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California Landlord-Tenant Practice

The definitive book whether you are representing commercial or residential landlords or tenants, or involved in transactional or litigation practice.

The definitive book whether you are representing commercial or residential landlords or tenants, or involved in transactional or litigation practice.

  • Drafting leases; owner and tenant strategies
  • Short term tenancies; local laws and lease clauses
  • Medical marijuana in commercial and residental units
  • Mobilehome leases, special notices, and evictions
  • Terminating tenancies, notice forms, and eviction pleadings
  • Warranty of habitability, subleasing, and roommates
  • Tenant bankruptcies; stay relief, rent claims
  • Local rent and eviction controls; discrimination law
OnLAW RE94690

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$ 495.00
Print RE32690

2d edition, 2 looseleaf volumes, updated 4/20

$ 495.00
Add Forms CD to Print RE22696
$ 99.00

The definitive book whether you are representing commercial or residential landlords or tenants, or involved in transactional or litigation practice.

  • Drafting leases; owner and tenant strategies
  • Short term tenancies; local laws and lease clauses
  • Medical marijuana in commercial and residental units
  • Mobilehome leases, special notices, and evictions
  • Terminating tenancies, notice forms, and eviction pleadings
  • Warranty of habitability, subleasing, and roommates
  • Tenant bankruptcies; stay relief, rent claims
  • Local rent and eviction controls; discrimination law

1

Creating the Tenancy

Patricia H. Tirey

E. Houston Touceda

  • I.  NATURE OF LANDLORD-TENANT RELATIONSHIP
    • A.  Created by Agreement; Terminology  1.1
    • B.  Dual Character of Landlord-Tenant Agreement  1.2
    • C.  Distinguished From Other Relationships
      • 1.  Proprietor-Lodger  1.3
        • a.  Under Common Law  1.4
        • b.  Under CC §1940  1.5
        • c.  Exclusions Under CC §1940  1.6
        • d.  Effect on Evictions and Abandoned Personal Property  1.7
      • 2.  Employer-Employee  1.8
      • 3.  Seller-Purchaser  1.9
      • 4.  Licenses  1.10
      • 5.  Tenant Roommates  1.11
        • a.  As Tenants of Owner  1.12
        • b.  As Subtenants of Tenant  1.13
      • 6.  Cotenant Owners  1.14
  • II.  TYPES OF TENANCIES
    • A.  Fixed-Term Tenancy  1.15
    • B.  Periodic Tenancy  1.16
    • C.  Tenancy at Will  1.17
    • D.  Tenancy at Sufferance  1.18
    • E.  Trespassers  1.19
  • III.  DRAFTING LANDLORD-TENANT AGREEMENT
    • A.  Option to Use Preprinted Forms  1.20
    • B.  Written or Oral Agreement?
      • 1.  Legal Requirements  1.21
      • 2.  Advantages and Disadvantages
        • a.  For Landlord  1.22
        • b.  For Tenant  1.23
    • C.  Requisites of Agreement
      • 1.  Parties
        • a.  Capacity to Enter Into Lease  1.24
        • b.  Execution
          • (1)  By Spouses  1.25
          • (2)  By Joint Tenants or Tenants in Common  1.26
          • (3)  By Corporations and Other Entities  1.27
          • (4)  By Agents  1.28
        • c.  Listing All Tenants  1.29
        • d.  Required Agent and Service of Process Information; Copy of Lease; CC §1962   1.30
      • 2.  Rent Amount and Payment of Rent  1.31
      • 3.  Description of Premises
        • a.  Basic Parameters   1.32
        • b.  Condition of the Premises
          • (1)  Joint Pre-Possession Inspection   1.33
          • (2)  Carbon Monoxide Detectors  1.34
          • (3)  Form: Move-In/Move-Out Itemized Statement (Landscape) (California Apartment Association Form 16.0–L)  1.35
          • (4)  Form: Furniture Inventory (California Apartment Association Form 16.1)  1.36
      • 4.  Screening Fees, Security Deposits, Key Money  1.37
      • 5.  Term   1.38
      • 6.  Use of Premises   1.39
      • 7.  Required Disclosures  1.40
    • D.  Prohibited Provisions  1.41
    • E.  Special Considerations in Jurisdictions With Rent Control Ordinances  1.42
    • F.  Special Requirements for Government-Owned and Government-Subsidized Rental Housing   1.43
      • 1.  Public Housing
        • a.  HUD Requirements Imposed on Public Housing Authority   1.44
        • b.  Regulations Governing Tenant Conduct  1.45
      • 2.  HUD-Subsidized Rental Programs   1.46
      • 3.  Section 8 Programs   1.47
  • IV.  SELECTED CLAUSES FOR RESIDENTIAL LEASE OR RENTAL AGREEMENT
    • A.  Rent
      • 1.  Form: Monthly Amount; Due Date; Manner of Payment  1.48
      • 2.  Form: Late Charges  1.49
      • 3.  Form: Rent Check Returned for Insufficient Funds  1.50
      • 4.  Form: Notice That Failure to Pay Rent on Time May Be Reported to Credit Record Agencies  1.51
    • B.  Occupants
      • 1.  Form: Identification; Joint Liability  1.52
      • 2.  Form: Guests, Boarders, Lodgers, and Roommates  1.53
    • C.  Form: Indemnification of Landlord  1.54
    • D.  Form: Assignment and Subletting  1.55
    • E.  Form: Utilities  1.56
    • F.  Tenant Obligations and Restrictions
      • 1.  Form: Tenant’s Obligation to Maintain and Protect Landlord’s Property  1.57
      • 2.  Form: Tenant’s Obligations to Refrain from Disturbance, Smoking, Unlawful Conduct, and Waste  1.58
      • 3.  Form: Tenant’s Obligation to Comply With All Laws and Rules and Regulations  1.59
      • 4.  Form: Conditions Governing Tenant Repairs and Alterations  1.60
      • 5.  Form: Pets and Service or Support Animals  1.61
      • 6.  Form: Waterbeds  1.62
      • 7.  Form: No Automobile Repair  1.63
    • G.  Form: Tenant’s Death or Disability  1.64
    • H.  Form: Landlord’s Entry on Premises; Notice, Changing Locks  1.65
    • I.  Breach of Covenant
      • 1.  Form: Covenants Are Material and Reasonable  1.66
      • 2.  Form: Consequences of Tenant’s Breach; Service of Notice  1.67
    • J.  Form: Misrepresentation in Tenant’s Application  1.68
    • K.  Form: Tenant’s Termination for Cause Under Fixed-Term Lease  1.69
    • L.  Form: Attorney Fees  1.70
    • M.  Form: No Waiver  1.71
    • N.  Form: Service of Notices  1.72
  • V.  SAMPLE RESIDENTIAL LEASES AND RENTAL AGREEMENTS   1.73
    • A.  Form: Rental Agreement (Month-to-Month) (California Apartment Association Form 2.0)  1.74
    • B.  Form: Lease Agreement (California Apartment Association Form 2.1)  1.75
    • C.  Form: Lead-Based Paint and Lead-Based Paint Hazards Information Disclosure Addendum (California Apartment Association Form LEAD1)  1.76
    • D.  Form: Residential Lease-Rental Agreement and Deposit Receipt (Professional Publishing Form 105)  1.77
    • E.  Form: Carbon Monoxide Detector Addendum (California Apartment Association Form 27.1)  1.78

2

Fair Housing Considerations

James Morales

Michael Rawson

Paul E. Smith

  • I.  IMPACT OF FAIR HOUSING LAWS ON LANDLORDS’ CHOICE OF TENANTS, MANAGEMENT, AND EVICTIONS
    • A.  Comprehensive Application of Federal, State, and Local Law  2.1
    • B.  Legal and Administrative Remedies  2.2
  • II.  SCREENING PROSPECTIVE TENANTS
    • A.  Landlord’s Objectives  2.3
    • B.  Legal Constraints in Applying Screening Factors  2.4
      • 1.  Selection Standards Must Not Have Disparate Impact on Protected Classes  2.5
        • a.  Tenants Receiving Rental Subsidies  2.5A
        • b.  Tenants Who Have Criminal Records  2.5B
        • c.  Tenants Who Have Limited English Proficiency  2.5C
        • d.  Citizenship, Alienage, or Immigration Status Discrimination Under Fair Housing Act and Civil Rights Act of 1866  2.5D
      • 2.  Were Permissible Factors Used to Reject Applicant or Evict Tenant?  2.6
      • 3.  First Amendment Considerations for Roommates  2.6A
  • III.  SELECTION AND MANAGEMENT CRITERIA; REASONABLE ACCOMMODATIONS  2.7
    • A.  Tenant Character and Safety Issues  2.8
    • B.  Ability to Pay Rent
      • 1.  Credit and Income Information  2.9
      • 2.  Minimum Income Requirements  2.9A
      • 3.  Source of Income Protections; Section 8  2.9B
      • 4.  Income and Marital Status  2.9C
      • 5.  Income and Disability  2.9D
    • C.  Subjective Criteria Should Be Avoided  2.10
    • D.  Special Criteria Applicable to Public and Subsidized Housing  2.11
      • 1.  Some Immigrants Barred From Subsidized Housing  2.12
      • 2.  Discrimination on the Basis of Sexual Orientation, Marital Status, or Gender Identity in HUD Housing Programs  2.12A
      • 3.  Authority to Select Tenants  2.13
        • a.  By Public Housing Authority
          • (1)  Specific Selection Criteria and Preferences  2.14
          • (2)  Residency Preferences  2.14A
          • (3)  Checking Criminal Background of Applicants; Controlled Substances, Alcohol Abuse  2.15
          • (4)  Denial of Admission or Eviction Based on Status as Domestic Violence Victim Is Prohibited  2.15A
        • b.  Private Landlord and Housing Authority: Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher Programs
          • (1)  Applicant Eligibility Determined by Public Housing Authority  2.16
          • (2)  Private Landlord’s Discretion in Tenant Selection  2.17
        • c.  Under Other Federal or State Subsidized Programs  2.18
        • d.  Under State and Federal Tax Credit Programs  2.18A
    • E.  Prohibited Selection Factors  2.19
    • F.  Protected Categories
      • 1.  Summary; Authorizing Legislation  2.20
      • 2.  Protected Categories Created by Unruh Act’s Arbitrary Discrimination Proscription  2.21
      • 3.  Familial Status Protections  2.22
        • a.  Statutory Definitions  2.23
        • b.  Effect of Occupancy Standards  2.24
        • c.  Senior Housing Exceptions  2.25
          • (1)  Fair Housing Act (Federal) Exemptions  2.25A
          • (2)  California (State) Exemptions  2.25B
          • (3)  Application of State vs. Federal Exemptions  2.25C
      • 4.  Protections for Persons With Disabilities
        • a.  Impairments Covered by Statutory Definitions  2.26
        • b.  Exception: Persons Engaging in Criminal Activity Because of Disability  2.26A
        • c.  Proscribed Inquiries by Prospective Landlords  2.26B
        • d.  Reasonable Accommodations and Modifications  2.27
          • (1)  Reasonable Accommodations  2.27A
          • (2)  Service Animals Distinguished From Companion and Support Animals  2.27B
          • (3)  Accommodation Requests From Tenants Receiving Rental Assistance  2.27C
          • (4)  Reasonable Physical Modifications  2.27D
          • (5)  Accessibility  2.27E
          • (6)  Accommodation and Modification Request Procedures; Interactive Process  2.27F
        • e.  Attorney Fees  2.27G
      • 5.  Gender Protections  2.27H
        • a.  Sex Harassment  2.27I
        • b.  Domestic Violence Discrimination  2.27J
        • c.  Gender Identity Discrimination  2.27K
      • 6.  Denial of Insurance Coverage Based on Presence of Protected Classes  2.27L
    • G.  Harassment Against Members of Protected Classes  2.27M
  • IV.  CHARTS, POSTERS, AND FORMS: FAIR HOUSING AND ANTIDISCRIMINATION LAWS  2.28
  • V.  ENFORCING FEDERAL ANTIDISCRIMINATION AND FAIR HOUSING LAWS; SCOPE AND PROCEDURES  2.29
    • A.  Fair Housing Act
      • 1.  Scope
        • a.  Application, Protections, and Requirements  2.30
        • b.  Exemptions  2.31
      • 2.  Enforcement  2.32
        • a.  Administrative Action
          • (1)  Preparing and Filing Complaint
            • (a)  Filing With HUD  2.33
            • (b)  Filing With USDA  2.33A
          • (2)  Where to File Housing Discrimination Complaint (HUD Form 903)  2.34
          • (3)  Response to Complaint  2.35
          • (4)  Investigation and Conciliation of Dispute  2.36
          • (5)  Issuance of a Charge or Dismissal  2.37
          • (6)  Charge Issued: Election of Civil Action; Administrative Hearing  2.38
        • b.  Civil Action Under 42 USC §3613  2.39
        • c.  U.S. Attorney General “Pattern-or-Practice” Action  2.40
    • B.  Civil Rights Act of 1866
      • 1.  Application  2.41
        • a.  No State Action Requirement  2.42
        • b.  The Protected Classes  2.43
      • 2.  Enforcement
        • a.  Litigating Claims Under the Act  2.44
        • b.  Remedies
          • (1)  Damages  2.45
          • (2)  Injunctive Relief  2.46
          • (3)  Attorney Fees  2.47
    • C.  Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964  2.47A
    • D.  Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1974  2.47B
    • E.  Title II, Subtitle A, of the Americans with Disabilities Act  2.47C
  • VI.  ENFORCING CALIFORNIA ANTIDISCRIMINATION AND FAIR HOUSING LAWS; SCOPE AND PROCEDURES  2.48
    • A.  California Fair Employment and Housing Act
      • 1.  Scope  2.49
      • 2.  Prohibited Forms of Housing Discrimination  2.50
      • 3.  Enforcement Options  2.51
        • a.  Involving DFEH in Claim
          • (1)  Filing Complaint With DFEH  2.52
          • (2)  DFEH Investigation of Complaint  2.53
          • (3)  Conciliation or Mediation  2.54
          • (4)  Court Action on Complaint After DFEH Investigation  2.55
        • b.  Filing Individual Civil Action; Form of Relief; Attorney Fees  2.56
    • B.  Unruh Civil Rights Act  2.57
      • 1.  Application to Enumerated Protections  2.57A
      • 2.  Broad Application to Other Arbitrary Conduct  2.58
      • 3.  Enforcement and Remedies  2.59
    • C.  Equal Access Requirements for Persons With Disabilities  2.60
    • D.  Protections for Immigrants and Noncitizens
      • 1.  Prohibited Acts (CC §1940.3; CCP §1161.4)  2.60A
      • 2.  Defenses; Presumptions (CCP §1161.4)  2.60B
      • 3.  Remedies  2.60C
  • VII.  PROSECUTING AND DEFENDING A RENTAL DISCRIMINATION CASE
    • A.  Evidence Required to Establish Illegal Discrimination  2.61
      • 1.  Overt Discrimination  2.62
      • 2.  Disparate Treatment  2.63
      • 3.  “Mixed Motives” Versus “A Motivating Factor”  2.64
      • 4.  Disparate Impact  2.65
    • B.  Use of Testers  2.66
    • C.  Who Has Standing to Bring Action  2.67
    • D.  Owner’s Responsibility for Agent’s or Third Party’s Discriminatory Acts  2.68
    • E.  Statute of Limitations Under Federal Law  2.69
    • F.   Statute of Limitations Under State Law  2.69A

