects to Termination  8.34
      • 4.  Child in Residential Facility  8.35
      • 5.  Foster Parent or Indian Custodian Unable to Adopt  8.36
      • 6.  Substantial Interference With Sibling Relationship  8.37
      • 7.  Additional Exceptions for Indian Children  8.38
      • 8.  Standard of Review  8.38A
    • I.  Terminating Parental Rights
      • 1.  Necessary Findings  8.39
      • 2.  Preference for Relative as Legal Guardian  8.40
      • 3.  When Child Is Difficult to Place for Adoption  8.41
      • 4.  Referring Child for Adoption  8.42
      • 5.  Implications of Terminating Parental Rights  8.43
    • J.  Legal Guardianship  8.44
    • K.  Continued Placement in Foster Care  8.45
    • L.  Tribal Customary Adoption  8.45A
    • M.  Permanent Placement With Fit and Willing Relative  8.45B
    • N.  Required Federal Findings  8.46
    • O.  Educational or Developmental Services Rights; Specialty Mental Health Services  8.47
  • V.  APPEAL
    • A.  In General  8.48
    • B.  Consideration of Postjudgment Developments  8.49
  • VI.  COURT’S CONTINUING JURISDICTION
    • A.  Postpermanency Review
      • 1.  Jurisdiction  8.50
      • 2.  Review Hearings  8.51
      • 3.  Parental Right to Contested Hearing  8.52
    • B.  Adoption Hearing  8.53
    • C.  Issues With Guardianship After Selection as Permanent Plan  8.54
    • D.  Postadoption Contact Agreements  8.55
    • E.  No Right to Postadoption Visitation With Biological Parents After Termination of Parental Rights  8.55A
  • VII.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Notice of Hearing on Selection of a Permanent Plan (Judicial Council Form JV-300)  8.56
    • B.  Form: Citation for Publication Under Welfare and Institutions Code Section 294 (Judicial Council Form JV-305)  8.57
    • C.  Form: Proof of Service Under Section 366.26 of the Welfare and Institutions Code (Judicial Council Form JV-310)  8.58
    • D.  Form: Orders Under Welfare and Institutions Code Sections 366.24, 366.26, 727.3, 727.31 (Judicial Council Form JV-320)  8.59
    • E.  Form: Termination of Dependency (Juvenile) (Judicial Council Form JV-364)  8.60
    • F.  Form: Order Granting Authority to Consent to Medical, Surgical, and Dental Care (Welf & I C §366.27) (Judicial Council Form JV-448)  8.61

9

The Indian Child Welfare Act

Mary J. Risling

CEB Update Staff

  • I.  SCOPE AND PURPOSE OF INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT
    • A.  Overview  9.1
    • B.  Definitions  9.2
    • C.  Implementation
      • 1.  Federal Regulations  9.3
      • 2.  Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Guidelines  9.4
      • 3.  California Rules of Court  9.5
      • 4.  California Welfare and Institutions Code  9.6
  • II.  JURISDICTIONAL PROVISIONS OF ACT
    • A.  Official Acts of Tribe Entitled to Full Faith and Credit  9.7
    • B.  Circumstances in Which Tribe Has Exclusive Jurisdiction  9.8
    • C.  Circumstances in Which Tribe Has Referral Jurisdiction  9.9
    • D.  Tribe Has Concurrent Jurisdiction in PL 280 States  9.10
  • III.  NOTICE PROVISIONS OF THE ACT
    • A.  Overview of Notice Provisions  9.11
    • B.  State Court Has Affirmative Duty to Inquire About Indian Status of Child  9.12
      • 1.  Determining Whether Child Is or May Be Indian Child  9.13
      • 2.  Required Procedures for Proceeding Involving Child of Indian Descent  9.14
      • 3.  ICWA Applies When Child May Be Indian  9.15
    • C.  Formal Requirements of Notice
      • 1.  Who Is Entitled to Notice  9.16
      • 2.  Delivery of Notice  9.17
      • 3.  Content of Notice  9.18
    • D.  Effect of Notice on Pending Proceeding
      • 1.  State Court’s Obligation to Suspend Proceedings  9.19
      • 2.  BIA’s Duties on Receipt of Notice  9.20
      • 3.  Implications of Failure to Provide Proper Notice  9.21
      • 4.  Failure to Submit Copy of Notice and Return Receipt to Court May Require Reversal  9.22
  • IV.  PLACEMENT PREFERENCE PROVISIONS OF THE ACT
    • A.  Overview of ICWA Placement Preference  9.23
    • B.  Order of Preference
      • 1.  Foster Care and Preadoptive Placements  9.24
      • 2.  Adoptive Placements  9.25
      • 3.  Tribal Customary Adoption (TCA) Under Welfare and Institutions Code  9.25A
    • C.  Deviations From Placement Preference Order Permitted for Good Cause
      • 1.  Guidelines for Good Cause Determination  9.26
      • 2.  Judicial Construction of Good Cause Requirement  9.27
        • a.  Tension Between ICWA and California Law  9.28
        • b.  Decisions From Other States  9.29
      • 3.  Existing Indian Family Doctrine: Obsolete  9.30
    • D.  State’s Duty to Maintain Record of Placement  9.31
    • E.  Change of Placement  9.32
  • V.  EFFECT OF ICWA ON CONDUCT OF PROCEEDINGS  9.33
    • A.  Procedural Guarantees
      • 1.  Tribe’s Right to Intervene  9.34
      • 2.  Tribe’s Right to Participate If It Does Not Intervene  9.35
      • 3.  Right to Appointment of Counsel  9.36
      • 4.  Right to Continuance  9.37
      • 5.  Right of Access to Court Documents and Records  9.38
    • B.  Evidentiary Requirements of ICWA  9.39
      • 1.  Burden of Proof
        • a.  Removal or Placement  9.40
        • b.  Termination of Parental Rights  9.41
      • 2.  Required Findings of Fact for Out-of-Home Placement Order
        • a.  Serious Emotional or Physical Damage to Child  9.42
        • b.  Proving Detriment Under ICWA  9.43
      • 3.  Expert Testimony  9.44
      • 4.  Active Remedial Efforts  9.45
      • 5.  Waiver of ICWA’s Evidentiary Requirements  9.46
  • VI.  POSTTRIAL RELIEF
    • A.  Appeal  9.47
    • B.  Petition to Invalidate State Court Proceedings
      • 1.  In State Court  9.48
      • 2.  In Federal Court  9.49
  • VII.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Request for Enrollment and Proof of Enrollment in Tribe  9.50
    • B.  Form: Designation of Indian Custodian  9.51
    • C.  Form: Intervention Authorization and Designation of Tribal Representative  9.52
    • D.  Form: Designation of Tribal Representative to Participate in State Court Child Custody Proceedings  9.53
    • E.  Form: Notice of Designation of Tribal Representative; Order  9.54
    • F.  Form: Consent to Placement and Certification  9.55
    • G.  Form: Notice of Child Custody Proceeding for Indian Child (Judicial Council Form ICWA-030)  9.56
    • H.  Form: Indian Child Inquiry Attachment (Judicial Council Form ICWA-010(A))  9.57
    • I.  Form: Information Sheet on Indian Child Inquiry Attachment and Notice of Child Custody Proceeding for Indian Child (Judicial Council Form ICWA-005-INFO)  9.58
    • J.  Form: Parental Notification of Indian Status (Judicial Council Form ICWA-020)  9.59
    • K.  Form: Attachment to Notice of Child Custody Proceeding for Indian Child (Indian Child Welfare Act) (Judicial Council Form ICWA-030(A))  9.60
    • L.  Form: Notice of Designation of Tribal Representative and Notice of Intervention in a Court Proceeding Involving an Indian Child (Judicial Council Form ICWA-040)  9.61
    • M.  Form: Notice of Petition and Petition to Transfer Case Involving an Indian Child to Tribal Jurisdiction (Judicial Council Form ICWA-050)  9.62
    • N.  Form: Order on Petition to Transfer Case Involving an Indian Child to Tribal Jurisdiction (Judicial Council Form ICWA-060)  9.63