3

Rights and Duties During Tenancy

Scott A. Freedman

Ted Kimball

Nancy C. Lenvin

Myron Moskovitz

  • I.  INTRODUCTION  3.1
  • II.  LANDLORD’S LIMITED RIGHT OF ENTRY
    • A.  Nature and Extent  3.2
    • B.  Procedure for Entry; Notice Requirements  3.3
    • C.  Form: Notice of Landlord’s Intention to Enter Dwelling Unit  3.3A
    • D.  Remedies  3.4
  • III.  QUIET ENJOYMENT AND USE
    • A.  Implied Covenant of Quiet Enjoyment
      • 1.  Nature  3.5
      • 2.  When Is Covenant Breached?  3.6
      • 3.  Remedies  3.7
    • B.  Statutes Regulating Use Of Premises
      • 1.  Posting Political Signs  3.7A
      • 2.  Smoking on the Premises; State, Local, and Federal Law  3.7B
      • 3.  Gardening or Personal Agriculture  3.7C
      • 4.  Electric Vehicle Charging Stations
        • a.  Residential Property  3.7D
        • b.  Commercial Property  3.7E
      • 5.  Clotheslines and Drying Racks  3.7F
    • C.  Notice of Pesticide Application  3.7G
    • D.  Law Enforcement and Emergency Assistance on the Premises  3.7H
  • IV.  LANDLORD’S DUTY TO MAINTAIN AND REPAIR PREMISES  3.8
    • A.  Express Promise to Repair  3.9
    • B.  Housing Code Obligations and Enforcement
      • 1.  Enforcement Process  3.10
      • 2.  Housing Statutes, Regulations, and Codes
        • a.  Statutory Tenantability; CC §§1941, 1941.1  3.11
        • b.  Door and Window Locks; CC §§1941.3, 1941.5–1941.6  3.11A
        • c.  Toxic Mold and Other Health and Safety Statutes  3.11B
        • d.  Department of Housing Regulations  3.11C
        • e.  Uniform Housing Code  3.11D
      • 3.  Certificate of Occupancy Violations  3.11E
    • C.  “Repair-and-Deduct” Remedy; CC §1942
      • 1.  Statutory Basis  3.12
      • 2.  Procedure  3.13
      • 3.  Waiver Not Permitted  3.14
      • 4.  Commercial Tenancies  3.15
    • D.  Statutory Action for Damages and Abatement; CC §1942.4  3.15A
    • E.  Constructive Eviction Action  3.15B
    • F.  Nuisance Action  3.15C
    • G.  Implied Warranty of Habitability
      • 1.  Development  3.16
      • 2.  Application
        • a.  Single-Family Homes  3.17
        • b.  Commercial Tenancies  3.18
        • c.  Government-Owned Housing  3.19
        • d.  Common Areas  3.20
        • e.  Premises Uninhabitable at Inception of Tenancy  3.21
        • f.  Premises Become Uninhabitable After Tenant Is Required to Vacate  3.22
      • 3.  Waiver  3.23
      • 4.  Breach of Warranty of Habitability
        • a.  Actionable Defects
          • (1)  Defects Covered by Housing Codes or CC §§1941.1 and 1941.3  3.24
          • (2)  Defects Not Covered by Housing and Building Codes  3.25
          • (3)  Defects Caused by Tenant  3.26
          • (4)  Severity of Defects  3.27
          • (5)  Evidence of Defects  3.28
          • (6)  Notice of Defects  3.29
        • b.  Reasonable Time to Repair  3.30
        • c.  Sale of Premises  3.31
        • d.  Remedies for Breach of Implied or Statutory Warranty
          • (1)  Defense to Unlawful Detainer Suit
            • (a)  Summary of Procedure  3.32
            • (b)  Complaint Need Not Allege Compliance With Implied Warranty  3.33
            • (c)  Protective Orders  3.34
          • (2)  Actions for Damages; Statutes of Limitations  3.35
            • (a)  Statutory Damages; Abatement  3.36
            • (b)  General Damages
              • (i)  Difference in Value or Percentage Reduction of Rent  3.37
              • (ii)  Discomfort and Annoyance  3.38
              • (iii)  Personal Injury Damages  3.38A
            • (c)  Special Damages  3.39
            • (d)  Punitive Damages  3.40
            • (e)  Costs and Attorney Fees  3.41
          • (3)  Injunctive Relief  3.42
          • (4)  Termination and Rescission  3.43
          • (5)  Declaratory Relief  3.44
      • 5.  Tactical Considerations  3.45
        • a.  Contract or Tort Action  3.46
        • b.  Gathering and Preserving Evidence  3.46A
        • c.  Availability of Insurance Coverage  3.47
        • d.  Monetary Versus Equitable Claims  3.48
    • H.  Form: Complaint for Damages for Breach of Warranty of Habitability and Related Torts, Specific Performance, and Injunctive Relief  3.48A
    • I.  Checklist: Tenant Causes of Action and Remedies for Habitability Violations and Nuisances  3.48B
  • V.  ASSIGNMENT AND SUBLETTING
    • A.  Transfer of Leasehold Interests  3.49
    • B.  Assignment and Subletting Distinguished  3.50
    • C.  Effect of Transfer  3.51
    • D.  Rights and Liabilities Following Transfer
      • 1.  Assignment
        • a.  Assignee and Landlord  3.52
        • b.  Assignor and Landlord  3.53
      • 2.  Subletting
        • a.  Sublessee and Landlord  3.54
        • b.  Sublessor and Landlord  3.55
    • E.  Restricting Transfer of Leasehold Interests
      • 1.  Lease Covenants Restricting Transfer  3.56
      • 2.  Waiver of Covenant  3.57
      • 3.  Landlord’s Withholding of Consent  3.58
      • 4.  Subleasing in Jurisdictions With Rent Control  3.58A
      • 5.  Interaction With CC §1951.4 Remedy  3.59
    • F.  Effect of Tenant Bankruptcy on Lease Assignment  3.59A
  • VI.  EXTENSION AND RENEWAL OF LEASE
    • A.  Tenant’s Right to Extend or Renew  3.60
    • B.  Covenants to Extend or Renew
      • 1.  Legal Requirements  3.61
      • 2.  Exercise of Election to Renew  3.62
      • 3.  Automatic Renewal; Required Language in Lease (CC §1945.5)  3.63
    • C.  Form: Notice of Non-renewal of Lease (California Apartment Association Form 45.0)  3.63A
    • D.  Tenant’s Holding Over  3.64
  • VII.  CHANGING TERMS OF TENANCY
    • A.  Periodic Tenancy
      • 1.  30-day Notice of Change in Terms  3.65
      • 2.  60-Day Notice of Residential Rent Increase Over 10 Percent  3.65A
      • 3.  Effect of Notice  3.65B
    • B.  Fixed-Term Tenancy  3.66
    • C.  Terminating Government Rent Subsidy Contracts in Rent Control Jurisdictions  3.66A
    • D.  Rent Increases Under Government Subsidy Contracts  3.66B
    • E.  Rent Increases Following Emergencies and Disasters  3.66C
  • VIII.  LANDLORD LIABILITY FOR PERSONAL INJURY AND PROPERTY DAMAGE
    • A.  Liability to Tenant
      • 1.  Negligent Failure to Correct Defects  3.67
      • 2.  Failure to Maintain Common Areas  3.67A
      • 3.  Injuries Caused by Criminal Acts of Third Parties  3.68
        • a.  Public Housing Projects  3.68A
        • b.  Privately Owned Apartment Buildings  3.68B
        • c.  Privately Owned Commercial Buildings  3.68C
        • d.  Public Buildings  3.68D
      • 4.  Exculpatory Clauses  3.69
      • 5.  Strict Liability  3.70
      • 6.  Liability for Sexual Harassment  3.70A
    • B.  Liability to Third Parties
      • 1.  Liability for Negligence Regardless of Plaintiff’s Status  3.71
      • 2.  Liability for Acts of Tenant  3.72
  • IX.  TENANT LIABILITY FOR PROPERTY DAMAGE AND PERSONAL INJURY
    • A.  Duty to Repair  3.73
    • B.  Injury to Third Parties  3.74
  • X.  IMPLIED COVENANT OF GOOD FAITH AND FAIR DEALING  3.75

4

Counseling the Landlord

Nancy C. Lenvin

  • I.  INTRODUCTION  4.1
  • II.  RETAINER AGREEMENTS
    • A.  Written Fee Agreement  4.2
    • B.  Limited Scope Representation
      • 1.  Applicable Law  4.2A
      • 2.  Checklist: Landlord Fee Agreement  4.2B
    • C.  Disclosure Regarding Professional Liability Insurance  4.2C
  • III.  SOLICITING AND CHOOSING TENANTS
    • A.  Advertising Vacant Units  4.3
    • B.  Identification of Prospective Tenants  4.3A
    • C.  Screening Applicants
      • 1.  Purpose  4.4
      • 2.  Written Rental Applications  4.5
        • a.  Format of Application  4.6
        • b.  Information Requested in Application  4.7
        • c.  Checklist: Tenant Information  4.8
        • d.  Credit Checks and Other Investigations  4.9
        • e.  Form: Application to Rent (California Apartment Association Form 3.0-R)  4.10
      • 3.  Screening Fees  4.11
      • 4.  Verifying Application  4.12
      • 5.  Responding to Inquiries  4.13
      • 6.  Evaluating Application and Selecting Tenant
        • a.  Antidiscrimination Requirements  4.14
        • b.  Occupancy Limits  4.15
        • c.  Minimum Income Standards; Verification of Income  4.15A
        • d.  Whether to Allow Animals in Rental Unit  4.15B
      • 7.  Retaining Application  4.16
  • IV.  MANDATORY DISCLOSURES
    • A.  Environmental and Other Hazards  4.16A
      • 1.  Lead  4.16B
      • 2.  Methamphetamine Contamination  4.16C
      • 3.  Mold  4.16D
      • 4.  Pest Control Disclosure Notice  4.16E
      • 5.  Bed Bug Disclosure and Notice  4.16F
    • B.  Dual Agency Disclosure  4.16G
    • C.  Seismic Retrofit Work  4.16H
  • V.  RENTAL AGREEMENT
    • A.  Advantages of Written Over Oral Agreement  4.17
    • B.  Use of Printed Rental Agreement Forms
      • 1.  Advantages  4.18
      • 2.  Disadvantages  4.19
      • 3.  Leasing a Condominium  4.19A
    • C.  Drafting Considerations and Strategies
      • 1.  Length of Rental Term: Periodic or Fixed-Term Tenancy
        • a.  Distinctions  4.20
        • b.  Anticipating Tenant’s Failure to Vacate at End of Term  4.21
        • c.  Effect of Rent Control  4.22
      • 2.  Security Deposits
        • a.  Characterization   4.23
        • b.  Amount of Security Deposit  4.24
        • c.  Interest on Security Deposit   4.25
        • d.  Limits on Residential Landlord’s Use of Security Deposits  4.26
        • e.  Replenishment and Increase of Deposit During Tenancy  4.27
        • f.  Return of Security Deposit  4.28
          • (1)  Residential Tenancies
            • (a)  Notice of Right to Inspection  4.28A
            • (b)  Return of Deposit  4.28B
          • (2)  Commercial Tenancies; Return of Deposit  4.28C
          • (3)  Drafting Tips  4.28D
        • g.  Effect of Termination of Landlord’s Interest in Premises  4.29
      • 3.  Key Money; Commercial Tenancies  4.29A
      • 4.  Rent Provisions
        • a.  Manner of Receiving Rent
          • (1)  Form of Payment
            • (a)  Personal Check or Cash Equivalent   4.30
            • (b)  “Labor-for-Rent” Arrangements  4.31
          • (2)  Date of Payment  4.32
          • (3)  Mode of Delivery  4.33
        • b.  Issues in Establishing Rent for Vacant Units  4.34
        • c.  User Fees  4.35
        • d.  Rent Increases  4.36
      • 5.  Federally Required Lead Disclosures and Abatement  4.37
      • 6.  Restrictions on or Requirements for Use of Premises  4.38
      • 7.  Waiver of Tenant’s Rights  4.39
      • 8.  Parties to Lease; Occupants; Guests  4.40
        • a.  Assignment and Subletting  4.40A
        • b.  Vacancy Decontrol and Roommates   4.40B
      • 9.  Options to Renew  4.41
      • 10.  Utility Charges and Ratio Utility Billing
        • a.  Jurisdiction  4.41A
        • b.  Water and Sewer Billing Methods  4.41B
        • c.  Gas and Electricity Charges  4.41C
        • d.  Other Charges  4.41D
        • e.  Miscellaneous Regulatory Issues  4.41E
      • 11.  Other Provisions
        • a.  Attorney Fees  4.42
        • b.  Landlord’s Right of Entry  4.43
        • c.  Late Fees  4.43A
        • d.  Renters’ Insurance  4.43B
        • e.  Address for Notices  4.43C
  • VI.  LEGAL ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH HOARDING IN RENTAL HOUSING  4.43D
    • A.  Hoarding as a Mental Disability
      • 1.  DSM-V Definition of Hoarding Disorder  4.43E
      • 2.  Definition of Handicap or Disability  4.43F
        • a.  Federal Law  4.43G
        • b.  California Law  4.43H
    • B.  Recognizing Hoarding   4.43I
      • 1.  Hoarding Versus Messy or Dirty Housekeeping  4.43J
      • 2.  The Five Levels of Hoarding  4.43K
      • 3.  The Five Code Violations  4.43L
    • C.  Duty to Provide Reasonable Accommodation  4.43M
      • 1.  Definition of Reasonable Accommodation  4.43N
      • 2.  When Duty to Accommodate Arises  4.43O
      • 3.  Initiating Accommodation for Resident with Hoarding Issues  4.43P
      • 4.  Informal Opportunity to Remedy Health & Safety Issues  4.43Q
        • a.  Manageable and Measurable Goals  4.43R
        • b.  Reasonable Time Frames  4.43S
        • c.  Flexibility and Resources  4.43T
    • D.  Tenancy Termination; When It Is Appropriate  4.43U
      • 1.  Direct Threat Exemption  4.43V
      • 2.  Failure at Attempts to Accommodate  4.43W
    • E.  Post-Termination Issues; Requests for Reasonable Accommodation  4.43X
  • VII.  COPING WITH DRUG-RELATED AND FIREARM ACTIVITY ON THE PREMISES  4.44
    • A.  Nuisance Law  4.44A
    • B.  Medicinal Marijuana Law; State and Local Controls  4.44B
      • 1.  Effect on Tenant and Landlord Rights  4.44C
      • 2.  Effect on Land Use, Insurance, and Secured Lending  4.44D
      • 3.  Ethical Issues and Risks for Attorneys  4.44E
    • C.  Recreational Marijuana Law  4.44F
  • VIII.  PROPERTY MANAGEMENT  4.45
    • A.  Resident Property Managers
      • 1.  Employee or Independent Contractor?  4.46
      • 2.  Compensation  4.47
      • 3.  Termination and Eviction  4.48
      • 4.  Landlord’s Liability for Acts of Manager  4.49
    • B.  Renting Illegal Units  4.49A
    • C.  Insurance Issues for Owners  4.49B
    • D.  Making Repairs; Code Compliance  4.50
    • E.  Regulating Tenant’s Use, Activities, and Special Alterations
      • 1.  Tenant’s Posting of Political Signs  4.50A
      • 2.  Smoking on the Premises  4.50B
      • 3.  Gardening or Personal Agriculture  4.50C
      • 4.  Installation of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations  4.50D
      • 5.  Installation of Clotheslines and Drying Racks  4.50E
      • 6.  Tenant Operating Bed-and-Breakfast or Transient Occupancy Business  4.50F
      • 7.  Tenant's Water Use; Submeter Billing, Monitoring, and Conservation Fixtures  4.50G
    • F.  Relocation Assistance Following Casualty  4.50H
    • G.  Security Deposit Issues on Termination of Tenancy  4.51
  • IX.  PRESALE AND DEVELOPMENT ISSUES  4.52

5

Counseling the Tenant

Myron Moskovitz

Sonya Bekoff Molho

  • I.  COUNSELING INDIVIDUAL TENANTS
    • A.  Overall Strategy
      • 1.  Developing a Tenant Profile: The “Big Picture”  5.1
      • 2.  Devising a Strategy  5.2
        • a.  Litigation as an Option  5.3
        • b.  Settlement as an Option  5.4
      • 3.  Attorney and Tenant Resources  5.4A
    • B.  Limited Scope Representation
      • 1.  Applicable Law  5.4B
      • 2.  Checklist: Tenant Fee Agreement  5.4C
    • C.  Enforcing Tenant’s Rights During Tenancy
      • 1.  Defeating Rent Increase  5.5
        • a.  Retaliation Prohibited  5.6
        • b.  Discrimination Prohibited  5.7
        • c.  Improper Service of Notice of Rent Increase  5.8
        • d.  Effect of Breach of Warranty of Habitability on Increase  5.9
      • 2.  Remedies for Uninhabitable Conditions; Preserving Evidence  5.10
        • a.  Informing Building or Health Inspector of Conditions  5.11
        • b.  Contacting the Landlord  5.12
        • c.  “Repair-and-Deduct” Remedy  5.13
        • d.  Petitioning Rent Control Board for Rent Decrease; Just Cause Evictions  5.14
        • e.  Rent Withholding  5.15
        • f.  Action for Breach of Implied Warranty of Habitability  5.16
      • 3.  Redressing Illegal Landlord Entry
        • a.  Possible Legal Remedies  5.17
        • b.  Checklist: Permissible Reasons for Landlord’s Entry Under CC §1954  5.17A
        • c.  Self-help Remedy: Changing Locks  5.18
      • 4.  Protection Under Anti-SLAPP Statute
        • a.  Tenant’s Motion  5.18A
        • b.  Landlord’s Motion  5.18B
        • c.  Malicious Prosecution Actions  5.18C
        • d.  Strategies for Defending Anti-SLAPP Motions  5.18D
      • 5.  Affirmative Suit Against Landlord; Enjoining Eviction  5.18E
      • 6.  Posting or Displaying Political Signs  5.18F
      • 7.  Smoking on the Premises  5.18G
    • D.  “Breaking” a Lease  5.19
    • E.  Lockouts and Other “Self-Help” Evictions  5.20
      • 1.  Recovering Possession  5.21
      • 2.  Amount of Damages  5.22
      • 3.  Joining Claims  5.23
    • F.  Legal Eviction Procedure
      • 1.  Unlawful Detainer Action Required  5.24
        • a.  Required Notices  5.24A
        • b.  Summary Remedy  5.24B
        • c.  Unlawful Detainer Judgment  5.24C
        • d.  Tenant Damages on Reversal of Judgment  5.24D
      • 2.  Stipulated Judgments  5.25
      • 3.  Effect on Tenant’s Creditworthiness  5.25A
      • 4.  Landlord Actions in Propria Persona  5.26
      • 5.  Representing Occupant Not Named in Eviction Action  5.27
    • G.  Roommates  5.28
      • 1.  Landlord’s Consent  5.29
      • 2.  Nature of Relationship; Right to Evict  5.30
      • 3.  Effect of Local Rent Control Ordinance  5.31
      • 4.  Written Occupancy Agreement  5.32
  • II.  COUNSELING TENANT ORGANIZATIONS
    • A.  Attorney’s Role  5.33
    • B.  Right to Organize on Premises  5.33A
    • C.  Strategy and Tactics  5.34
      • 1.  Obtaining Information About Landlord  5.35
      • 2.  Petitioning the Landlord  5.36
      • 3.  Picketing and Publicity  5.37
      • 4.  Rent Strikes  5.38
      • 5.  Lawsuits Against Landlord  5.39
      • 6.  Negotiations  5.40
      • 7.  Agreement Negotiated Between Landlord and Tenant Union
        • a.  Parties; Effectiveness  5.41
        • b.  Form: Sample Collective Bargaining Agreement  5.42

6

Mobilehome Park Tenancies

Ronald S. Javor

Terry R. Dowdall

  • I.  INTRODUCTION  6.1
  • II.  APPLICABILITY OF MOBILEHOME RESIDENCY LAW (MRL)  6.2
    • A.  Type of Structure  6.3
      • 1.  Mobilehomes  6.4
      • 2.  Recreational Vehicles  6.5
      • 3.  Factory-Built Housing  6.6
      • 4.  Commercial Modulars  6.7
      • 5.  Multifamily Manufactured Homes  6.8
    • B.  Location of Mobilehome  6.9
      • 1.  Installation in Park  6.10
      • 2.  Installation on Individual Lot  6.11
    • C.  Parties to Rental Agreement  6.12
  • III.  OTHER LAWS AFFECTING MOBILEHOMES
    • A.  State Legislation Specific to Mobilehomes  6.13
    • B.  Landlord-Tenant Statutes  6.14
    • C.  Antidiscrimination Statutes  6.15
    • D.  Local Ordinances Regulating Mobilehomes  6.16
    • E.  Public Rental Assistance Programs  6.17
  • IV.  DECISIONAL LAW GOVERNING MOBILEHOME PARK TENANCIES
    • A.  Implied Warranties  6.18
    • B.  Retaliatory Eviction Protections  6.19
    • C.  Adults-Only Restrictions  6.20
  • V.  CREATION OF TENANCY
    • A.  Types of Tenancies  6.21
    • B.  Resident and Mobilehome Admissions Criteria  6.22
    • C.  Lease or Rental Agreement  6.23
  • VI.  MOBILEHOME PARK RENTAL AGREEMENT FOR HOMEOWNER TENANTS
    • A.  Legal and Practical Considerations  6.24
      • 1.  Term of Agreement; Initial Disclosures
        • a.  Homeowner’s Options  6.25
        • b.  Reporting and Disclosure Requirements  6.26
        • c.  Limits on Renewal  6.27
        • d.  Nonprincipal Residences  6.28
      • 2.  Rent and Rent Increases  6.29
        • a.  Notice of Rent Increase  6.30
        • b.  Methods of Rent Increase in Long-Term Agreements
          • (1)  Objective Factors  6.31
          • (2)  Pass-Throughs  6.32
        • c.  Inclusion of Utilities or Taxes in Rent  6.33
        • d.  Statutory Limitations on Rent, Fees, and Charges  6.34
        • e.  Impact of Local Rent Control Regulations  6.35
        • f.  Local Limitations on Vacancy Decontrol  6.36
      • 3.  Fees, Service Charges, and Utilities  6.37
        • a.  Permissible Fees
          • (1)  Common Area Landscaping and Maintenance Fees  6.38
          • (2)  Fees Imposed by Governmental Entities  6.39
        • b.  Limitations on Fees
          • (1)  Supplying Lease  6.40
          • (2)  Pets  6.41
          • (3)  Occupancy  6.42
          • (4)  Installation, Development, and Initial Landscaping  6.43
          • (5)  Assessments and Awards Against Management  6.44
          • (6)  Enforcing Park Rules and Regulations  6.45
        • c.  Amortization of Fees  6.46
        • d.  Utilities Charges  6.47
      • 4.  Security Deposits  6.48
      • 5.  Park Rules
        • a.  Adoption and Amendment of Rules  6.49
        • b.  Limitation on Park Rules  6.50
      • 6.  Park Management Responsibilities  6.51
      • 7.  Fixtures and Alterations  6.52
      • 8.  Uses and Changes of Use, Zoning, or Master Lease
        • a.  Disclosures  6.53
        • b.  Change of Use
          • (1)  Definition  6.54
          • (2)  Implementation  6.55
          • (3)  Park Conversions  6.56
          • (4)  Failure to Follow Procedures  6.57
          • (5)  Antidiscrimination Laws  6.57A
        • c.  Sale of Park  6.58
      • 9.  Sale or Lease of Mobilehomes
        • a.  Management Rights and Duties  6.59
        • b.  Form: Information for Prospective Homeowners  6.60
        • c.  Limitations on Right to Withhold Approval  6.61
        • d.  Failure to Execute Rental Agreement  6.62
        • e.  Management’s Role in Sales or Listings  6.63
        • f.  Seller Disclosures  6.64
        • g.  Required Removal of Mobilehome After Sale  6.65
      • 10.  Cotenants, Sublessees, and Subsequent Tenants  6.66
        • a.  Cotenants  6.67
        • b.  Sublessees  6.68
    • B.  Statutory Remedies in Mobilehome Park Tenancies
      • 1.  Termination of Tenancy
        • a.  Scope of MRL  6.69
        • b.  Permissible Grounds  6.70
          • (1)  Failure to Comply With Laws  6.71
          • (2)  Conduct Constituting Substantial Annoyance  6.72
          • (3)  Conviction for Specified Crimes  6.73
          • (4)  Failure to Comply With Park Rules and Regulations  6.74
          • (5)  Nonpayment of Rent or Charges for Services or Utilities  6.75
          • (6)  Condemnation of Park  6.76
          • (7)  Change of Use of Park; Closure of Park  6.77
        • c.  Impermissible Grounds
          • (1)  Grounds Established by MRL  6.78
          • (2)  Retaliation  6.79
          • (3)  Expiration of Stated Term  6.80
          • (4)  Lapsed or Suspended Permit to Operate  6.81
        • d.  Notices of Termination  6.82
        • e.  Special Concerns When Secured Lenders or Heirs Are Involved  6.83
      • 2.  Eviction; Execution of Judgment; Lien Enforcement
        • a.  Procedures for Eviction  6.84
        • b.  Execution of Money Judgment Against Mobilehome  6.85
        • c.  Prohibition on Acquiring Lien or Security Interest in Mobilehome  6.86
        • d.  Warehouse Lien
          • (1)  Definition  6.87
          • (2)  Warehouse Lien Procedure  6.88
            • (a)  Termination Notice  6.89
            • (b)  Response Options to Termination Notice  6.90
          • (3)  Foreclosing a Warehouse Lien  6.91
        • e.  Judicial Declaration of Abandonment (CC §798.61)  6.92
      • 3.  Additional Remedies
        • a.  By Tenants
          • (1)  Public Nuisance  6.93
          • (2)  Management’s Willful Violations and Illegal Business Practices  6.94
          • (3)  Other Remedies  6.95
        • b.  By Management  6.96
        • c.  Attorney Fees and Penalties  6.97
        • d.  Arbitration of Disputes  6.98
    • C.  Form Disclosures Regarding Rent Control for Mobilehome Park Homeowner Tenants
      • 1.  Form: Rent Control Exemption Notice  6.99
      • 2.  Form: Notice of Option to Void Rental Agreement  6.100
    • D.  Form Clauses for Mobilehome Park Rental Agreement: Homeowner Tenants
      • 1.  Initial Information
        • a.  Form: Park Name/Address and Space Number/Address  6.101
        • b.  Form: Identity of Homeowner and Residents  6.102
        • c.  Form: Identity of Park Owner and Management  6.103
        • d.  Term
          • (1)  Form: Beginning of Term  6.104
          • (2)  Form: Length of Term  6.105
        • e.  Form: Amount of Rent  6.106
        • f.  Form: Services  6.107
        • g.  Form: Facilities  6.108
        • h.  Form: Chart Showing Fees for Utilities and Services  6.109
        • i.  Deposit
          • (1)  Form: Amount  6.110
          • (2)  Form: Payment of Deposit Amounts  6.111
        • j.  Form: Zoning and Land Use Disclosures  6.112
        • k.  Form: Mobilehome Ownership Information  6.113
        • l.  Form: Other Information  6.114
      • 2.  Form: Agreement to Lease  6.115
      • 3.  Form: Term of Agreement  6.116
      • 4.  Rent and Rent Increases
        • a.  Form: Indexed Rent Increases (Long-Term Rental Agreement Only)  6.117
        • b.  Form: Due Date of Rent Payments; Notice of Increase  6.118
        • c.  Form: Tender of Rent  6.119
        • d.  Form: Charges for Late Payment of Rent  6.120
      • 5.  Form: Fees, Service Charges, and Utilities  6.121
      • 6.  Form: Security and Default Deposits  6.122
      • 7.  Form: State Law and Park Rules; Procedure for Amending Park Rules  6.123
      • 8.  Form: Park Management Responsibilities for Physical Facilities, Services, Utilities, and Compliance With Law  6.124
      • 9.  Form: Fixtures: Ownership, Maintenance, and Liability  6.125
      • 10.  Form: Right of Entry  6.126
      • 11.  Form: Changes in Zoning, Use Permits, or Master Lease  6.127
      • 12.  Form: Sale or Subletting of Mobilehome  6.128
      • 13.  Form: General Prohibitions (Residential Use, Guests, Abandonment, Subletting, and Assignments or Encumbrances)  6.129
      • 14.  Form: Termination and Eviction  6.130
      • 15.  Form: Waivers  6.131
      • 16.  Form: Notices  6.132
      • 17.  Form: Consultation With Homeowner  6.133
      • 18.  Form: Liability Indemnification  6.134
      • 19.  Form: Management’s Right to Make Payments  6.135
      • 20.  Form: Ownership of Mobilehome  6.136
      • 21.  Form: Multiple Mobilehome Ownership  6.137
      • 22.  Form: Enforcement of Agreement  6.138
      • 23.  Form: Attorney Fees  6.139
      • 24.  Miscellaneous Provisions
        • a.  Form: Time of the Essence  6.140
        • b.  Form: Interpretation and Severability  6.141
        • c.  Form: Entirety of Agreement  6.142
        • d.  Form: Alterations or Amendments  6.143
      • 25.  Acknowledgments
        • a.  Form: Acknowledgment Is Voluntary; Caveat  6.144
        • b.  Form: Inspection Made to Corroborate Management’s Representation of Space and Facilities  6.145
        • c.  Form: Receipt and Understanding of Mobilehome Residency Law  6.146
        • d.  Form: Charges for Month-to-Month Agreement  6.147
        • e.  Charges for Term Agreement  6.148
        • f.  Form: Acceptance of Commercial Goods or Services Not Required  6.149
        • g.  Form: Consent to Entry  6.150
        • h.  Form: Attachments  6.151
      • 26.  Form: Notice of Rights and Responsibilities  6.152
      • 27.  Form: Execution  6.153
      • 28.   Form: Flood Hazard Disclosure  6.153A
      • 29.  Form: Reasonable Accommodation Request  6.153B
  • VII.  RULES AND REGULATIONS
    • A.  Importance  6.154
    • B.  Checklist: Common Provisions  6.155
  • VIII.  MANAGEMENT-TENANT RELATIONS
    • A.  Tenant Organizations  6.156
    • B.  Management Organizations  6.157