10

Appeals and Writs

Bradley A. Bristow

  • I.  NATURE OF APPELLATE REVIEW IN DEPENDENCY CASES
    • A.  Available Relief  10.1
      • 1.  Appealable and Nonappealable Orders  10.2
      • 2.  Inadequacy of Appellate Remedy; Writ Relief  10.3
      • 3.  Dependency Appeals Compared With Other Types of Appeals  10.4
      • 4.  Confidential Nature of Proceedings  10.5
    • B.  Advising Parties of Appellate Rights
      • 1.  By Court After Hearing  10.6
      • 2.  By Appointed Trial Counsel  10.7
    • C.  Special Rules
      • 1.  Writ Petitions Under Welf & I C §366.26  10.8
      • 2.  Writs of Mandate or Prohibition  10.9
      • 3.  Habeas Corpus  10.10
      • 4.  “Fast Track” Appeals for Orders Terminating Parental Rights Under Welf & I C §366.26  10.11
      • 5.  Dependency Appeals in Fourth District  10.12
  • II.  REPRESENTING PARENTS AND CHILDREN ON APPEAL
    • A.  Right to Counsel on Appeal  10.13
      • 1.  The Appointment Process  10.14
      • 2.  The Appellate Projects  10.15
        • a.  Supervision  10.16
        • b.  Fee Recommendations  10.17
    • B.  Working With Parents  10.18
    • C.  Representing Children at Appellate Level
      • 1.  Duties and Ethical Considerations  10.19
      • 2.  Interviewing the Child  10.20
      • 3.  Child’s Preferences Versus Child’s Best Interests  10.21
      • 4.  Taking Contrary Position to That Advocated at Trial  10.22
      • 5.  Keeping Abreast of Child’s Situation  10.23
    • D.  Working With Trial Counsel  10.24
  • III.  WAIVER, DISENTITLEMENT, AND MOOT APPEALS
    • A.  Failure to Object
      • 1.  Generally  10.25
      • 2.  Effect of Submissions and Stipulations  10.26
      • 3.  Objection Required to Preserve Certain Matters for Appeal  10.27
      • 4.  When Objection Not Required
        • a.  Sufficiency of Evidence  10.28
        • b.  Conflict of Interest  10.29
        • c.  No Opportunity to Object  10.30
        • d.  Law Unsettled or Unknown at Time of Hearing  10.31
        • e.  Question of Law  10.32
        • f.  Petition Not Challenged by Demurrer Prior to Jurisdictional Hearing  10.33
        • g.  Indian Child Welfare Act Issues  10.34
        • h.  Court Has Interest in Resolving Recurring Issue  10.35
        • i.  Ineffective Assistance of Counsel  10.36
    • B.  Failure to Challenge Order by Appeal or Writ  10.37
    • C.  The Disentitlement Doctrine  10.38
    • D.  Moot Appeals  10.39
      • 1.  Existence of Continuing Controversy  10.40
      • 2.  Issue of Continuing Public Concern  10.41
      • 3.  Subsequent Acquiescence by Party  10.42
      • 4.  Expediting the Appeal  10.43
  • IV.  APPEAL PROCEDURE
    • A.  Standing of Children, Parents, De Facto Parents, and Alleged Fathers  10.44
      • 1.  Parent May Not Raise Issues That Do Not Directly Affect Parental Rights  10.45
      • 2.  De Facto Parent  10.46
      • 3.  Other Aggrieved Parties  10.47
      • 4.  Alleged Father  10.48
      • 5.  Party Without Standing May Still Benefit From Another’s Appeal  10.49
    • B.  Questions Regarding Counsel’s Authority to Appeal  10.50
    • C.  Filing Notice of Appeal, Time to Appeal  10.51
    • D.  Late Notices of Appeal; Relief From Default  10.52
    • E.  Obtaining Stay Pending Appeal Using Writ of Supersedeas  10.53
    • F.  Right to Counsel  10.54
    • G.  Record on Appeal  10.55
      • 1.  Augmenting or Correcting the Record  10.56
        • a.  Correcting the Record  10.57
        • b.  Augmenting Record Versus Requesting Additional Record  10.58
      • 2.  Agreed or Settled Statement  10.59
    • H.  Informing Appellate Court of Events That Occurred Postjudgment  10.60
    • I.  Motions in Appellate Court  10.61
    • J.  Extensions of Time  10.62
    • K.  Briefs
      • 1.  Content of Briefs Generally
        • a.  Applicable Rules of Court  10.63
        • b.  Differences in Format of Briefs for Dependency Appeals
          • (1)  Confidentiality Issues  10.64
          • (2)  Merged Statement of Case and Facts  10.65
        • c.  Argument  10.66
        • d.  Conclusion  10.67
      • 2.  Opening Briefs
        • a.  Time Requirements  10.68
        • b.  No Wende Review Under Sade C.  10.69
      • 3.  Respondent’s Briefs  10.70
      • 4.  Reply Briefs  10.71
      • 5.  Supplemental Briefs  10.72
      • 6.  Briefs for the Child  10.73
    • L.  Obtaining Priority in Juvenile Appeals  10.74
    • M.  Resolutions by Stipulation  10.75
    • N.  Oral Argument
      • 1.  Setting Oral Argument  10.76
      • 2.  Requesting Oral Argument  10.77
      • 3.  Presence of Counsel and Parties  10.78
      • 4.  Content of Argument  10.79
    • O.  Standards Used by Reviewing Court  10.80
    • P.  Petitions for Rehearing  10.81
    • Q.  Petitions for Review  10.82
    • R.  Finality of Decision  10.83
  • V.  TRADITIONAL EXTRAORDINARY WRITS (PROHIBITION/MANDATE)
    • A.  Availability of Traditional Extraordinary Relief in Dependency Cases  10.84
    • B.  Limitations on Use of Writs  10.85
    • C.  Responsibility for Filing Petition  10.86
    • D.  Serving and Filing Petition  10.87
    • E.  Petition and Related Papers
      • 1.  Contents of Petition  10.88
      • 2.  Exhibits  10.89
      • 3.  Stay Requests  10.90
      • 4.  Preliminary Opposition to Petition  10.91
    • F.  Further Procedures in Reviewing Court  10.92
    • G.  Disposition and Finality  10.93
  • VI.  RULE 8.452 AND 8.456 WRITS
    • A.  Writ Petition to Review Order Setting Hearing Under Welf & I C §366.26
      • 1.  Court Must Notify Parties of Writ Requirement  10.94
      • 2.  Whether Remedy Is by Appeal or by Rule 8.452 Writ  10.95
      • 3.  When Writ Requirement Will Be Excused  10.96
      • 4.  Court’s Notice of Writ Requirement to Parties  10.97
    • B.  Notice of Intent
      • 1.  When and Where to File  10.98
      • 2.  Contents of Notice of Intent  10.99
      • 3.  Remedying Late or Defective Notice of Intent  10.100
      • 4.  Clerk Transmits Notice of Intent and Prepares Record  10.101
      • 5.  Obtaining Additional or Corrected Record  10.102
    • C.  Filing Petition for Extraordinary Relief
      • 1.  Time Limits for Filing Petition  10.103
      • 2.  Sending the Petition  10.104
      • 3.  Contents of Petition  10.105
      • 4.  Absence of Arguable Issues  10.106
      • 5.  Stay Requests  10.107
    • D.  Response  10.108
    • E.  Oral Argument and Decision
      • 1.  Oral Argument  10.109
      • 2.  Notice of Decision  10.110
      • 3.  Finality of Decision  10.111
  • VII.  HABEAS CORPUS
    • A.  Use of Habeas Corpus in Dependency Cases; Limitations  10.112
    • B.  Appellate Counsel’s Duty to Investigate and Pursue Writ of Habeas Corpus  10.113
    • C.  Petitioner’s Investigation of Claim of Ineffective Assistance of Counsel  10.114
    • D.  Choice of Court  10.115
    • E.  Petition and Related Papers
      • 1.  Contents of Petition  10.116
      • 2.  Service and Filing of Petition  10.117
      • 3.  Further Pleadings and Procedures  10.118
    • F.  Finality of Decision; Further Review  10.119
    • G.  Alternatives to Writ of Habeas Corpus  10.120
  • VIII.  OTHER REMEDIES
    • A.  Use of Petition for Writ of Error Coram Nobis/Vobis; Limits on Use  10.121
    • B.  Petition to Modify  10.122
    • C.  Motion to Vacate  10.123
  • IX.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Sample Caption for Pleadings in Juvenile Appeals  10.124
    • B.  Form: Notice of Appeal—Juvenile (Judicial Council Form JV-800)  10.125
    • C.  Form: Petition for Writ of Habeas Corpus  10.126
    • D.  Form: Notice of Intent to File Writ Petition and Request for Record to Review Order Setting a Hearing Under Welfare and Institutions Code Section 366.26 (Cal Rules of Court, Rule 8.450) (Judicial Council Form JV-820)  10.127
    • E.  Form: Notice of Intent to File Writ Petition and Request for Record to Review Order Designating or Denying Specific Placement of Dependent Child After Termination of Parental Rights (Cal Rules of Court, Rule 8.454) (Judicial Council Form JV-822)  10.128
    • F.  Form: Petition for Extraordinary Writ (Cal Rules of Court, Rules 8.452, 8.456) (Judicial Council Form JV-825)  10.129
    • G.  Form: Denial of Petition (Cal Rules of Court, Rules 8.452, 8.456) (Judicial Council Form JV-826)  10.130
    • H.  Form: Notice of Action (Cal Rules of Court, Rule 8.452) (Judicial Council Form JV-828)  10.131
  • X.  CHECKLIST: TOPICS TO DISCUSS WITH TRIAL COUNSEL  10.132

11

Representing Parents

Mark R. Murray

  • I.  ETHICAL ISSUES IN REPRESENTATION OF PARENTS IN DEPENDENCY CASES
    • A.  Representing the “Unpopular Client”  11.1
    • B.  Legal Ethics Versus Personal Morality  11.2
    • C.  Overview of Responsibilities  11.3
  • II.  RIGHT TO COUNSEL
    • A.  Source and Waiver of Right  11.4
    • B.  Advisement by Court  11.5
    • C.  Limitations on Right  11.6
    • D.  Right to Effective Assistance of Counsel  11.7
    • E.  Compensation of Appointed Counsel  11.8
    • F.  Representation in Collateral Proceedings  11.9
    • G.  Avoiding Conflicts of Interest  11.10
    • H.  Duration of Appointment  11.11
    • I.  Representation of Alleged Father  11.12
    • J.  Representing Parents of Indian Children  11.13
  • III.  CASE EVALUATION
    • A.  Initial Client Meeting  11.14
    • B.  In-Depth Follow-Up Meetings  11.15
      • 1.  Determining Client Objectives  11.16
      • 2.  Assessing Client’s Coping Skills  11.17
      • 3.  Describing Proceedings
        • a.  Explain Purpose and Procedures  11.18
        • b.  Explain Attorney’s Role  11.19
        • c.  Advise Client of Risks  11.20
    • C.  Discovery and Investigation
      • 1.  Discovery  11.21
      • 2.  Duty to Investigate  11.22
      • 3.  Expert Witnesses  11.23
    • D.  Evaluate Services Necessary for Client
      • 1.  Consider Making Referrals  11.24
      • 2.  Visitation Plan  11.25
      • 3.  Education Plan  11.26
      • 4.  Medical Planning  11.27
      • 5.  Guardian Ad Litem  11.28
      • 6.  Psychological Confidentiality and Release of Information  11.29
      • 7.  Waiving Time  11.30
      • 8.  Assessing Social Worker  11.31
      • 9.  Immunity of Social Worker in Civil Proceedings  11.32
      • 10.  Assess Opposing Counsel and Assigned Judicial Officer  11.33
    • E.  Parentage
      • 1.  Overview  11.34
      • 2.  Presumed Parents  11.35
        • a.  Presumption Based on Voluntary Declaration  11.36
        • b.  “Conclusive” Marital Presumption and Its Rebuttal  11.37
        • c.  Rebuttable Marital Presumption and Presumption Based on Conduct  11.38
      • 3.  Kelsey S. Fathers  11.39
      • 4.  Three-Parent Participants  11.40
      • 5.  Same-Gender Couples and Presumed Mothers in General  11.41
      • 6.  Summary of Rights for Various Parents  11.42
      • 7.  Checklist: Addressing Parental Status  11.42A
  • IV.  HEARING-BY-HEARING GUIDE TO DUTIES OF PARENT’S ATTORNEY  11.43
    • A.  Mediation  11.44
    • B.  Detention Hearing
      • 1.  Parent’s Right to Continuance  11.45
      • 2.  Necessity for Detention  11.46
      • 3.  Prima Facie Case  11.47
        • a.  Request for Rehearing  11.48
        • b.  Objection to Sufficiency of Petition  11.49
          • (1)  Objection for Failure to State Cause of Action  11.50
          • (2)  Timeliness  11.51
          • (3)  Waiver by Failure to Object  11.52
          • (4)  Waiver by Admission of Allegations  11.53
    • C.  Jurisdictional Phase
      • 1.  Deciding Whether to Contest Jurisdiction  11.54
      • 2.  Admitting Allegations, Pleading No Contest, or Submitting Determination to Court  11.55
      • 3.  Contesting Jurisdiction
        • a.  Evidence of Current Risk  11.56
        • b.  Evidence of Parental Fault or Inability to Care for Child  11.57
        • c.  Admissibility of Social Study and Contents  11.58
      • 4.  Other Evidentiary Issues  11.59
    • D.  Disposition  11.60
      • 1.  Dismissal or Informal Supervision  11.61
      • 2.  Removal From Parental Custody  11.62
      • 3.  Reunification  11.63
      • 4.  Placement
        • a.  With Noncustodial Parent  11.64
        • b.  With Relative  11.65
        • c.  In County Where Parent Lives  11.66
      • 5.  Obtaining Appellate Review of Orders at Disposition  11.67
    • E.  Review Hearings
      • 1.  Burden Remains on Petitioner to Demonstrate Continued Need for Placement  11.68
      • 2.  Adequacy of Reunification Services  11.69
      • 3.  Visitation  11.70
      • 4.  Obtaining Appellate Review of Court’s Orders at Review Hearings  11.71
    • F.  Petition for Modification  11.72
    • G.  Selection and Implementation Hearing (§366.26 Hearing)
      • 1.  Adoption Is Preferred Permanent Plan  11.73
      • 2.  The “Beneficial Relationship” Exception  11.74
      • 3.  Other Exceptions  11.75
      • 4.  Child Is Difficult to Adopt  11.76
    • H.  Postadoption Contact Agreement  11.77
    • I.  Post-§366.26 Hearing Review When Child Is in Continued Foster Care  11.78
  • V.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Client Information  11.79
    • B.  Form: Limited Release of Information  11.80
  • VI.  CHECKLIST: CLIENT INFORMATION  11.81

12

Representing Children

Janet G. Sherwood

  • I.  CHILD’S RIGHT TO BE REPRESENTED BY COUNSEL
    • A.  Appointment of Counsel for Child  12.1
    • B.  Qualifications of Counsel for Child  12.2
    • C.  Compensation of Appointed Counsel  12.3
  • II.  ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR CHILD’S ATTORNEY
    • A.  ABA Standards  12.4
    • B.  Competing Views of Attorney’s Role: Best Interests Versus Expressed Wishes  12.5
      • 1.  ABA Standards: Client-Directed Model  12.6
      • 2.  NACC Revised Standards: Hybrid Model  12.7
      • 3.  NACC Recommendations  12.8
    • C.  Attorney’s Role Under California Law  12.9
  • III.  SPECIFIC DUTIES FOR CHILD’S ATTORNEY  12.10
    • A.  Investigating the Facts
      • 1.  Importance of Independent Investigation  12.11
      • 2.  Access to Records  12.12
      • 3.  Informal Discovery  12.13
      • 4.  Interviewing Parent and Allowing Interview With Child  12.14
      • 5.  Investigating Facts Beyond Scope of Proceeding  12.15
    • B.  Interviewing Child
      • 1.  Statutory Obligation  12.16
      • 2.  Initial Interview
        • a.  Making the Child Comfortable  12.17
        • b.  Topics to Discuss  12.18
      • 3.  Ongoing Contact  12.19
      • 4.  Confidentiality  12.20
    • C.  Making Recommendations to Court  12.21
    • D.  Protecting Child’s Right to Confidential Communication With Therapists, Physicians, and Clergy  12.22
    • E.  Avoiding Conflicts of Interest  12.23
  • IV.  RECURRING ISSUES FOR CHILD’S ATTORNEY  12.24
    • A.  Continuances  12.25
    • B.  Placement Changes  12.26
    • C.  Siblings  12.27
    • D.  Parentage  12.28
    • E.  Relative Placement  12.29
    • F.  Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA)  12.30
    • G.  Special Immigrant Juvenile Status  12.31
    • H.  Psychotropic Medication  12.32
    • I.  Dismissal of Jurisdiction When Nonminor Is Age 18 or Older  12.33
    • J.  Appeals  12.34
  • V.  HEARING-BY-HEARING GUIDE TO DUTIES OF CHILD’S ATTORNEY  12.35
    • A.  Detention (Initial) Hearing  12.36
      • 1.  Questions Court Must Resolve  12.37
      • 2.  Other Issues Court Must Address  12.38
    • B.  Between Detention Hearing and Jurisdictional Hearing  12.39
    • C.  Jurisdictional Hearing  12.40
    • D.  Dispositional Hearing  12.41
      • 1.  Removal From Parental Custody  12.42
      • 2.  The Case Plan  12.43
      • 3.  Visitation  12.44
      • 4.  Services Bypass  12.45
      • 5.  Placement  12.46
      • 6.  Concurrent Planning  12.47
      • 7.  Appeal  12.48
    • E.  Review Hearings  12.49
    • F.  Welf & I C §366.26 Hearing
      • 1.  Adoption Assessment Report  12.50
      • 2.  Child’s Wishes  12.51
      • 3.  Clear and Convincing Evidence of Adoptability  12.52
      • 4.  Exceptions to Termination of Parental Rights  12.53
      • 5.  Notice of Appeal  12.54
    • G.  Post-§366.26 Hearings
      • 1.  Adoption  12.55
      • 2.  Guardianship  12.56
      • 3.  Continued Placement in Foster Care
        • a.  Return to Parental Custody Remains Possible  12.57
        • b.  Counsel Should Monitor Services  12.58
        • c.  Counsel Should Make Sure Child Is Not Inappropriately “Graduated” From Dependency to Wardship  12.59
        • d.  Issues Involving Older Adolescents  12.60
        • e.  Child Retains Right to Appeal  12.61
  • VI.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Application Regarding Psychotropic Medication (Judicial Council Form JV-220)  12.62
    • B.  Form: Prescribing Physician’s Statement—Attachment (Judicial Council Form JV-220(A))  12.63
    • C.  Form: Physician’s Request to Continue Medication—Attachment (Judicial Council Form JV-220(B))  12.63A
    • D.  Form: Proof of Notice: Application Regarding Psychotropic Medication (Judicial Council Form JV-221)  12.64
    • E.  Form: Opposition to Application Regarding Psychotropic Medication (Judicial Council Form JV-222)  12.65
    • F.  Form: Order Regarding Application for Psychotropic Medication (Judicial Council Form JV-223)  12.66
    • G.  Form: Termination of Juvenile Court Jurisdiction—Nonminor (Judicial Council Form JV-365)  12.67
    • H.  Form: Request for Hearing Regarding Child’s Access to Services (Judicial Council Form JV-539)  12.68