7

Practicing Under Rent and Eviction Control Laws

Scott A. Freedman

Nancy C. Lenvin

Sonya Bekoff Molho

Myron Moskovitz

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Overview  7.1
    • B.  Resources  7.2
  • II.  BASIC CONCEPTS  7.3
    • A.  Vacancy Control or Decontrol  7.4
    • B.  Base Rent  7.5
    • C.  Retroactive Application of Enactments  7.6
  • III.  HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND LEGAL CHALLENGES
    • A.  Wartime Rent Controls and the “Emergency Requirement”  7.7
    • B.  Rise of Peacetime Controls  7.8
    • C.  Facial Challenges  7.9
      • 1.  Constitutional Challenges  7.10
      • 2.  Mobilehome Park Rent Control Ordinances  7.11
      • 3.  Other Bases for Facial Challenges  7.12
    • D.  Fair Return Issues  7.13
    • E.  “As Applied” Due Process Challenges  7.14
    • F.  Damage Actions Under 42 USC §1983  7.14A
    • G.  Kavanau and Galland Decisions Applied  7.14B
    • H.  Actions Regarding Rent Controls  7.14C
  • IV.  EXEMPTIONS  7.15
    • A.  Single-Family Homes, Condominiums, and Small Buildings  7.16
    • B.  Owner-Occupied Dwellings  7.17
    • C.  New Construction  7.18
    • D.  Federally Assisted Housing  7.19
    • E.  Care Facilities  7.20
    • F.  Hotels  7.21
    • G.  Luxury Units  7.22
    • H.  Substantially Rehabilitated Units  7.23
    • I.  Tenants Who Do Not Make the Unit Tenant’s Principal Residence  7.23A
    • J.  Other Exemptions  7.24
  • V.  VACANCY DECONTROL: COSTA-HAWKINS RENTAL HOUSING ACT
    • A.  Preemption of Local Vacancy Controls  7.25
    • B.  Phasing Out Existing Local Vacancy Controls  7.25A
    • C.  Preemption of Local Laws Affecting Collateral Rights Under Costa-Hawkins  7.25B
    • D.  Subletting and Assignment: When Does a Vacancy Occur?  7.26
      • 1.  Former Law on Subletting  7.27
      • 2.  Subletting After the Costa-Hawkins Act  7.28
      • 3.  Eviction Issues After Costa-Hawkins  7.28A
  • VI.  RENT INCREASE MECHANISMS
    • A.  Base Rents
      • 1.  Determining Base Rent  7.29
      • 2.  Changing Base Rent  7.30
      • 3.  Base Rents for Newly Covered Rental Units  7.31
      • 4.  Evidentiary Problems in Establishing Base Rents  7.32
    • B.  Annual Base Rent Adjustments  7.33
    • C.  Individual Adjustments
      • 1.  Increases in Operating and Maintenance Expenses  7.34
      • 2.  Utility and Capital-Improvement Pass-Throughs  7.35
      • 3.  Cost of Professional Services to Prove Need for Rent Increase  7.36
      • 4.  Limits on Individual Increases  7.37
      • 5.  “Fair Return” Adjustments  7.38
      • 6.  Tenant Does Not Occupy Unit As Principal Residence  7.38A
  • VII.  TENANT PETITIONS FOR RENT DECREASES OR REFUNDS
    • A.  Reductions in Services  7.39
    • B.  Inadequate Maintenance  7.40
    • C.  Refund of Rent Overpayments  7.40A
  • VIII.  PRACTICING BEFORE RENT CONTROL BOARDS
    • A.  Introduction  7.41
    • B.  Powers of Rent Boards
      • 1.  Rule Making  7.42
      • 2.  Adjudicating Petitions  7.43
      • 3.  Registration of Rental Units  7.44
      • 4.  Registration of Rents  7.45
    • C.  Representing Clients at Administrative Hearings  7.46
      • 1.  Evidence  7.47
      • 2.  Preservation of Record  7.48
      • 3.  Costs of Preparing for and Attending a Hearing  7.49
      • 4.  Findings and Conclusions Required  7.50
    • D.  Judicial Review: Administrative Mandamus  7.51
    • E.  Arbitration  7.52
  • IX.  RESTRICTIONS ON EVICTIONS
    • A.  Overview  7.53
    • B.  Just Cause for Eviction or Termination of Housing Services  7.54
      • 1.  “Good Faith” Requirements  7.55
      • 2.  Protection for Subtenants  7.55A
    • C.  Permissible Grounds for Just Cause Evictions
      • 1.  Tenant’s Breach
        • a.  Failure to Pay Rent  7.56
        • b.  Failure to Cure Violation of Rental Agreement  7.57
        • c.  Conduct Constituting a Nuisance  7.58
        • d.  Use of Premises for Illegal Purpose  7.59
        • e.  Refusal to Permit Access to Landlord  7.60
        • f.  Refusal to Execute New Lease  7.61
        • g.  Improper Subletting; Transient Occupancy  7.62
      • 2.  Renovation or Rehabilitation  7.63
      • 3.  Demolition or Conversion Under Ellis Act; Relocation Assistance  7.64
        • a.  Constitutionality of Ellis Act Upheld  7.64A
        • b.  Basic Provisions of Ellis Act
          • (1)  Allows Withdrawal of Housing Accommodations From Market  7.64B
          • (2)  Authorizes Local Restrictions and Notices to Tenants on Subsequent Rental  7.64C
          • (3)  Requires Reasonable Review of Permit Applications and Fair Return on Demolished and Reconstructed Units  7.64D
          • (4)  Does Not Prohibit Multiple Owner Occupancy Use  7.64E
          • (5)  Notice and Reporting Requirements  7.64F
        • c.  Eviction Actions Under Ellis Act  7.64G
        • d.  Local Requirements and Restrictions on Evictions  7.64H
      • 4.  Occupancy by Owner or Owner’s Relative
        • a.  Typical Ordinance Provisions  7.65
        • b.  Statutory Provisions; CC §1947.10  7.66
        • c.  “Good Faith” Intent to Occupy  7.67
        • d.  Counseling Potential Buyers Who Plan to Occupy Rented Premises  7.68
    • D.  Grounds Not Set Forth in Ordinance
      • 1.  Tenant Eviction Not Allowed After Foreclosure  7.69
      • 2.  Termination of Manager  7.70
      • 3.  Tenant Gives Notice of Termination or Agrees to Vacate But Fails to Vacate  7.71
      • 4.  Death of Tenant  7.72
    • E.  Notice and Pleading Requirements
      • 1.  Eviction Notices  7.73
      • 2.  Must Compliance With Ordinance Be Alleged in Complaint?  7.74
    • F.  Burdens of Proof and Presumptions  7.75
    • G.  Defenses to Evictions Provided by Local Ordinance  7.76
    • H.  Required Payments to Tenants on Eviction  7.76A
  • X.  CIVIL DAMAGES AND OFFSETS FOR ORDINANCE VIOLATIONS
    • A.  Damages for Rent Overcharges  7.77
    • B.  Damages for Unlawful Evictions  7.78
      • 1.  Litigation Privilege Defense  7.78A
      • 2.  Motion to Strike; CCP §425.16  7.78B
      • 3.  Successful Tenant Actions  7.78C
      • 4.  Calculating Damages  7.78D
    • C.  Attorney Fees  7.79
    • D.  Liability of New Owner  7.80