13

Representing De Facto Parents

David A. Donner

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Historical Background  13.1
    • B.  Prerequisites for Representing De Facto Parents  13.2
    • C.  Suggested Approach to Representing De Facto Parents  13.3
    • D.  Scope of Chapter  13.4
  • II.  DE FACTO PARENT STATUS
    • A.  “De Facto Parent” Defined  13.5
    • B.  Burden of Proof  13.6
    • C.  Applying for De Facto Parent Status
      • 1.  Tactical Considerations  13.7
      • 2.  Timing of Application  13.8
      • 3.  Preparing the Motion  13.9
      • 4.  Factors for Court to Consider  13.10
      • 5.  Other Factors Court May Consider  13.11
      • 6.  Basis for Denial of Application  13.12
    • D.  Nature and Extent of De Facto Parent’s Participation
      • 1.  Procedural Rights  13.13
      • 2.  Limitations on De Facto Parent’s Role  13.14
      • 3.  Discovery  13.15
    • E.  Duration of De Facto Parent Status  13.16
    • F.  Alternatives to De Facto Parent Status
      • 1.  Limited Participation  13.17
      • 2.  Petition for Modification Under Welf & I C §388(a)  13.18
        • a.  Threshold Requirements  13.19
        • b.  Standing  13.20
        • c.  Right to Hearing  13.21
        • d.  Relief Sought  13.22
      • 3.  Relative Participation  13.23
  • III.  ESTABLISHING ATTORNEY-CLIENT RELATIONSHIP
    • A.  Initial Client Contact  13.24
    • B.  Preinterview Preparation  13.25
    • C.  Goals for Initial Client Interview
      • 1.  Determine Client Objectives  13.26
      • 2.  Educate Client  13.27
      • 3.  Assess Dynamics and Interpersonal Conflicts  13.28
      • 4.  Present Proposed Representation Agreement  13.29
      • 5.  Checklist: Client Information  13.30
  • IV.  WORKING TO ACHIEVE CLIENT’S OBJECTIVES: APPROACHES AND STRATEGIES
    • A.  Talk to Other Participants  13.31
    • B.  Consult With Associated Professionals  13.32
    • C.  Consider Working With or Relying on “Parallel” Party  13.33
      • 1.  Benefits  13.34
      • 2.  Potential Hazards  13.35
    • D.  Obtain Stipulations if Possible  13.36
  • V.  DE FACTO PARENT APPLICATION  13.37
  • VI.  APPEAL  13.38
  • VII.  CASES ON DE FACTO PARENTS  13.39
  • VIII.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: De Facto Parent Request (Judicial Council Form JV-295)  13.40
    • B.  Form: De Facto Parent Statement (Judicial Council Form JV-296)  13.41
    • C.  Form: De Facto Parent Order (Judicial Council Form JV-297)  13.42
    • D.  Form: Order Ending De Facto Parent Status (Judicial Council Form JV-298)  13.43

14

Representing Petitioner

Hon. L. Michael Clark

CEB Update Staff

  • I.  ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
    • A.  Petitioner’s Responsibility  14.1
    • B.  County Counsel as Petitioner’s Attorney  14.2
    • C.  County Counsel as Organization’s Attorney  14.3
    • D.  County Counsel’s Ethical Duties  14.4
      • 1.  Duty of Loyalty
        • a.  In General  14.5
        • b.  Handling Disagreements With Client  14.6
        • c.  Handling Disagreements Within Department  14.7
      • 2.  Duty to Seek Justice?  14.8
      • 3.  Duty of Communication
        • a.  In General  14.9
        • b.  Keeping Client Informed  14.10
        • c.  Working With Social Worker  14.11
      • 4.  Duty of Confidentiality
        • a.  In General  14.12
        • b.  Organization Holds the Privilege  14.13
        • c.  Limits on Sharing Information  14.14
      • 5.  Duty of Competence  14.15
        • a.  Building Blocks of Competence
          • (1)  Substantive California Dependency Law  14.16
          • (2)  Substantive Federal, Interstate, and Related Law  14.17
          • (3)  Special Evidentiary and Procedural Rules  14.18
          • (4)  Keeping up With Recent Developments  14.19
          • (5)  Special Clinical Knowledge  14.20
          • (6)  Community Resources  14.21
        • b.  Skills Required for Competence
          • (1)  Trial Advocacy  14.22
          • (2)  Appellate Advocacy  14.23
        • c.  Roadblocks to Competence: Caseload Standards  14.24
      • 6.  Duty of Diligence  14.25
  • II.  ROLE IN DEPENDENCY PROCEEDINGS
    • A.  In General  14.26
      • 1.  Effective Court Representation  14.27
      • 2.  Other Legal Services  14.28
    • B.  Counsel’s Role Before Petition Is Filed  14.29
    • C.  Counsel’s Role When Petition Will Be Filed  14.30
      • 1.  Petition Content  14.31
      • 2.  Multiple Legal Theories  14.32
      • 3.  Factual Support for Case Plan  14.33
    • D.  Detention (Initial) Hearing  14.34
      • 1.  Evidence to Support Continued Detention  14.35
      • 2.  Findings Required for Federal Funding  14.36
      • 3.  Required Advisements to Parents and Child  14.37
      • 4.  Additional Detention Issues  14.38
    • E.  Detention Hearing Follow-up and Discovery  14.39
    • F.  Jurisdictional Hearing
      • 1.  Social Worker’s Court Report (Social Study)  14.40
      • 2.  Uncontested Hearing  14.41
        • a.  Submission on Social Worker’s Court Report  14.42
        • b.  Required Advisements  14.43
      • 3.  Negotiating Petition Language  14.44
      • 4.  Concurrent Criminal Prosecutions and Privilege Against Self-Incrimination  14.45
      • 5.  Contested Hearing
        • a.  Preparation  14.46
        • b.  Conduct of Hearing  14.47
        • c.  Required Findings  14.48
    • G.  Dispositional Hearing  14.49
      • 1.  Social Worker’s Report  14.50
        • a.  Out-of-Home Placement With Reunification Services  14.51
        • b.  Out-of-Home Placement With No Reunification Services  14.52
        • c.  Other Issues  14.53
      • 2.  Required Findings and Advisements  14.54
      • 3.  Compliance With Indian Child Welfare Act  14.55
      • 4.  Scheduling 6-Month Review Hearing  14.56
    • H.  Six-Month Review Hearing
      • 1.  Family Maintenance Review  14.57
      • 2.  Reunification Review  14.58
      • 3.  Other Questions at 6-Month Review  14.59
      • 4.  Notice Requirements  14.60
      • 5.  Required Findings for Federal Funding  14.61
      • 6.  If Child Is Not Returned Home  14.62
    • I.  Twelve-Month Hearing
      • 1.  Family Maintenance Review  14.63
      • 2.  Reunification Review  14.64
    • J.  Eighteen-Month Review  14.65
    • K.  Selection and Implementation Hearing Under Welf & I C §366.26
      • 1.  Notice and Service Requirements  14.66
        • a.  When Termination Is Recommended
          • (1)  Parent’s Whereabouts Unknown  14.67
          • (2)  Parenthood Issues  14.68
        • b.  When Termination Is Not Recommended  14.69
      • 2.  Continuances  14.70
      • 3.  Adoptability  14.71
      • 4.  Relative as Legal Guardian  14.72
      • 5.  Defenses to Termination of Parental Rights  14.73
        • a.  Parental Relationship Benefits Child  14.74
        • b.  Child Age 12 or Older Objects  14.75
        • c.  Child Placed in Residential Facility  14.76
        • d.  Custodial Relative or Foster Parent Unwilling or Unable to Adopt  14.77
        • e.  Terminating Parental Rights Would Substantially Interfere With Sibling Relationship; Indian Children  14.78
      • 6.  Issues Irrelevant at §366.26 Hearing  14.79
      • 7.  Postadoption Contact Agreement  14.80
      • 8.  Social Worker’s Court Report (Adoptability Assessment)  14.81
      • 9.  Required Findings  14.82
      • 10.  Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA)  14.83
      • 11.  Petition for Modification Under Welf & I C §388  14.84
    • L.  Postpermanency Review Hearings  14.85
      • 1.  Social Worker’s Court Report: Continued Placement in Foster Care, APPLA, or Adoption  14.86
      • 2.  Additional Reunification Services  14.87
    • M.  Dismissal of Dependency  14.88
      • 1.  Relative Guardianship  14.89
      • 2.  Child Under Age 18  14.90
      • 3.  Dual Status  14.91
      • 4.  Nonminor Over Age 18  14.92
      • 5.  Findings Required for Federal Funding  14.93
      • 6.  Further Hearings  14.94
    • N.  Mediation, Family Conferencing, Drug Court  14.95
  • III.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Findings and Orders After Postpermanency Hearing—Parental Rights Terminated; Permanent Plan of Adoption (Welf & I C §366.3) (Judicial Council Form JV-445)  14.96
    • B.  Form: Findings and Orders After Postpermanency Hearing—Permanent Plan Other Than Adoption (Welf & I C §366.3) (Judicial Council Form JV-446)  14.97
  • IV.  CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Checklist: County Counsel’s Preparation for Detention Hearing  14.98
    • B.  Checklist: Advisements Court Must Give at Detention Hearing  14.99
    • C.  Checklist: Detention Hearing Requests of Court  14.100