8

Terminating the Tenancy

Scott A. Freedman

Myron Moskovitz

  • I.  METHODS OF TERMINATING TENANCY  8.1
    • A.  Expiration of Term  8.2
    • B.  By Actions of Landlord or Tenant  8.3
    • C.  Death of Landlord or Tenant  8.4
    • D.  Destruction of Premises; Governmental Regulation  8.5
    • E.  Eminent Domain  8.6
    • F.  Sale of Premises  8.7
    • G.  Squatting  8.7A
  • II.  TERMINATION BY TENANT
    • A.  Abandonment
      • 1.  Definition  8.8
      • 2.  Establishing Abandonment
        • a.  Under CC §§1951.2–1951.35  8.9
          • (1)  Form: Notice of Belief of Abandonment Pursuant to CC §1951.3(e) (To be Used for Residential Tenancies Only)  8.10
          • (2)  Service of Notice  8.11
          • (3)  Countering Notice of Abandonment  8.12
        • b.  At Common Law  8.13
      • 3.  Remedies
        • a.  Termination of Lease (CC §1951.2)  8.14
        • b.  Continuation of Lease (CC §1951.4)  8.15
        • c.  Liquidated Damages; Equitable Relief; Nonexclusivity of Remedies  8.16
    • B.  Surrender
      • 1.  Historical Significance  8.17
      • 2.  Implied Surrender  8.18
    • C.  Landlord’s Breach of Lease Covenant  8.19
    • D.  Tenant’s Termination of Periodic Tenancy (CC §§1946, 1946.1)  8.20
    • E.  Death of Tenant  8.21
    • F.  Relief for Servicemembers  8.22
    • G.  Victim of Domestic Violence  8.23
  • III.  TERMINATION BY LANDLORD: NOTICE ISSUES
    • A.  Termination for No Stated Reason, for Tenant’s Breach, or Because Landlord Is Going Out of Business
      • 1.  Periodic Tenancies  8.24
      • 2.  Pending Sale of Residential Unit  8.25
      • 3.  Tenant Breaches  8.26
      • 4.  Domestic Violence and Other Abuses  8.27
      • 5.  Summoning Law Enforcement or Emergency Assistance  8.27A
      • 6.  Ellis Act Evictions  8.28
    • B.  Common Pitfalls  8.29
    • C.  Strict Compliance With Notice Provisions Required for Unlawful Detainer  8.30
    • D.  Remedies When No Notice Given: Ejectment; Quiet Title  8.31
  • IV.  TERMINATION FOR TENANT’S BREACH: 3-DAY NOTICE
    • A.  Notice Required Before Filing Unlawful Detainer Action  8.32
    • B.  Effect of Debt Collection Practices Act  8.33
    • C.  Effect of Lease Provision Altering Notice Requirements  8.34
    • D.  Computation of Notice Period
      • 1.  Computation Rules (CCP §1161)  8.35
      • 2.  Computation When Notice Served by Mail  8.36
    • E.  Form and Content of Notice
      • 1.  In Writing; Signature Not Required  8.37
      • 2.  Description of Premises  8.38
      • 3.  Description of Breach; Demand for Cure  8.39
      • 4.  Unequivocal Demand for Possession  8.40
      • 5.  Tenant Has 3 Days to Pay Rent or Perform Covenant  8.41
      • 6.  Election of Forfeiture  8.42
      • 7.  Content Required by Eviction Control Ordinances  8.43
    • F.  Bases for Termination With 3 Days’ Notice
      • 1.  Failure to Pay Rent: Purpose and Effect of Notice  8.44
        • a.  Demand for Rent
          • (1)  Stated “In the Alternative”  8.45
          • (2)  Amount Due: Residential Leases  8.46
          • (3)  Amount Due: Commercial Leases  8.47
          • (4)  To Whom and Where Rent Must Be Paid  8.48
          • (5)  Compliance With CC §1962  8.49
          • (6)  Limitation to Rent Due Within Year Preceding Notice  8.50
        • b.  Demand for Interest and Late Charges
          • (1)  Interest and Late Charges May Be Includable in Notice  8.51
          • (2)  Avoiding Excessive Late Charges  8.52
        • c.  Form: 3-Day Notice to Pay Rent or Quit  8.53
        • d.  Timing Service of Notice  8.54
        • e.  Effect of Tender of Rent
          • (1)  Before Service of Notice  8.55
          • (2)  During Notice Period  8.56
          • (3)  After Expiration of Notice Period  8.57
      • 2.  Tenant’s Breach of Lease Covenant
        • a.  Statutory Provision  8.58
        • b.  Breaches Covered
          • (1)  Breach of Express Covenant Only  8.59
          • (2)  Minor Breach Not Sufficient  8.60
        • c.  Waiver and Estoppel  8.61
        • d.  Form of Notice
          • (1)  Alternative of Performing or Vacating  8.62
          • (2)  Stating the Breach  8.63
        • e.  Effect of Tenant’s Performance  8.64
        • f.  Form: 3-Day Notice to Perform Covenant of Lease or Quit (Curable Breach)  8.65
        • g.  Form: 3-Day Notice to Quit for Breach of Covenant (Noncurable Breach)  8.66
      • 3.  Breaches or Acts That Constitute Unlawful Detainer Under CCP §1161(4)  8.67
        • a.  Breach of Covenant Against Subletting, Assignment, or Waste
          • (1)  Covenant Must Be Express; Notice Considerations  8.68
          • (2)  Tenant Operating Bed-and-Breakfast or Transient Occupancy Business  8.68A
          • (3)  Evidence Required to Establish Waste  8.69
        • b.  Nuisance  8.70
        • c.  Unlawful Purpose  8.71
      • 4.  Termination of Possession After Sale or Foreclosure  8.72
    • G.  Service of Notice
      • 1.  Statutory Requirements  8.73
        • a.  Service by Mail Alone  8.74
        • b.  “Substituted” Service  8.75
        • c.  “Conspicuous” Service  8.76
      • 2.  Actual Receipt of Improperly Served Notice  8.77
      • 3.  Service on Cotenants or Subtenants  8.78
      • 4.  Service on Rent Board  8.79
      • 5.  Withdrawal of Notice  8.80
  • V.  TERMINATION AFTER SALE OR FORECLOSURE (CCP §§1161a, 1161b)
    • A.  Property Owners and Commercial Tenants (3-Day Notice)  8.81
    • B.  Residential Tenants
      • 1.  Foreclosure Sale
        • a.  Notice of Foreclosure Before Sale  8.82
        • b.  Notice of Termination of Tenancy (90-Day Notice); Additional Rights For Fixed-Term Leases; Cover Sheet Requirements  8.83
        • c.  Occupant or Tenant Claims of Right to Possession  8.83A
      • 2.  Voluntary Sale  8.84
    • C.  Lease Priority Issues After Foreclosure  8.85
    • D.  Protecting Tenants at Foreclosure Act of 2009: Effect on Evictions After Foreclosure  8.86
    • E.  Form: Notice to Renters (Following Foreclosure Against Owner’s Interest)  8.87
  • VI.  TERMINATION OF MONTH-TO-MONTH TENANCY: 30-DAY OR 60-DAY NOTICE
    • A.  Statutory Requirements  8.88
    • B.  Alteration of Notice Period; Commercial Tenancies  8.89
    • C.  Format and Contents of Notice
      • 1.  Description of Premises; Signature  8.90
      • 2.  Residential Tenancy Notice Requirements  8.91
      • 3.  Grounds for Termination  8.92
      • 4.  30 or 60 Days to Vacate; Service in Middle of Term  8.93
    • D.  Serving 30-Day or 60-Day Notice
      • 1.  Method of Service  8.94
      • 2.  Withdrawal of Notice  8.95
      • 3.  Service on Subtenants  8.96
      • 4.  When Tenant Must Vacate  8.97
    • E.  Notice Period Must Expire Before Filing of Complaint  8.98
    • F.  Terminating a Tenancy at Will  8.99
    • G.  Form: 30-Day, 60-Day, or 90-Day Termination Notice  8.100
    • H.  Notice to Renters Following Foreclosure  8.101
  • VII.  UNLAWFUL DETAINER ACTIONS THAT REQUIRE NO NOTICE
    • A.  Tenant Gives Notice, But Remains After Notice Expires  8.102
    • B.  Expiration of Fixed-Term Lease  8.103
    • C.  Hotel and Motel Guests  8.104
    • D.  Employees  8.105
  • VIII.  TERMINATION BY LANDLORD UNDER GOVERNMENT-SPONSORED PROGRAM
    • A.  Eviction Procedures Mandated by Federal Law  8.106
    • B.  Attorney Resources  8.107
  • IX.  LIMITATIONS ON LANDLORD’S ABILITY TO TERMINATE TENANCY
    • A.  Retaliatory Eviction  8.108
      • 1.  Several Sources of Law May Apply  8.109
        • a.  Retaliation Statute (CC §1942.5)
          • (1)  Tenant Exercising Statutory or Habitability Rights (CC §1942.5(a))
            • (a)  Protected Acts  8.110
            • (b)  Limitations on Protection (CC §1942.5(a)–(b))  8.111
          • (2)  Immigration Status Protection (CC §1942.5(c), (e))  8.111A
          • (3)  Tenant Union Activity or “Rights Under Law” (CC §1942.5(d))  8.112
          • (4)  Tenant Cannot Waive Rights (CC §1942.5(f))  8.113
          • (5)  Notice and Burden of Proof (CC §1942.5(g))  8.114
          • (6)  Remedies (CC §1942.5(h)–(i))  8.115
          • (7)  Remedies Not Exclusive (CC §1942.5(j))  8.116
        • b.  Unruh Civil Rights Act (CC §51)
          • (1)  Arbitrary Conduct Prohibited by Act’s Discrimination Protections  8.117
          • (2)  “Arbitrary” Defined  8.118
          • (3)  Burden of Proof  8.119
          • (4)  Remedies  8.120
        • c.  California Fair Employment and Housing Act (FEHA)  8.121
        • d.  Federal Statutes  8.122
        • e.  Other Statutes  8.123
        • f.  Common Law  8.124
        • g.  Local Ordinances  8.125
        • h.  Constitutional Protections  8.126
        • i.  Applicability of Law to Retaliatory Eviction in Commercial Tenancies  8.127
      • 2.  Proof of Retaliatory Motive
        • a.  Sole or Dominant Motive  8.128
        • b.  Presumptions and Burden of Proof  8.129
        • c.  Evidence
          • (1)  Typically Circumstantial and Inferential  8.130
          • (2)  Analogy to Labor Law Cases  8.131
      • 3.  Remedies for Retaliation
        • a.  Defense to Unlawful Detainer Action  8.132
        • b.  Injunctive and Declaratory Relief  8.133
        • c.  Action for Damages  8.134
      • 4.  Beyond Retaliatory Eviction: Good Cause to Evict  8.135
    • B.  Local Rent and Eviction Controls  8.136
    • C.  “Self-Help” and Harassment Evictions; Tenant Remedies  8.137
      • 1.  Forcible Entry and Detainer  8.138
        • a.  Elements of Cause of Action
          • (1)  Forcible Entry
            • (a)  Tenant’s Possession Prerequisite  8.139
            • (b)  Statutory Definitions and Judicial Applications  8.140
          • (2)  Forcible Detainer  8.141
        • b.  Kinds of Occupants Protected  8.142
        • c.  Affirmative Defenses  8.143
        • d.  Remedies  8.144
        • e.  Procedure  8.145
        • f.  Form: Complaint for Forcible Entry and Forcible Detainer  8.146
      • 2.  Denial of Tenant’s Use of, or Access to, Premises
        • a.  Utility Cutoffs  8.147
        • b.  Access to Premises; Removal of Personal Property  8.148
        • c.  Remedies Under CC §789.3  8.149
        • d.  Remedies Under Public Utilities Code and CC §1942.2  8.150
        • e.  Restraining Order Against Tenant  8.151
      • 3.  Suit for Tort of “Wrongful Eviction”  8.152
      • 4.  Harassment of Tenant by Landlord
        • a.  Harassment Under CC §1940.2  8.153
        • b.  Enhanced Remedies for Harassment Under CC §1940.35  8.153A
      • 5.  Other Injuries to Premises; Common Law Remedies  8.154
      • 6.  Criminal Prosecution  8.155
      • 7.  Strategies on “Self-Help” Eviction Remedies  8.156
    • D.  Affirmative Suits Against Landlord
      • 1.  Tenant’s Suit to Enjoin Eviction  8.157
      • 2.  Tenant’s Suit for Damages for Wrongful Eviction  8.157A
  • X.  EFFECTS OF TERMINATION
    • A.  Tenant’s Personal Property
      • 1.  Statutory Requirements After Unlawful Detainer, Abandonment, or Vacation by Tenant  8.158
        • a.  Landlord Must Store Tenant’s Property  8.159
        • b.  Notice to Tenant Required  8.160
        • c.  Return of Property on Payment of Storage Costs  8.161
        • d.  Disposition of Unclaimed Property  8.162
        • e.  Form: Notice to Tenant of Right to Reclaim Abandoned Property (CC §1984)  8.163
        • f.  Form: Notice to Owner Other Than Tenant of Right to Reclaim Abandoned Property (CC §1985)  8.164
      • 2.  Enforcement of Landlord’s Lien (CC §§1861–1861a)  8.165
    • B.  Disposition of Fixtures  8.166
      • 1.  Rule: Fixtures Are Part of Real Property (CC §1013)  8.167
      • 2.  Tenant’s Limited Right to Remove Fixtures (CC §1013.5)  8.168
      • 3.  Tenant’s Right to Remove Trade Fixtures (CC §1019)  8.169
      • 4.  Disposition of Encumbered Fixtures  8.170
    • C.  Disposition of Tenant’s Security Deposit
      • 1.  Statutory Framework
        • a.  Summary of Security Deposit Law  8.171
        • b.  What Payments Are Covered?  8.172
        • c.  Statutory Ceiling  8.173
        • d.  Landlord’s Duty to Maintain Deposit; Interest on Deposit  8.174
        • e.  Priority of Tenant’s Claim  8.175
        • f.  Termination of Landlord’s Interest in Unit  8.176
      • 2.  After Termination of Tenancy
        • a.  Tenant’s Right to Request Inspection of Premises and to Cure Deficiencies  8.177
        • b.  Form: Notice of Right to Request Inspection of Premises and to Reclaim Abandoned Property  8.178
        • c.  Landlord’s Duty to Give Itemized Statement and Return Deposit  8.179
          • (1)  Items to Which Deposit May Be Applied  8.180
          • (2)  When Landlord Must Deliver Itemized Statement and Deposit Refund  8.181
          • (3)  Contents of Itemized Statement  8.182
          • (4)  When Repairs Cannot Be Finished Within Required Time  8.183
          • (5)  Exceptions to Required Documentation  8.184
          • (6)  Form: Waiver of Right to Receive Documents With Security Deposit Refund  8.185
          • (7)  Form: Security Deposit Disposition Agreement (California Apartment Association Form 18.3)  8.186
        • d.  Remedies for Landlord’s Improper Retention of Deposit  8.187
        • e.  “Nonrefundable” Deposits and Waivers in Leases Prohibited  8.188
        • f.  Effect on Unlawful Detainer Action  8.189
        • g.  Effect on Subsequent Action Against Tenant  8.190