CALIFORNIA JUVENILE DEPENDENCY PRACTICE

(1st Edition)

February 2019

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

File Name

Book Section

Title

CH03

Chapter 3

Petition, Case Plan, Discovery, Subpoenas, and Pretrial Motions

03-070

§3.70

Application for Commencement of Juvenile Court Proceedings

03-077

§3.77

Letter Requesting Discovery

03-078

§3.78

Motion for Appointment of Expert

03-079

§3.79

Demurrer to Petition

03-081

§3.81

Ex Parte Application for Order Shortening Time, and Order

CH04

Chapter 4

Jurisdictional Hearing

04-055

§4.55

Checklist: Evaluating Legal Sufficiency of Petition

04-056

§4.56

Checklist: Findings Required to Be in Order

CH05

Chapter 5

Disposition

05-090

§5.90

Relative/Extended Family Placement Report

05-094

§5.94

Blueprint for Services Regarding Child

05-110

§5.110

Checklist: Possible Social Study Contents

05-111

§5.111

Checklist: Judge’s Dispositional Hearing

CH09

Chapter 9

The Indian Child Welfare Act

09-050

§9.50

Request for Enrollment and Proof of Enrollment in Tribe

09-051

§9.51

Designation of Indian Custodian

09-052

§9.52

Intervention Authorization and Designation of Tribal Representative

09-053

§9.53

Designation of Tribal Representative to Participate in State Court Child Custody Proceedings

09-054

§9.54

Notice of Designation of Tribal Representative; Order

09-055

§9.55

Consent to Placement and Certification

CH10

Chapter 10

Appeals and Writs

10-124

§10.124

Sample Caption for Pleadings in Juvenile Appeals

10-126

§10.126

Petition for Writ of Habeas Corpus

10-132

§10.132

CHECKLIST: TOPICS TO DISCUSS WITH TRIAL COUNSEL

CH11

Chapter 11

Representing Parents

11-042A

§11.42A

Checklist: Addressing Parental Status

11-079

§11.79

Client Information

11-080

§11.80

Limited Release of Information

11-081

§11.81

CHECKLIST: CLIENT INFORMATION

CH13

Chapter 13

Representing De Facto Parents

13-030

§13.30

Checklist: Client Information

CH14

Chapter 14

Representing Petitioner

14-098

§14.98

Checklist: County Counsel’s Preparation for Detention Hearing

14-099

§14.99

Checklist: Advisements Court Must Give at Detention Hearing

14-100

§14.100

Checklist: Detention Hearing Requests of Court

 

Selected Developments

March 2020 Update

The Family First Prevention Services Act of 2018 (Pub L 115–123)

The Family First Prevention Services Act (FFPSA) of 2018 is a major development in federal child welfare law. The Act is contained in Title VII of the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 (Pub L 115–123, §§50701–50782, 132 Stat 64). The FFPSA is a wide-ranging statute, but two major provisions stand out as particularly important reforms: (1) funding for prevention services and (2) limits on congregate care placements. States have the option to delay implementation for up to 2 years—until October 30, 2021. At the time of this writing, it is not clear if or when California will “opt in” to these two major provisions of the FFPSA. See new section §1.7B.

Temporary restraining orders

The court in In re Bruno M. (2018) 28 CA5th 990, 997, held that Welf & I C §§213.5, as amended, authorized a restraining order to include children when the evidence showed that the father “disturbed the peace” of the children by his assaults on their mother in their presence. See §2.34.

Legal sufficiency of dependency petition

In In re G.B. (2019) 28 CA5th 475, 488, the court held that the juvenile court lacks authority to initiate dependency proceedings against a parent on its own motion, citing Cal Rules of Ct 5.520(a). See §3.2.

In that same case (28 CA5th at 486), the court held that the juvenile court had no statutory authority to amend the petition to assert allegations against the father based on factual and legal theory that were not at issue in the original petition after the court found the original allegations unsubstantiated. See §§3.7, 3.25.

Note that the presumption of parental fitness that underlies custody cases in family law does not apply in juvenile dependency cases. Hence, a determination that a child is not at a substantial risk of detriment in a parent’s custody in a dependency proceeding does not confer a finding of parental fitness on an offending parent and does not automatically terminate a dependency. In re J.P. (2019) 37 CA5th 1111, 1121. See §6.7.

Placement with relative

The directive to give preferential consideration to a request by a relative of the child for placement does not apply to a postpermanency request for placement, even assuming the agency did not properly consider that request during the reunification period. In re Maria Q. (2018) 28 CA5th 577, 596. See §5.37.

On a motion under Welf & I C §388, the appellate court held that substantial evidence supported the juvenile court’s decision to remove the child from her de facto parents and place her with her sibling’s adoptive parents in a different state; because the standard of review is abuse of discretion, the appellate court will defer to the juvenile court’s decision when both home placement options are potentially beneficial. In re L.M. (2019) 39 CA5th 898, 915. Compare to In re M.H. (2018) 21 CA5th 1296, in which the court of appeal upheld the juvenile court’s decision denying the department’s request to move a one-year-old from his nonrelative foster home to the Minnesota home of a maternal great-aunt. The juvenile court did not abuse its discretion in deciding that a change in placement would not be in the child’s best interest. See §13.26.

Denial of reunification; standard of proof

Denial of reunification is mandated if juvenile court jurisdiction arose because of the parent’s conduct (Welf & I C §300(e)), unless the court finds that, “based on competent testimony” (Welf & I C §361.5(c)(3)), those services are likely to prevent reabuse or continued neglect, or the child is so closely and positively attached to the parent that nonreunification would be detrimental to the child. The appellate court held in In re A.E. (2019) 38 CA5th 1124 that the term “testimony” in Welf & I C §361.5(c)(3) “refers to in-court oral statements of live witnesses, not to other forms of evidence. ‘Testimony’ thus is not synonymous with ‘evidence.’” Hence, the court held that the necessary findings for an order for reunification services under Welf & C §361.5(c)(3) must be based on competent testimony, i.e., in-court oral statements of a live witness. See §5.55.

Placement preservation requirements (AB 2247)

Welfare and Institutions Code §16010.7 was added, effective January 1, 2019, by Stats 2018, ch 674, §1 (AB 2247) to prevent unnecessary or abrupt placement changes of dependent children. It requires child welfare agencies to make efforts to preserve a placement before making a placement change. Welf & I C §16010.7(a). The placement preservation strategy must be developed in consultation with the child and family team (CFT) for the child and documented in the case notes. Welf & I C §16010.7(b)–(c). See §12.26.