9

Unlawful Detainer: Preparing and Filing the Action

Andrew J. Wiegel

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  9.1
    • B.  Statutory Authority  9.2
    • C.  Applicability of Unlawful Detainer Remedy
      • 1.  Grounds In General  9.3
      • 2.  Termination of Landlord-Tenant Relationship  9.4
  • II.  NATURE OF UNLAWFUL DETAINER ACTIONS
    • A.  Suit for Possession  9.5
    • B.  Summary Remedy  9.6
      • 1.  Expedited Procedures; Trial Priority  9.7
      • 2.  Issues Limited  9.8
      • 3.  Application of Other Procedures  9.9
    • C.  Compare: Other Actions for Possession  9.10
      • 1.  Common Law Ejectment  9.11
      • 2.  Quiet Title  9.12
    • D.  Effect of Local Rent and Eviction Control
      • 1.  Legal Background  9.13
      • 2.  Recurring Issues in Evictions
        • a.  Retroactivity of Ordinance  9.14
        • b.  Estoppel Effect of Administrative Decision  9.15
        • c.  Pleading and Proving Just Cause to Evict  9.16
          • (1)  Pleading in Complaint and Answer  9.16A
          • (2)  Burden of Producing Evidence  9.16B
          • (3)  Burden of Proof  9.16C
        • d.  Pleading and Proving Compliance With Local Ordinance  9.16D
  • III.  SETTLEMENT AND STIPULATIONS
    • A.  Counseling and Negotiation  9.17
    • B.  CCP §998 Offers to Settle  9.17A
    • C.  Participation by Parties Is Essential  9.18
    • D.  Settlement Terms and Conditions
      • 1.  Judgment Versus Dismissal  9.18A
      • 2.  Disadvantages of Stipulated Judgment  9.18B
      • 3.  Stipulated Judgment Procedure  9.18C
      • 4.  Duty to Inform Court of Stay or Settlement  9.18D
    • E.  Form: Stipulation for Entry of Judgment or Dismissal (Attorney-Drafted)  9.19
    • F.  Form: Stipulation for Entry of Judgment (Unlawful Detainer) (Judicial Council Form UD-115)  9.19A
  • IV.  REPRESENTING LANDLORDS IN EVICTIONS
    • A.  Ethical Considerations for Attorney
      • 1.  Rules of Professional Conduct  9.20
      • 2.  Communicating With Tenant  9.21
    • B.  Initial Meeting With Landlord  9.22
      • 1.  Actions In Propria Persona  9.23
      • 2.  Fee Agreement and Limited Scope Representation  9.23A
      • 3.  Wrongful Eviction  9.24
      • 4.  Information Necessary to Pursue Eviction  9.25
        • a.  Defendants Other Than Known Tenant  9.26
        • b.  Form: Sample Eviction Questionnaire  9.27
    • C.  Role of Insurance
      • 1.  Wrongful Eviction Coverage  9.28
      • 2.  Tenant Claim for Punitive Damages  9.29
  • V.  PREPARING THE COMPLAINT
    • A.  Form of Pleading Optional  9.30
    • B.  Form: Complaint—Unlawful Detainer (Judicial Council Form UD-100)  9.31
    • C.  Selecting the Court
      • 1.  Subject Matter Jurisdiction; Limited Versus Unlimited Civil Case  9.32
      • 2.  Venue and Trial Court Location  9.33
    • D.  Proper Parties
      • 1.  Plaintiffs  9.34
      • 2.  Defendants
        • a.  Tenant and Subtenant  9.35
        • b.  Occupant Unnamed in Complaint  9.35A
        • c.  Lender Holding Security Interest in Lease  9.35B
    • E.  Relationship of Parties  9.36
    • F.  Summary of Essential Allegations  9.37
    • G.  Monetary Relief
      • 1.  Eviction Based on Rent Default  9.38
      • 2.  Eviction Based on Other Grounds  9.39
      • 3.  Malicious Holdover, Fraud, Force, or Violence  9.40
    • H.  Relief Other Than Possession and Damages  9.41
    • I.  Verification  9.42
    • J.  Amendments  9.43
  • VI.  FILING AND SERVING THE ACTION
    • A.  When to File Unlawful Detainer Complaint  9.44
    • B.  Service of Summons and Complaint
      • 1.  Legal Requirements  9.45
      • 2.  Form: Summons (Unlawful Detainer) (Judicial Council Form SUM-130)  9.46
      • 3.  Methods of Service
        • a.  Personal Delivery (CCP §415.10)  9.47
        • b.  Substituted Service (CCP §415.20(b)–(c))  9.48
        • c.  Posting and Mailing (CCP §415.45)  9.49
        • d.  Certified Mail After Response to Notice of Abandonment  9.50
      • 4.  Occupants Not Named in Complaint: Prejudgment Claim of Right to Possession  9.51
        • a.  Investigating for Occupants Unnamed in Complaint  9.52
        • b.  Serving Unnamed Occupants  9.53
        • c.  Filing Prejudgment Claim: 10-Day Limit  9.54
      • 5.  Form: Prejudgment Claim of Right to Possession (Judicial Council Form CP10.5)  9.55
      • 6.  Filing Proof of Service  9.55A
    • C.  Writ of Immediate Possession  9.56

10

Unlawful Detainer: Responsive Pleadings

Sonya Bekoff Molho

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Shortened (5-Day) Response Time  10.1
    • B.  Local Rules Preempted  10.2
    • C.  Relief for Underpayment of Filing Fee  10.3
  • II.  ATTORNEY ETHICS
    • A.  Delaying Tactics; Bankruptcy  10.4
    • B.  Group Representation  10.5
    • C.  Fee Agreement and Limited Scope Representation  10.6
    • D.  Paying Rent for the Tenant  10.7
  • III.  COURT FEES; IN FORMA PAUPERIS PROCEDURES  10.8
  • IV.  MOTION TO QUASH
    • A.  Statutory Basis and Tactical Considerations  10.9
    • B.  Grounds
      • 1.  Defective Service of Summons  10.10
      • 2.  Defective Complaint
        • a.  No Cause of Action Stated in Unlawful Detainer
          • (1)  Judicial Reasoning  10.11
          • (2)  Reconciling Delta Imports and Borsuk   10.11A
          • (3)  Compare: Demurrer  10.12
        • b.  Unauthorized Relief Sought in Unlawful Detainer
          • (1)  Judicial Reasoning  10.13
          • (2)  Compare: Motion to Strike  10.14
    • C.  Procedure
      • 1.  Shortened Hearing Notice  10.15
      • 2.  Supporting Documents  10.16
      • 3.  Order After Hearing  10.17
      • 4.  Review by Writ of Mandate  10.18
    • D.  Form: Notice of Motion to Quash Service of Summons; Supporting Memorandum and Declaration  10.19
  • V.  DEMURRER
    • A.  Legal Basis and Grounds  10.20
    • B.  Practical Considerations and Tactics  10.21
    • C.  Checklist: Demurrable Defects in Complaint  10.22
    • D.  Procedure
      • 1.  Scheduling the Hearing  10.23
      • 2.  Supporting Documents  10.24
      • 3.  Order After Hearing
        • a.  Demurrer Overruled  10.25
        • b.  Demurrer Sustained  10.26
    • E.  Form: Demurrer to Complaint; Memorandum Supporting Demurrer (Defective 3-Day Notice Case)  10.27
    • F.  Frivolous Demurrers  10.28
  • VI.  MOTION TO STRIKE
    • A.  Legal Basis and Tactical Considerations
      • 1.  Under CCP §§435–437 (Irrelevant, False, or Improper Matter)  10.29
      • 2.  Under CCP §425.16 (Anti-SLAPP Motion)  10.30
    • B.  Grounds  10.31
      • 1.  Improper Request for Damages  10.32
      • 2.  Improper Request for Back Rent  10.33
      • 3.  Lack of Allegations for Statutory Damages  10.34
      • 4.  No Attorney Fees in Rental Agreement  10.35
      • 5.  Irrelevant, False, or Improper Matter  10.36
      • 6.  Unverified Complaint  10.37
    • C.  Procedure  10.38
    • D.  Form: Notice of Motion to Strike; Memorandum Supporting Motion to Strike Allegations of Improper Damages  10.39
  • VII.  EXTENSION OF TIME TO PLEAD
    • A.  Legal Basis  10.40
    • B.  Form: Application for Order Extending Time to Respond; Order  10.41
  • VIII.  ANSWER TO COMPLAINT
    • A.  Legal Basis  10.42
    • B.  Form: Answer—Unlawful Detainer (Judicial Council Form UD-105)  10.43
    • C.  Denials  10.44
    • D.  Principal and Affirmative Defenses  10.45
      • 1.  Title Dispute, Improper Foreclosure, or Improper Notice Following Foreclosure  10.46
      • 2.  Landlord Fraud  10.47
      • 3.  Breach of Covenant of Quiet Enjoyment  10.48
      • 4.  Setoff for Preexisting Debt  10.49
      • 5.  Equitable Defenses  10.50
      • 6.  Violation of Rent Control Ordinance  10.51
      • 7.  Waiver or Estoppel  10.52
      • 8.  Breach of Express Promise to Repair  10.53
      • 9.  Lack of Certificate of Occupancy  10.54
      • 10.  Rental Agreement Not Translated Into Required Language  10.55
      • 11.  Breach of Warranty of Habitability  10.56
      • 12.  Retaliatory Eviction  10.57
      • 13.  Lack of Good Cause to Evict From Government Housing  10.58
      • 14.  Discriminatory Eviction
        • a.  Unruh Civil Rights Act  10.59
        • b.  Other Fair Housing Acts and Protections  10.60
        • c.  Dispensing or Using Medical Marijuana  10.60A
        • d.  Immigration or Citizenship Status   10.60B
        • e.  Summoning Law Enforcement or Emergency Assistance  10.60C
      • 15.  Defective Termination Notice  10.60D
      • 16.  Notice Served More Than 1 Year After Rent Due  10.61
      • 17.  Fair Debt Collection Practices Act  10.62
      • 18.  Evictions Following Emergencies and Disasters  10.62A
    • E.  Verification of Answer  10.63
    • F.  Amendment to Answer  10.64
  • IX.  AFFIRMATIVE RELIEF  10.65
    • A.  Right to Cross-Complain Limited  10.66
    • B.  Exception: If Tenant Has Vacated Premises  10.67
    • C.  Failure to Object to Cross-Complaint  10.68
    • D.  Procedure  10.69
  • X.  CHECKLIST: COMMON DEFECTS IN PREPARING AND SERVING UNLAWFUL DETAINER COMPLAINT  10.70

11

Unlawful Detainer: Pretrial Proceedings

Sonya Bekoff Molho

Patricia H. Tirey

Andrew J. Wiegel

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  11.1
  • II.  LANDLORD’S DEMURRER TO ANSWER OR MOTION TO STRIKE  11.2
  • III.  DISCOVERY
    • A.  Tactical Considerations  11.3
    • B.  Statutory Authority
      • 1.  Discovery Enabling Statutes  11.4
      • 2.  Limitations on Discovery; CC §3339.10  11.4A
    • C.  Scheduling Unlawful Detainer Discovery and Discovery Motions
      • 1.  Shorter Response Periods  11.5
      • 2.  Discovery and Trial-Setting Conflicts  11.6
    • D.  Depositions
      • 1.  Legal Basis; Methods  11.7
      • 2.  Procedure  11.8
      • 3.  Inspecting Documents at Deposition  11.9
      • 4.  Taking Deposition Before Action Filed  11.10
    • E.  Written Interrogatories
      • 1.  Nature, Purpose, and Use
        • a.  Advantages; Disadvantages  11.11
        • b.  Depositions on Written Questions Distinguished  11.12
        • c.  Scope and Use Restrictions  11.13
        • d.  Number Generally Limited to 35  11.14
        • e.  Considerations When Non-Individual Entities Are Responding  11.15
      • 2.  Form: Form Interrogatories—Unlawful Detainer (Judicial Council Form DISC-003/UD-106)  11.16
      • 3.  Procedure
        • a.  Time for Service and Response  11.17
        • b.  Answers and Objections to Interrogatories  11.18
        • c.  Protective Orders  11.19
    • F.  Inspection of Documents or Property
      • 1.  Demands Addressed to a Party
        • a.  Making the Demand  11.20
        • b.  Responding to the Demand  11.21
      • 2.  Demands Addressed to a Nonparty  11.22
    • G.  Requests for Admissions
      • 1.  Use and Procedure
        • a.  Making the Request  11.23
        • b.  Responding to the Request  11.24
        • c.  Consequences of Failure to Respond  11.25
        • d.  Withdrawing Admission; Relief From Default  11.26
      • 2.  Form: Requests for Admissions (Judicial Council Form DISC-020)  11.27
    • H.  Discovery Sanctions and Protective Orders
      • 1.  Punishable Conduct  11.28
      • 2.  Types of Sanctions  11.29
      • 3.  Protective Orders  11.30
  • IV.  MOTION FOR SUMMARY JUDGMENT
    • A.  Nature and Purpose
      • 1.  Granted If No Triable Issue of Material Fact  11.31
      • 2.  Burden of Proof
        • a.  Plaintiff as Moving Party
          • (1)  Requires Plaintiff to Only Establish Prima Facie Case  11.32
          • (2)  Statute Ambiguous on Defendant’s Burden  11.33
        • b.  Defendant as Moving Party  11.34
      • 3.  Oral Testimony  11.35
    • B.  Hearing Procedures; Deadlines for Filing and Service
      • 1.  5-day Notice of Motion  11.36
      • 2.  Filing and Serving Opposition  11.37
    • C.  Supporting Documents of Moving Party  11.38
    • D.  Opposing Documents; Oral Opposition  11.39
  • V.  MOTION FOR JUDGMENT ON PLEADINGS  11.40
  • VI.  SETTING CASE FOR TRIAL
    • A.  Request for Trial Setting
      • 1.  Procedure  11.41
      • 2.  Form: Request/Counter-Request to Set Case for Trial—Unlawful Detainer (Judicial Council Form UD-150)  11.41A
    • B.  20-Day Mandatory Trial Setting  11.42
    • C.  Notice of Trial  11.43
    • D.  Extension of Trial Date  11.44
      • 1.  Good Cause for Extension  11.45
      • 2.  Probability That Landlord Will Prevail  11.46
      • 3.  Amount of Landlord’s Damages  11.47
      • 4.  Potential Offsets to Damages  11.48
      • 5.  Order to Deposit Damages  11.49
      • 6.  Trial Date Advanced Upon Default  11.50
    • E.  Effect of Tenant’s Vacating Before Trial  11.51
    • F.  Case Management and Settlement Conferences  11.52
  • VII.  JURY TRIAL
    • A.  Right to Jury Trial; Procedure  11.53
    • B.  Waiver  11.54
    • C.  No Right to Jury Trial on Equitable Issues  11.55
  • VIII.  MOTIONS TO ESCROW RENT PENDING TRIAL
    • A.  Mandatory Orders (CCP §1170.5)  11.56
    • B.  Discretionary Orders; Habitability Cases
      • 1.  Purposes  11.57
      • 2.  Legal Basis  11.58
      • 3.  Required Showing  11.59
      • 4.  Amount of Rent to Be Escrowed  11.60
      • 5.  Stipulation for Rent Deposit  11.61
  • IX.  RELATED ACTIONS: PRELIMINARY INJUNCTIONS, CONSOLIDATION, AND COORDINATION
    • A.  Nature of Related Actions  11.62
    • B.  Injunctive Relief
      • 1.  Legal Basis; Grounds  11.63
      • 2.  The Newby Exception: Adequate Remedy at Law  11.63A
      • 3.  Overcoming Newby Limitations  11.63B
      • 4.  Procedure; Bond Required  11.64
    • C.  Consolidation
      • 1.  Multiple Actions Pending in Same Court  11.65
      • 2.  Multiple Actions Pending in Different Courts  11.66
      • 3.  Effect of Consolidation Order  11.67
      • 4.  Consolidation for Trial of Related Issues Only  11.68
    • D.  Coordination by Judicial Council  11.69