Parentage law

Effective January 1, 2020, the procedures and requirements under which a voluntary declaration of parentage may be established and challenged are modified. See Fam C §§7570–7581, operative January 1, 2020; Stats 2018, ch 876 (AB 876). See §§2.54, 2.55, 3.23, 11.36, 11.38, 12.28–12.29.

Previously, effective January 1, 2019, AB 2684 (Stats 2018, ch 876) updated and revised the Uniform Parentage Act (UPA) (1) to ensure that the parentage provisions of the Family Code, including the conclusive marital presumption of parentage in Fam C §7540, treat same-sex parents equally and, for parents who conceived children through assisted reproduction, to establish their parentage through a voluntary declaration of parentage; and (2) to update the genetic testing provisions to match current scientific requirements, apply gender neutrality, and codify case law regarding the relevance of genetic testing in cases involving multiple claims of parentage. See §11.34.

The legislature eliminated the use of gendered pronouns in the Family Code (AB 1817 (Stats 2019, chap 115)) and made widespread changes in terminology in the Uniform Parentage Act (UPA) (Fam C §§7600–7730) to reflect gender neutrality. See AB 2684 (Stats 2018, ch 876); AB 1403 (Stats 2013, ch 510). Specifically, the legislature stated that the provisions of the UPA should be interpreted to provide equal treatment to same-sex parents, transgender parents, and their children. Stats 2018, ch 876, §1(c). See also, e.g., Fam C §7650 (insofar as practicable, provisions of Division 12 of Family Code (Fam C §§7500–7962) apply to determine existence or nonexistence of mother-child relationship). At the same time, the legislature noted that it is not the legislature’s intent to abrogate case law interpreting the laws amended in this Act that is consistent with the purposes of the Act, unless it is inconsistent with specific statutory language. Stats 2018, ch 876, §1(c). Although Welf & I C §316.2 still refers to “fathers” and “paternity” and Welf & I C §361.5(a) requires that services be offered to the “mother” and the “presumed father,” these provisions should be read as requiring the court to determine parentage of any person who may qualify as the child’s parent under the UPA and as authorizing services to persons of either gender who qualify as presumed parents. See §§11.34, 12.28.

In C.A. v C.P. (2018) 29 CA5th 27, the appellate court granted the biological father’s petition seeking legal confirmation of his paternal rights to the child born to a married woman, creating a three-parent family. See §§3.23, 11.34.

Child’s Fourth Amendment rights

In Mann v City of San Diego (9th Cir 2018) 907 F3d 1154, 1160, the Ninth Circuit held that a county’s practice of subjecting children to intrusive medical exams without the parents’ consent or court order violated the parents’ Fourteenth Amendment substantive due process rights and the children’s Fourth Amendment right to be secure from unreasonable searches and seizures. See §2.23. See also §14.29.

In Capp v County of San Diego (9th Cir, Oct. 4, 2019, No. 18–55119) 2019 US App Lexis 29928, the Ninth Circuit court held that there is no binding authority establishing that a social worker’s in-school interview violates the child’s Fourth Amendment rights because the Supreme Court’s vacatur in Greene II was to prevent Greene I from spawning any legal consequences. See also Salvi v City of San Diego (SD Cal, Apr. 17, 2019, No. 18cv1936 DMS (MDD)) 2019 US Dist Lexis 65826, *14 (granting defendants’ motion to dismiss on claims alleging Fourth Amendment violations involving interview of child at school and medical examinations performed without parental consent). See §11.32.

Representing children and parents

For a helpful resource, see Dependency Quick Guide, A Dogbook for Attorneys Representing Children and Parents (3d ed 2017), published by the Judicial Council of California, Operations and Programs Division, Center for Families, Children and the Courts. The Guide is intended to be used as a reference manual for attorneys representing parents and children in juvenile dependency proceedings. The Guide is sometimes colloquially referred to as “CALDOG” and available at https://www.courts.ca.gov/documents/dogbook.pdf. See §§10.19, 11.1, 12.1, 13.3.

Resource family approval (RFA) process

The resource family approval (RFA) process includes (Welf & I C §16519.5(d)(2)–(3)) (1) a home environment assessment and (2) a permanency assessment. As part of the permanency assessment, the social worker must perform a family evaluation, which must include the results of a risk assessment. Previously, a “psychosocial assessment of an applicant” was required.” Welf & I C §16519.5(d)(3). See §5.37A.

The permanency assessment and, effective January 1, 2019, also the written report described in Welf & I C §1§16519.5(g)(5), must be completed within 90 days of the child’s placement in the home, unless good cause exists based on the needs of the child. Welf & I C §16519.5(e)(1)(A). See §5.37A.

The 90-day time limit for the permanency assessment and the written report also applies when a child is placed on an emergency basis with a family who has successfully completed the home environment assessment. In emergency cases, the permanency assessment must be completed within 90 days of the application to become a resource family, unless good cause exists based on the needs of the child. Welf & I C §16519.5(d)(4)(A), (e)(2). Subsections (d)(4)(A) and (e)(2) were added by the legislature in 2018. See §5.37A.

Indian Children

ICWA held constitutional by Fifth Circuit. In October 2018, a district court in Texas declared the 40-year old Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (ICWA) (25 USC §§1901–1963) unconstitutional. Brackeen v Zinke (ND Tex, Oct. 4, 2018, Case 4:17-CV-00868) 2018 US Dist Lexis173115. First, the court held that ICWA’s mandatory placement preferences violate the equal protection clause, which requires all people to be treated equally under the law. Second, the court found that the Act violates the Tenth Amendment prohibition on federal overreach on a state’s right to address and process child dependency proceedings heard in state courts (ICWA provision requiring states to apply federal standards to state-created claims commandeered the states in violation of the Tenth Amendment). Several tribes intervened in the case and the federal government appealed the decision to the Fifth Circuit, which found the ICWA and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) ICWA regulations constitutional in August 2019. Brackeen v Bernhardt (5th Cir, Aug. 9, 2019, No. 18-11479) 2019 US App Lexis 23839. The decision could still be appealed, this time to the United States Supreme Court. See §9.1.

Tribally approved home. New subsection (r) of Welf & I C §224.1 adds the definition of “tribally approved home.” Stats 2019, ch 27, §17. Tribally approved homes do not have to go through the county’s approval process, but background checks as required by Health & S C §§1522 and 1522.1 for foster care or adoptive placement do apply to tribally approved homes. See §9.2.

Nonminor dependent

Welfare and Institutions Code 391, relating to the termination of jurisdiction over nonminors, has been repealed and recast with new and more extensive duties for the county welfare departments, starting at an earlier age of the dependent child. Stats 2019, ch 438. The social worker’s duty to provide reports under Welf & I C §391 that the requisite information, documents, and services are being provided begins with the first regularly scheduled review hearing after the child has attained age 16 and continues through every regular scheduled review hearing after the child attains age 18 until the jurisdiction terminates. Welf & I C §391(a)–(c), (h). See §§6.15A, 12.33, 14.92A.

About the Authors

Malvina E. J. Abbott, a coauthor of chapter 4, is a retired Deputy Public Defender IV, Branch Leader (Juvenile Dependency) for the Office of the San Diego County Public Defender and continues to work part-time as a public defender. Ms. Abbott received her B.S. degree from Cornell University in 1964 and her J.D. degree from Thomas Jefferson Law School (formerly Western State University College of Law) in 1975. She is a former member and chair of the Executive Committee of the Law Practice Management and Technology Section of the State Bar; a former member of the Senior Lawyers Committee of the State Bar; and a member of the San Diego County Bar Association and the California Public Defenders’ Association. She was the author of many of the updates to California Juvenile Court Practice (Cal CEB), which this book replaced.

Carol B. Barnett, author of chapter 8, is an attorney with East Bay Children’s Law Offices in Hayward, specializing in dependency matters. She received her B.A. degree from the University of California, Santa Barbara, in 1989, her M.A. degree from George Washington University in 1993, and her J.D. degree from Golden Gate University School of Law in 1996. She formerly was an associate dependency attorney with the Alameda County Public Defender’s Office.

Hon. Patricia Bresee, a coauthor of chapter 6, retired as a Commissioner of the San Mateo County Superior Court in 2002, after serving as a commissioner for 15 years. Commissioner Bresee received her J.D. degree in 1972 from the San Francisco Law School. Since 1988, she has served on the Judicial Council’s Juvenile Law Advisory Committee (she now chairs its Rules and Forms Committee) and on the Faculty and Planning Committees of the CJER (Center for Judicial Education and Research) Juvenile Law Institute. She has served on the Faculty of the Judicial College and has trained judicial officers newly assigned to juvenile court since 1997. Commissioner Bresee received the California Judge’s Association Juvenile Court Judge of the Year Award in 1994 and was named National Judge of the Year by the National Court Appointed Special Advocate (CASA) Association in 1998. She has served on the National Council of Juvenile and Family Law Judges Permanency Planning Committee and is presently on its Juvenile Drug Committee and cochair of its Adoption Committee. She also serves on the Children and Family First Commission, County of San Mateo.

Bradley A. Bristow, author of chapter 10, is a staff attorney with the Central California Appellate Program. He received his B.A. degree from the University of California, Los Angeles, in 1975 and his J.D. degree from the University of the Pacific, McGeorge School of Law, in 1979. Mr. Bristow teaches a clinic on civil appeals at the McGeorge School of Law, and he is a member of the California Public Defenders Association and serves on its Amicus Committee and Dependency Hotline Panel. He is a former member of the Sacramento County Voluntary Legal Services Program and received its VLSP Award in 1994.

Hon. L. Michael Clark, author of chapter 14, was appointed as a Judge of the Superior Court in Santa Clara County in May 2008. Mr. Clark received his B.A. degree from Westmont College in 1977, his J.D. degree from Santa Clara Law School in 1980, and his M.A. degree in 1990 from Fuller Theological Seminary. He formerly was the Lead Deputy County Counsel in the Office of the County Counsel, Santa Clara County. He also formerly served on the Judicial Council Family and Juvenile Law Advisory Committee. He is a past chair of the County Counsel’s Association of California, Child Welfare Study Section; a contributing editor to the California Attorney General’s Child Abuse Prevention Handbook and Intervention Guide (2000); and editorial consultant on Children and the Law for Attorney’s BriefCase, Inc. He also has served as an adjunct instructor for the Forensic Certificate Program at the San Jose State University Graduate School of Social Work, a Judge Pro Tem, and a Special Master for Search Warrant Proceedings. Mr. Clark is a member of the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children, the National Association of Counsel for Children, the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges, and the Christian Legal Society. He is a frequent lecturer on dependency law for a wide variety of groups.

Deborah Dentler, coauthor of chapter 6, practices primarily at the appellate level, handling appeals for parents, children, kinship caregivers, and foster parents. Ms. Dentler is a graduate of the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Law and has specialized for the last 15 years in juvenile dependency law. Ever since adopting a teenaged relative from foster care, she has represented foster parents in L.A.’s juvenile court. A frequent presenter to groups of foster parents, adoptive families, and social workers, Ms. Dentler has served as a consultant, grant writer, and legislative advocate for nonprofit organizations.

David A. Donner, author of chapter 13, is in private practice in San Francisco, specializing in juvenile dependency, child custody, foster parent adoptions, mental health consulting, probate guardianships, and mediation and special master work in family law custody matters. Mr. Donner received his B.A. degree from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1979 and his J.D. degree from the University of San Francisco School of Law in 1984. He is a board member of the Psychoanalytic Institute of Northern California and a founding member of the Children’s Psychotherapy Project. He is also a member of the International Society for Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect, the Association of Family and Conciliation Courts, the National Association of Counsel for Children, and the Court Appointed Special Advocate (CASA) Regional Advisory Board. He previously practiced as a deputy city attorney in San Francisco. He has served as chair of the Bar Association of San Francisco’s Juvenile Justice Section (1999–2002) and as a mentor attorney in the San Francisco Juvenile Court and now serves as a Pro Tem in the dependency court. Mr. Donner has taught continuing education courses in trial skills, client interviewing, and child advocacy and has been a frequent speaker and consultant on dependency and mental health issues.

Mark R. Murray, author of chapter 11, is a private practitioner in San Francisco who emphasizes juvenile law and civil litigation in the Bay Area counties. He received his B.A. and B.S. degrees from St. Mary’s College in 1983 and his J.D. degree from Golden Gate University School of Law in 1986. Mr. Murray serves as a Judge Pro Tem, a Commissioner Pro Tem, and a Dependency Mentor Attorney for the San Francisco Superior Court. He has served as chair of the Juvenile Justice Section of the Bar Association of San Francisco, coordinator of mandatory dependency training for the panel attorneys in the San Francisco Superior Court, lecturer at the State Bar Conference on dependency issues, member of the San Francisco Dependency Court Advisory Committee, delegate of the Bar Association of San Francisco to the State Bar Conference of Delegates, and dependency expert witness. Mr. Murray is a member of the National Association of Counsel for Children, the California Public Defender Association, the San Francisco Trial Lawyer’s Association, the Bar Association of San Francisco, and the St. Thomas More Society.

Hon. Amy M. Pellman, author of chapter 2, is a Judge of the Superior Court of California, County of Los Angeles, having previously served as a Commissioner of the same court. She received her B.A. degree from Mount Holyoke College in 1982 and her J.D. degree from City University of New York in 1987. She has experience as a juvenile dependency trial and appellate attorney and as a civil litigator. She has coordinated programs such as National Adoption Saturday and is a frequent lecturer for a variety of groups, among them the Los Angeles County Juvenile Court Bar Association; the Court Appointed Special Advocate (CASA) office; foster family agencies; the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Law; and Loyola Law School. Commissioner Pellman is an adjunct professor at Southwestern University of Law, where she teaches “Children and the Law” and is a member of the faculty of the National Council on Juvenile and Family Court Judges. Commissioner Pellman formerly served as the legal director of The Alliance for Children’s Rights, Los Angeles, a nonprofit organization that represents children in poverty. Her publications include The Alliance for Children’s Rights vs. Los Angeles County Dept. of Children and Family Services, 1 Whittier J of Child & Family Advocacy 64 (2002) and Married Women’s Property Rights, Women and the Law (Clark Boardman 1987).

John E. Philips, a coauthor of chapter 4, is a senior deputy county counsel and team leader supervising attorneys in the Office of the County Counsel, San Diego County. He received his B.A. degree in child psychology in 1981 from the University of California, Santa Barbara, and his J.D. degree from Southwestern University School of Law in 1985. Mr. Philips has represented the prevailing party in several appellate cases that resulted in published opinions, including In re Troy Z. (1992) 3 C4th 1170 and In re Stephanie M. (1994) 7 C4th 295.

Mary J. Risling, author of chapter 9, is the former directing attorney of California Indian Legal Services (CILS), Eureka, where she engaged in a federal, state, and tribal administrative and judicial practice with emphasis on federal Indian Law. She has conducted training on specialized legal and Indian law issues for tribes, the CILS client community, state and federal agencies, postsecondary institutions and continuing legal education providers, including the Center for Judicial Education and Research (CJER). Beginning in 1994, she served three terms on the California Judicial Council’s Family and Juvenile Law Standing Advisory Committee. Ms. Risling is the author of the updated California Judges Benchguide—The Indian Child Welfare Act, developed by CILS and updated under a project funded by the California Office of Criminal Justice Planning.

Elaine S. Rosen, a coauthor of chapter 7, began practicing family and juvenile law in 1983 in Los Angeles. She received her bachelor’s degree from University of California, Los Angeles, in 1975 and her law degree from Southwestern University School of Law in 1978. Since 2007 Ms. Rosen has been the education and training director for the San Bernardino Law Firm of Friedman and Gebbie, which specializes in juvenile law. She has been a speaker for the Court Appointed Special Advocates (CASA) program in Los Angeles and San Bernardino counties. She has been an adjunct professor at the University of Redlands and at California State University, San Bernardino, where she is the immediate past chair of the Development Council for the College of Social and Behavioral Sciences. She is on the board of Inland Counties Legal Services, and she is the chair of the newly formed Education Advocacy Section of the San Bernardino County Bar Association. Ms. Rosen was board president of the Los Angeles Juvenile Courts Bar Association in 1989. In 1995 she became part of the Judicial Council’s Administrative Office of the Courts’ initial juvenile law reasonable efforts project. In 1999, she was appointed director of the Department of Law and Public Policy at University of California, Riverside, where she coordinated the annual Juvenile Law Institute. Ms. Rosen sat as a judge pro tem in Riverside County’s juvenile dependency court from 1998 to 2004.

Janet G. Sherwood, author of chapter 12, is a private practitioner in Corte Madera; she limits her practice to juvenile dependency, adoption, and related child custody issues. Ms. Sherwood received her B.A. degree from Raymond College and her J.D. degree from McGeorge School of Law. A frequent speaker and consultant on juvenile dependency issues, she is on the dependency panels for the First and Sixth District Appellate Programs and the Central California Appellate Program. Ms. Sherwood is a member of the boards of the Northern California Association of Counsel for Children (NCACC) and San Rafael’s Family and Children’s Law Center, and is president of Advokids, a nonprofit organization that provides resources, training, and assistance to children’s advocates. She is an associate member of the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges and is a member of the Marin County Bar Association, Marin County Women Lawyers, the National Association of Counsel for Children, and the California Appellate Defense Counsel. She has served as a faculty member of the California Judicial Council’s Child Advocacy Training Project, as a Marin County Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Commissioner, and as a member of the board of the Center for the Family in Transition. She has practiced as a Deputy Attorney General for the State of California, representing health, education, and welfare agencies and as staff counsel for the State Department of Social Services. She is the author of California Juvenile Dependency Case Law Updates and is the editor of the NCACC’s Dependency News.