12

Unlawful Detainer: Trial

Sonya Bekoff Molho

Andrew J. Wiegel

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  12.1
  • II.  DISQUALIFYING THE JUDGE
    • A.  Challenge for Cause  12.2
      • 1.  Procedures for Challenging for Cause  12.3
      • 2.  Standard for Disqualification in Contested Challenge for Cause  12.4
    • B.  Peremptory Challenge  12.5
      • 1.  Procedures for a Peremptory Challenge  12.6
      • 2.  Deadline for Making Peremptory Challenge
        • a.  Before Trial Commences; After Appeal on Remand  12.7
        • b.  Before Other Proceedings  12.7A
        • c.  Effect of Intervening Decisions  12.7B
      • 3.  Effect of Exercise of Peremptory Challenge  12.8
    • C.  Appealing the Challenge Motion  12.8A
    • D.  Tactical Considerations in Deciding Whether to Challenge Judge  12.9
  • III.  COMPELLING PARTY AND NONPARTY ATTENDANCE AT TRIAL
    • A.  Nonparty Witness
      • 1.  Subpoena Required  12.10
      • 2.  Service of Subpoena  12.11
    • B.  Parties
      • 1.  Notice to Appear or Subpoena  12.12
      • 2.  Service of Notice to Appear  12.13
    • C.  Statutory Witness and Mileage Fees  12.14
  • IV.  COMPELLING PRODUCTION OF DOCUMENTS AND OTHER MATERIALS
    • A.  Nonparty Witnesses: Subpoena Duces Tecum  12.15
    • B.  Parties: Notice to Produce or Subpoena Duces Tecum  12.16
    • C.  Production of Original Document; Stipulations Regarding Duplicates or Photocopies  12.17
  • V.  PENALTIES FOR DISOBEYING SUBPOENA  12.18
  • VI.  PLAINTIFF’S CASE
    • A.  Elements of Unlawful Detainer  12.19
      • 1.  Proving Service of Notice; Statutory Presumptions Regarding Return of Service  12.20
      • 2.  Proving Case When Tenant Fails to Appear at Trial  12.21
    • B.  Elements to Be Proved for Unlawful Detainer Based on Nonpayment of Rent
      • 1.  Proof of Rent Due
        • a.  Landlord Has Burden of Proof  12.22
        • b.  Use of Books and Records to Prove Amount or Receipt of Rent  12.23
          • (1)  To Refresh Witness’s Memory  12.24
          • (2)  Introduction as a Past Recollection Recorded  12.25
          • (3)  Admissible Under Business Records Exception to Hearsay Rule  12.26
      • 2.  Proof of Damages
        • a.  Damages Limited to Period From Termination of Tenancy Through Judgment  12.27
        • b.  Damages Based on Reasonable Rental Value  12.28
          • (1)  Determination of Reasonable Rental Value; Opinions of Landlord or Expert  12.29
          • (2)  Damage Award in Absence of Request for Such Relief  12.30
        • c.  Special Damages  12.31
          • (1)  Pleading Statutory Damages
            • (a)  Proof of Statutory Damages for Defendant’s Malice  12.32
            • (b)  Establishing Malice  12.33
          • (2)  Difficulty in Obtaining Award of Statutory Damages  12.34
  • VII.  PRINCIPAL STRATEGIES AND DEFENSES
    • A.  That Elements of Unlawful Detainer Not Proved  12.35
    • B.  Breach of Warranty of Habitability in Nonpayment of Rent Cases
      • 1.  General Elements of Defense  12.36
      • 2.  Adjudication of Reasonable Rent  12.37
    • C.  Retaliatory Eviction for Tenant’s Exercise of Legal Rights  12.38
  • VIII.  AMENDMENTS TO CONFORM TO PROOF
    • A.  Liberality in Granting Amendments  12.39
    • B.  Scope of Amendment Under CCP §1173; Supplemental Versus Amended Complaint  12.40
  • IX.  JURY INSTRUCTIONS
    • A.  General Sources of Jury Instructions  12.41
    • B.  Specific Instructions for Unlawful Detainer Cases  12.42
    • C.  Procedure for Filing Proposed Instructions; Filing Deadlines  12.43
    • D.  Format  12.44
    • E.  Sample Jury Instructions  12.45
      • 1.  Form: Sample Instruction on Burden of Proof, Preponderance of Evidence  12.46
      • 2.  Form: Sample Instruction on Facts Plaintiff Must Establish  12.47
      • 3.  Form: Sample Instruction on Service of Notices; Computation of Time  12.48
      • 4.  Rent and Damages
        • a.  Form: Sample Instruction on Calculation of Rent and Damages  12.49
        • b.  Form: Sample Instruction on Definition of “Fair Rental Value” for Assessing Damages  12.50
        • c.  Form: Sample Instruction on Witnesses’ Opinions Concerning Fair Rental Value  12.51
        • d.  Form: Sample Instruction on Statutory Damages; Definition of Malice  12.52
      • 5.  Habitability of Premises  12.53
        • a.  Sample Instruction on Definition of “Habitability”
          • (1)  Form: Landlord’s Instruction  12.54
          • (2)  Form: Tenant’s Instruction  12.54A
        • b.  Form: Sample Instruction on Breach of Warranty—Factors to Consider; Notice of Defects  12.55
        • c.  Drafting Instructions on Computing “Reasonable Rent” Owed When Warranty Breached  12.56
          • (1)  Form: Sample Instruction on Calculation of Reasonable Rent—Percentage-Reduction-in-Use Method  12.57
          • (2)  Form: Sample Instruction on Calculation of Reasonable Rent—Difference-in-Value Method  12.58
          • (3)  Form: Sample Instruction on Calculation of Reasonable Rent—Factoring in Tenant’s Discomfort and Annoyance  12.59
      • 6.  Retaliatory Eviction  12.60
        • a.  Form: Sample Instruction on Elements of Retaliatory Eviction (Month-to-Month Tenancy)  12.61
        • b.  Burden of Proof
          • (1)  Form: Sample Instruction When Tenant Bears Entire Burden of Proof on Defense  12.62
          • (2)  Form: Sample Instruction When Rebuttable Presumption Exists That Landlord Evicted Tenant Because of Tenant’s Immigration or Citizenship Status  12.62A
          • (3)  Form: Sample Instruction When Rebuttable Presumption Exists That Landlord Evicted Tenant or Resident Because He or She Exercised Right to Summon Law Enforcement or Emergency Assistance to the Premises  12.62B
          • (4)  Form: Sample Instruction When Landlord Bears Burden of Disproving Intent  12.63
      • 7.  Miscellaneous Defenses
        • a.  Form: Sample Instruction on Breach of Implied Covenant of Quiet Enjoyment  12.63A
        • b.  Form: Sample Instruction on Waiver  12.63B
        • c.  Form: Sample Instruction on Estoppel  12.63C
        • d.  Form: Sample Instruction on Landlord’s Refusal of Rent  12.63D
  • X.  COURT TRIAL: STATEMENT OF DECISION
    • A.  Party Must Request Statement of Decision  12.64
    • B.  Deadlines for Request; Determining Whether Statement Must Be Written or Oral  12.65
    • C.  Counsel’s Role Regarding Ambiguous or Inadequate Statement of Decision  12.66
  • XI.  JURY TRIAL
    • A.  Jury Verdict; General and Special Verdicts  12.67
    • B.  Judgment Based on Jury Verdict  12.68
  • XII.  DEFAULTS AT TRIAL  12.69

13

Unlawful Detainer: Judgment and Posttrial Proceedings

Sonya Bekoff Molho

Patricia H. Tirey

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  13.1
  • II.  DEFAULT
    • A.  When Defendant Is in Default  13.2
    • B.  Procedure for Obtaining Default Judgment
      • 1.  Entry of Default  13.3
      • 2.  Immediate Judgment for Possession  13.4
      • 3.  Judgment for Monetary Relief  13.5
    • C.  Form: Request for Entry of Default (Judicial Council Form CIV-100)  13.6
    • D.  Relief From Default
      • 1.  Grounds Under CCP §473(b)
        • a.  Fault of Defendant Party or Attorney; Discretionary Relief  13.7
        • b.  Fault of Attorney; Mandatory Relief  13.8
        • c.  Default Obtained by Fraud  13.9
      • 2.  Procedure Under CCP §473(b)
        • a.  Noticed Motion  13.10
        • b.  Time Limits for Motion
          • (1)  Usually 6 Months  13.11
          • (2)  90-Day Exception  13.12
          • (3)  Fraud and Other Exceptions  13.13
      • 3.  Conditions for Relief Under CCP §473(b)  13.14
      • 4.  Other Grounds and Procedures for Relief From Default
        • a.  Lack of Actual Notice of Suit  13.15
        • b.  Limited Civil Case Omnibus Rule  13.16
      • 5.  Effect of Default Set-Aside on Sealing of Court Records  13.16A
  • III.  JUDGMENT
    • A.  When Plaintiff Prevails
      • 1.  Forfeiture of Possession and Leasehold Rights  13.17
      • 2.  Back Rent  13.18
      • 3.  Damages Caused by Unlawful Detainer  13.19
      • 4.  Prejudgment Interest  13.20
      • 5.  Costs
        • a.  Awarded to Prevailing Party  13.21
        • b.  Allowable Costs and Expenses  13.22
        • c.  Procedure for Claiming Costs  13.23
        • d.  Limitations on Costs  13.24
      • 6.  Attorney Fees
        • a.  Basis for Recovery  13.25
        • b.  Determining Who Is Prevailing Party
          • (1)  Party Recovering “Greater Relief”  13.26
          • (2)  Effect of Dismissal  13.27
        • c.  Limits on Recovery by Prevailing Party
          • (1)  Attorney Representing Self  13.28
          • (2)  In-House or Pro Bono Representation  13.28A
          • (3)  Effect of Tenant Tendering Full Amount of Rent Owing  13.28B
          • (4)  If Attorney Files Action in Wrong Court  13.28C
          • (5)  Actions Not Arising From Lease  13.28D
        • d.  Determining Amount of Fees  13.29
        • e.  Fees for Services Before Complaint Filed  13.30
        • f.  Award of Fees Against Successors in Interest  13.31
        • g.  Attorney Fees on Appeal  13.32
        • h.  Procedure for Claiming Fees  13.33
          • (1)  Basis of Award Governs Procedure
            • (a)  Contractual Attorney Fees  13.33A
            • (b)  Statutory Attorney Fees  13.33B
          • (2)  Time Limits for Claiming Attorney Fees  13.33C
      • 7.  Landlord Posttrial Inspections  13.33D
      • 8.  Form: Judgment for Plaintiff (Attorney-Drafted)  13.34
    • B.  When Defendant Prevails
      • 1.  Tenant’s Retention of Possession; Court Records Sealed  13.35
      • 2.  Warranty of Habitability Damages  13.36
        • a.  Assessing Only Against Delinquent Rent  13.37
        • b.  Assessing Against All Rent Due After Notice  13.38
      • 3.  Res Judicata Effect  13.39
      • 4.  Attorney Fees and Costs
        • a.  Under Contract  13.40
        • b.  Under Anti-SLAPP Statute  13.40A
        • c.  Under Other Statutes or Ordinances  13.40B
      • 5.  Form: Judgment—Unlawful Detainer (Judicial Council Form UD-110)  13.40C
      • 6.  Form: Judgment—Unlawful Detainer Attachment (Judicial Council Form UD-110S)  13.40D
      • 7.  Form: Order for Judgment for Defendant—Warranty of Habitability (Attorney-Drafted)  13.41
    • C.  Successive Actions Not Barred by Appeal  13.42
  • IV.  POSTTRIAL PROCEEDINGS
    • A.  Posttrial Motions Generally  13.43
      • 1.  Motion for New Trial  13.44
      • 2.  Judgment Notwithstanding Verdict  13.45
      • 3.  Motion to Vacate and Enter Different Judgment  13.46
      • 4.  Motion to Correct Clerical Error  13.47
    • B.  Stay of Execution  13.48
      • 1.  5-Day Stay; Restoring Possession on Unexpired Lease (CCP §1174(c))  13.49
        • a.  Mandatory Stay  13.50
        • b.  Discretionary Stay  13.51
      • 2.  Court’s Inherent Power (CCP §918)
        • a.  Grounds  13.52
        • b.  Length and Conditions of Stay  13.53
      • 3.  Form: Ex Parte Application for Stay of Execution  13.54
      • 4.  Form: Tenant’s Declaration of Hardship  13.55
    • C.  Relief From Forfeiture (CCP §1179)
      • 1.  Statutory Requirements  13.56
      • 2.  Form: Application for Relief From Forfeiture  13.57
    • D.  Appeal
      • 1.  Governing Statutes and Rules of Court  13.58
      • 2.  Procedure and Time Limits  13.59
      • 3.  Stay Pending Appeal (CCP §1176)  13.60
      • 4.  Restitution of Possession; Effect of Tenant’s Vacating Pending Appeal  13.61
      • 5.  Form: Notice of Motion for Stay of Execution Pending Appeal  13.62
    • E.  Extraordinary Writs  13.63
  • V.  ENFORCING THE JUDGMENT
    • A.  For Possession
      • 1.  Writ of Possession; Procedure  13.64
        • a.  Contents of Writ  13.65
        • b.  Service of Writ  13.66
        • c.  Eviction Under the Writ  13.67
        • d.  Effect of Bankruptcy; CCP §715.050  13.68
      • 2.  Form: Writ of Execution (Judicial Council Form EJ-130)  13.69
      • 3.  Postjudgment Claim of Right to Possession
        • a.  Notice Procedure and Limitations on Use  13.70
        • b.  Filing of Postjudgment Claim  13.71
        • c.  Hearing on Postjudgment Claim  13.72
      • 4.  Form: Claim of Right to Possession and Notice of Hearing (Judicial Council Form CP10)  13.73
      • 5.  Eviction By Writ Not Subject to Collateral Attack  13.73A
    • B.  For Rent and Damages  13.74
    • C.  Credit Reporting Issues  13.75
    • D.  Fair Debt Collection Practices Act  13.76