Carmela F. Simoncini, author of chapter 3, is the lead appellate court attorney with the California Court of Appeal, Fourth District, Division 2. Ms. Simoncini received her B.F.A. degree from Arizona State University in 1975, her J.D. degree from Western State University College of Law in 1978, and her L.L.M. degree (General/Criminal) from the University of San Diego Law School. She serves as one of the California Public Defenders Association’s (CPDA’s) Dependency Hotline attorneys, and she is also a member of the Appellate Court Committee of the San Diego County Bar Association. She formerly was a staff attorney with Appellate Defenders, Inc., San Diego. In 1994, she received the E. Stanley Conant Award presented by the board of directors of Defender Programs of San Diego. She is former chair of the Appellate Committee for California Attorneys for Criminal Justice and a former member of the amicus committee of the CPDA. She has been an adjunct professor of law at Thomas Jefferson School of Law since 1991, where she has taught courses on juvenile dependency, appellate advocacy, and legal writing.

Hon. Sherri Sobel, author of chapter 5, is a referee with the Los Angeles County Superior Court who specializes in juvenile dependency, Indian children, and special education. She received her B.S. degree from Temple University in 1966 and her J.D. degree from Western State University College of Law in 1983. For 19 years (13 as a practicing attorney and 6 on the bench) she has taught, written, and served on more committees, boards, and commissions than she can count, on behalf of organizations ranging from the local to the national.

Beth L. Steigerwalt, a coauthor of chapter 7, is a deputy county counsel in the office of the San Bernardino County Counsel. She received her B.A. degree from the University of Arizona in 1988 and her J.D. degree from the University of San Diego Law School in 1988. Ms. Steigerwalt formerly was an associate with Friedman, Gebbie & Gardner, San Bernardino, where she specialized in juvenile dependency law. She has taught for the University of California, Riverside, Extension in its paralegal certificate program.

Christopher N. Wu, author of chapter 1, is senior director, Judicial Engagement, at Casey Family Programs, the nation’s largest operating foundation exclusively devoted to improving outcomes for families and children in the child welfare system. Mr. Wu received his B.A. degree from Shimer College in 1978 and his J.D. degree in 1984 from the University of Michigan Law School, where his interest in children’s law began in that school’s Child Advocacy Law Clinic. Mr. Wu is a member of the board of directors of the National Center for Youth Law and Legal Services for Children. He is also president of the Northern California Association of Counsel for Children and a member of the Asian American Bar Association of the Greater Bay Area. Previously, he was supervising attorney with the California Judicial Council’s Center for Families, Children & the Courts and executive director of the California Blue Ribbon Commission on Children in Foster Care. He also previously served as the managing attorney at Legal Services for Children in San Francisco, a nonprofit law office using teams of attorneys and social workers to provide direct services to children.

About the 2019 Update Authors

Malvina E. J. Abbott is an original author and continuing update author of chapter 4, Jurisdictional Hearing. See the About the Authors section for full biographical information.

Deborah Dentler is an original coauthor and continuing update author of chapter 6, Postdispostion Proceedings: 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-Month Reviews. See the About the Authors section for full biographical information.

David A. Donner is an original author and continuing update author of chapter 13, Representing De Facto Parents. See the About the Authors section for full biographical information.

Nicole E. Giacinti is an update coauthor for chapter 2, How Children Enter the Dependency System: Referral, Investigation, and Detention. She is an attorney for the Center for Families, Children & the Courts (CFCC) for the Judicial Council of California in San Francisco. She received her B.A. degree from University of California, Berkeley, and her J.D. degree from University of California, Hastings College of the Law, San Francisco. Ms. Giacinti is a Certified Child Welfare Law Specialist (CWLS) through the National Association of Counsel for Children. This specialty is accredited by the State Bar of California, Board of Legal Specialization.

Michael A. Markel is the update author for chapter 5, Disposition. Mr. Markel is the principal assistant county counsel for the County of San Bernardino, where he specializes in Juvenile Dependency and Risk Management. He received his B.A. degree from the University of California, Irvine, and his J.D. degree from the University of San Diego School of Law.

Mark R. Murray is the original author and continuing update author of chapter 11, Representing Parents. See the About the Authors section for full biographical information.

Janet G. Sherwood is the original author and continuing update author of chapter 12, Representing Children. See the About the Authors section for full biographical information.

Carmela F. Simoncini is the original author and continuing update author of chapter 3, Petition, Case Plan, Discovery, Subpoenas, and Pretrial Motions. She is also the update author for chapter 10, Appeals and Writs. See the About the Authors section for full biographical information.

Marymichael Miatovich Smrdeli is an update coauthor for chapter 1, Introduction to Dependency Law; an update coauthor for chapter 2, How Children Enter the Dependency System: Referral, Investigation, and Detention; and the update author for chapter 14, Representing Petitioner. Ms. Smrdeli is a legal research attorney in the family division of the Superior Court of California, County of Santa Clara. Previously, she was an attorney with the Center for Families, Children & the Courts (CFCC) for the Judicial Council of California in San Francisco. Ms. Smrdeli obtained her undergraduate and law degrees from Santa Clara University and became a member of the California State Bar in 2001; she obtained her master’s degree in clinical psychology with an emphasis in child abuse and neglect from JFK University in 2013. In 2008, Ms. Smrdeli became a Certified Child Welfare Law Specialist (CWLS) through the National Association of Counsel for Children. This specialty is accredited by the State Bar of California, Board of Legal Specialization. Ms. Smrdeli was previously a court-appointed attorney representing parents in juvenile dependency proceedings in Santa Clara County. In that capacity, she represented parents in all parts of the juvenile dependency process, from the initial hearing to permanency planning. Prior to that, she worked in the city attorney’s office for the City of Santa Clara.

Beth L. Steigerwalt is the original author and continuing update coauthor of chapter 7, Subsequent, Supplemental, and Modification Petitions. See the About the Authors section for full biographical information.

Hon. Dylan Sullivan is the update author for chapter 8, The §366.26 Hearing: Selection and Implementation of Permanent Plan. Ms. Sullivan is a Judge of the Superior Court of California, currently acting as the Presiding Juvenile Judge in El Dorado County. Her current assignment is Dependency, Delinquency and Probate. Prior to becoming a judge in 2014, Ms. Sullivan was a family law and AB 1058 Commissioner between 2011 and 2014. She also has experience adjudicating parole matters as an Administrative Law Judge for the California Parole Board between 2005 and 2011. Ms. Sullivan annually updates CEB’s California Criminal Law Procedure and Practice, chap 47, “Parole Hearings” (Cal CEB). She is a member of the Collaborative Justice Courts Advisory Committee to the Judicial Council and regularly teaches for the Center for Judicial Education and Research. She is also active in El Dorado County, advocating for children’s rights and services, and a member of the El Dorado County Child Abuse Prevention Council. Ms. Sullivan graduated from the University of the Pacific, McGeorge School of Law in 1997, Order of the Coif. She obtained her Bachelor’s of Science degree in physiology from the University of California, Davis, in 1988.

Mark Vezzola is the update author of chapter 9, The Indian Child Welfare Act. Mr. Vezzola is the Directing Attorney with California Indian Legal Services in the Escondido Office. His practice includes estate planning for individuals under the American Indian Probate Reform Act, advising Native organizations, tribal boards, and committees, administering tribal elections, code drafting, and defending casino tort claims. He has published several articles and book chapters on the constitutional rights of incarcerated Native Americans to practice their religion, as well as the issue of same-sex marriage in Native communities. He has contributed articles to the Daily Journal, Educational Family Estate Apps, The Prison Journal, Native News in California, and many other publications. Mr. Vezzola previously served on the Board of Directors of the California Indian Law Association from 2010 to 2012 and the San Diego County Bar Association’s Client Relations Committee. He is currently an adjunct professor of history at San Diego Mesa College and of American Indian Studies at Palomar College in San Marcos. Mr. Vezzola graduated from UMass-Amherst in 2000 with a B.A. in history and minors in anthropology and international relations, and earned his J.D. and an M.A. in American Indian Studies from the University of California, Los Angeles, in 2005, during which time he clerked for the Hopi Appellate Court and the Justice Department’s Office of Tribal Justice, in Washington DC.

Christopher N. Wu is the original author and continuing update coauthor of chapter 1, Introduction to Dependency Law. See the About the Authors section for full biographical information.

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