14

Tenant Bankruptcies: Relief From Stay, Rent Claims, and Lease Issues

Nancy J. Newman

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Chapter Scope  14.1
      • 1.  Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005 (BAPCPA)  14.1A
      • 2.  BAPCPA Effective Dates  14.1B
    • B.  Bankruptcy Notices and Forms  14.2
    • C.  When Tenant Files Bankruptcy  14.3
  • II.  AUTOMATIC STAY AFFECTS LEASE RIGHTS
    • A.  Stay Arises on Filing of Bankruptcy Petition  14.4
      • 1.  Repeated Bankruptcy Filings  14.4A
      • 2.  Notice of Stay of State Court Proceedings  14.5
      • 3.  Violation of Automatic Stay Carries Serious Consequences  14.6
      • 4.  Automatic Stay May Not Be Waived in Advance  14.7
    • B.  Scope of Automatic Stay Is Broad
      • 1.  Activity Subject to Stay
        • a.  All Litigation, Administrative Procedures, and Informal Actions Against Debtor  14.8
        • b.  Acts of Landlord  14.9
        • c.  Acts of State Court  14.10
      • 2.  Property Protected by Stay
        • a.  Lease Rights  14.11
        • b.  Security Deposits  14.12
      • 3.  Persons Shielded by Stay  14.13
    • C.  Exceptions to Automatic Stay
      • 1.  Expired Commercial Leases  14.14
      • 2.  Declaratory Relief and Dischargeability Actions Not Subject to Stay  14.15
      • 3.  Possessory Rights After Termination of Lease or Entry of Judgment  14.16
      • 4.  Actions Against Chapter 13 Debtors on Postpetition Obligations After Plan Confirmation  14.16A
      • 5.  Eviction Action Against Residential Tenant for Endangerment of Property or Illegal Use of Controlled Substance  14.16B
  • III.  AVOIDING EFFECT OF AUTOMATIC STAY
    • A.  When Order for Relief From Stay Is Required  14.17
    • B.  Motion for Relief From Stay
      • 1.  Grounds for Relief From Stay  14.18
        • a.  Property Interests Defined by State Law  14.19
        • b.  State Judgment Given Collateral Estoppel Effect  14.20
        • c.  Eviction Following Foreclosure  14.21
      • 2.  Procedure for Motion for Relief From Stay  14.22
        • a.  Format and Supporting Documents  14.23
        • b.  Filing Motion for Relief From Stay  14.24
        • c.  Serving Motion for Relief From Stay  14.25
        • d.  Scheduling and Attending the Hearing  14.26
      • 3.  Defending Stay Relief Motion
        • a.  Bankruptcy Discharge of Delinquent Rent in Public or Subsidized Housing  14.27
        • b.  Other Defenses  14.28
        • c.  Responsive Pleadings  14.28A
      • 4.  Relief Granted on Conditions  14.29
    • C.  Stipulation for Relief From Stay  14.30
    • D.  Application for Surrender of Premises  14.31
    • E.  Motion to Dismiss Bankruptcy  14.32
  • IV.  RESIDENTIAL LEASE ASSUMPTION OR REJECTION
    • A.  Purpose  14.33
    • B.  60-Day Limit for Assumption or Rejection  14.34
    • C.  Effect of Lease Assumption
      • 1.  Rights of Assuming Trustee or Debtor  14.35
      • 2.  Obligations of Assuming Trustee or Debtor
        • a.  Curing Existing Defaults  14.36
        • b.  Prepetition Rent Workouts  14.37
    • D.  Effect of Rejection
      • 1.  Rejection Implies Voluntary Termination  14.38
      • 2.  Postpetition Rent Must Be Paid  14.39
      • 3.  Landlord Claim Issues  14.40
    • E.  Exceptions: Expired or Terminated Leases  14.41
    • F.  Government Housing Cases  14.42
  • V.  NONRESIDENTIAL LEASE ASSUMPTION OR REJECTION
    • A.  Overview  14.43
    • B.  Time Limits
      • 1.  Decision or Extension Required in 120 Days  14.44
      • 2.  Debtor Must Remain Current on Postpetition Rent; Proration Versus Payment Date Approach  14.45
      • 3.  Performance of Nonmonetary Obligations  14.45A
      • 4.  Priority Claim for Postpetition Rent  14.46
      • 5.  Extensions of Time and Grounds for Objection
        • a.  Extension for Cause  14.47
        • b.  Prejudice to Landlord; Stipulations to Extend  14.48
    • C.  Assumption and Assignment Procedures
      • 1.  Motion Required  14.49
      • 2.  Conditions for Granting of Motion and Grounds for Objection  14.50
      • 3.  Recovering Attorney Fees to Enforce Lease  14.51
      • 4.  Effect of Assumption and Assignment  14.52
    • D.  Rejection of Lease
      • 1.  Automatic Rejection or Noticed Motion  14.53
      • 2.  Requires Relinquishment of Possession  14.54
      • 3.  Effect on Rights Held by Nondebtor Parties  14.54A
      • 4.  Landlord’s Claim for Rejection Damages; Unsecured Claim  14.55
        • a.  Proof of Claim Required  14.55A
        • b.  Claim Amount Capped  14.55B
          • (1)  Charges Equivalent to “Rent”  14.55C
          • (2)  Damages Arising From Lease Termination  14.55D
          • (3)  Damages Arising From Other Causes  14.55E
          • (4)  Escalated Rental Damages  14.55F
        • c.  Security Deposit Deduction From Capped Claim  14.55G
  • VI.  SANCTIONS AND ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS  14.56
  • VII.  BANKRUPTCY FORMS
    • A.  Form: Notice of Stay of Proceedings (Judicial Council Form CM-180; Mandatory)  14.57
    • B.  Form: Request for Special Notice and Proof of Service  14.58
    • C.  Landlord’s Claim Forms
      • 1.  Form: Proof of Claim (Official Bankruptcy Form 410)  14.59
      • 2.  Form: Landlord’s Request for Payment of Postpetition Administrative Rent; Sample Letter to Debtor’s Counsel  14.60
      • 3.  Form: Motion for Allowance and Payment of Administrative Rent Claim; Supporting Memorandum; Supporting Declarations  14.61
    • D.  Sample Landlord Objections
      • 1.  Form: Objection of Landlord to Debtor’s Motion to Extend Date to Assume or Reject Nonresidential Lease  14.62
      • 2.  Form: Objection to Debtors’ Motion on Proposed Going Out of Business Sale  14.62A
      • 3.  Form: Objection to Proposed Expedited Procedures for Assumption and Rejection of Leases  14.62B
    • E.  Motion for Relief From Automatic Stay
      • 1.  Form: Motion to Terminate or Modify Stay; Supporting Memorandum; Supporting Declaration  14.63
      • 2.  Form: Order Granting Motion to Terminate or Modify Automatic Stay  14.64
      • 3.  Form: Motion for Relief From the Automatic Stay Under 11 USC §362 (Central District Form F 4001–1.RFS.UD.MOTION; Unlawful Detainer; Mandatory)  14.65
      • 4.  Form: Order Granting Motion for Relief From Stay Under 11 USC §362 (Central District Form F 4001–1.RFS.UD.ORDER; Unlawful Detainer; Mandatory)  14.66
      • 5.  Form: Order Denying Motion for Relief From the Automatic Stay Under 11 USC §362 (Central District Form F 4001–1.RFS.DENY.ORDER; Mandatory)  14.66A
    • F.  Form: Stipulation and Order for Relief From Automatic Stay  14.67
    • G.  Form: Notice of Termination or Modification of Stay (Judicial Council Form CM-181; Mandatory)  14.67A
    • H.  Application for Order to Vacate Premises
      • 1.  Form: Ex Parte Application  14.68
      • 2.  Form: Order to Vacate Real Property  14.69
      • 3.  Form: Memorandum in Support of Application for Order to Surrender Property  14.70
    • I.  BAPCPA Forms; Residential Evictions
      • 1.  Form: Initial Statement About an Eviction Judgment Against You (Official Bankruptcy Form 101A)  14.70A
      • 2.  Form: Statement About Payment of an Eviction Judgment Against You (Official Bankruptcy Form 101B)  14.70B
      • 3.  Additional Official Bankruptcy and Central District Forms  14.71

CALIFORNIA LANDLORD-TENANT PRACTICE

(2d Edition)

April 2019

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

File Name

Book Section

Title

CH01

Chapter 1

Creating the Tenancy

01-048

§1.48

Monthly Amount; Due Date; Manner of Payment

01-049

§1.49

Late Charges

01-050

§1.50

Rent Check Returned for Insufficient Funds

01-051

§1.51

Notice That Failure to Pay Rent on Time May Be Reported to Credit Record Agencies

01-052

§1.52

Identification; Joint Liability

01-053

§1.53

Guests, Boarders, Lodgers, and Roommates

01-054

§1.54

Indemnification of Landlord

01-055

§1.55

Assignment and Subletting

01-056

§1.56

Utilities

01-057

§1.57

Tenant’s Obligation to Maintain and Protect Landlord’s Property

01-058

§1.58

Tenant’s Obligations to Refrain from Disturbance, Smoking, Unlawful Conduct, and Waste

01-059

§1.59

Tenant’s Obligation to Comply With All Laws and Rules and Regulations

01-060

§1.60

Conditions Governing Tenant Repairs and Alterations

01-061

§1.61

Pets and Service or Support Animals

01-062

§1.62

Waterbeds

01-063

§1.63

No Automobile Repair

01-064

§1.64

Tenant’s Death or Disability

01-065

§1.65

Landlord’s Entry on Premises; Notice, Changing Locks

01-066

§1.66

Covenants Are Material and Reasonable

01-067

§1.67

Consequences of Tenant’s Breach; Service of Notice

01-068

§1.68

Misrepresentation in Tenant’s Application

01-069

§1.69

Tenant’s Termination for Cause Under Fixed-Term Lease

01-070

§1.70

Attorney Fees

01-071

§1.71

No Waiver

01-072

§1.72

Service of Notices

CH03

Chapter 3

Rights and Duties During Tenancy

03-003A

§3.3A

Notice of Landlord’s Intention to Enter Dwelling Unit

03-048A

§3.48A

Complaint for Damages for Breach of Warranty of Habitability and Related Torts, Specific Performance, and Injunctive Relief

03-048B

§3.48B

Checklist: Tenant Causes of Action and Remedies for Habitability Violations and Nuisances

CH04

Chapter 4

Counseling the Landlord

04-002B

§4.2B

Checklist: Landlord Fee Agreement

04-008

§4.8

Checklist: Tenant Information

CH05

Chapter 5

Counseling the Tenant

05-004C

§§5.4C-5.17A

Checklist: Tenant Fee Agreement

 

§5.17A

Checklist: Permissible Reasons for Landlord’s Entry Under CC §1954

05-042

§5.42

Sample Collective Bargaining Agreement

CH06

Chapter 6

Mobilehome Park Tenancies

06-060

§6.60

Information for Prospective Homeowners

06-099

§§6.99-6.153

Rent Control Exemption Notice

 

§6.100

Notice of Option to Void Rental Agreement

 

§6.101

Park Name/Address and Space Number/Address

 

§6.102

Identity of Homeowner and Residents

 

§6.103

Identity of Park Owner and Management

 

§6.104

Beginning of Term

 

§6.105

Length of Term

 

§6.106

Amount of Rent

 

§6.107

Services

 

§6.108

Facilities

 

§6.109

Chart Showing Fees for Utilities and Services

 

§6.110

Amount

 

§6.111

Payment of Deposit Amounts

 

§6.112

Zoning and Land Use Disclosures

 

§6.113

Mobilehome Ownership Information

 

§6.114

Other Information

 

§6.115

Agreement to Lease

 

§6.116

Term of Agreement

 

§6.117

Indexed Rent Increases (Long-Term Rental Agreement Only)

 

§6.118

Due Date of Rent Payments; Notice of Increase

 

§6.119

Tender of Rent

 

§6.120

Charges for Late Payment of Rent

 

§6.121

Fees, Service Charges, and Utilities

 

§6.122

Security and Default Deposits

 

§6.123

State Law and Park Rules; Procedure for Amending Park Rules

 

§6.124

Park Management Responsibilities for Physical Facilities, Services, Utilities, and Compliance With Law

 

§6.125

Fixtures: Ownership, Maintenance, and Liability

 

§6.126

Right of Entry

 

§6.127

Changes in Zoning, Use Permits, or Master Lease

 

§6.128

Sale or Subletting of Mobilehome

 

§6.129

General Prohibitions (Residential Use, Guests, Abandonment, Subletting, and Assignments or Encumbrances)

 

§6.130

Termination and Eviction

 

§6.131

Waivers

 

§6.132

Notices

 

§6.133

Consultation With Homeowner

 

§6.134

Liability Indemnification

 

§6.135

Management’s Right to Make Payments

 

§6.136

Ownership of Mobilehome

 

§6.137

Multiple Mobilehome Ownership

 

§6.138

Enforcement of Agreement

 

§6.139

Attorney Fees

 

§6.140

Time of the Essence

 

§6.141

Interpretation and Severability

 

§6.142

Entirety of Agreement

 

§6.143

Alterations or Amendments

 

§6.144

Acknowledgment Is Voluntary; Caveat

 

§6.145

Inspection Made to Corroborate Management’s Representation of Space and Facilities

 

§6.146

Receipt and Understanding of Mobilehome Residency Law

 

§6.147

Charges for Month-to-Month Agreement

 

§6.148

Charges for Term Agreement

 

§6.149

Acceptance of Commercial Goods or Services Not Required

 

§6.150

Consent to Entry

 

§6.151

Attachments

 

§6.152

Notice of Rights and Responsibilities

 

§6.153

Execution

06-153A

§6.153A

Flood Hazard Disclosure

06-153B

§6.153B

Reasonable Accommodation Request

06-155

§6.155

Checklist: Common Provisions

CH08

Chapter 8

Terminating the Tenancy

08-010

§8.10

Notice of Belief of Abandonment Pursuant to CC §1951.3(e) (To be Used for Residential Tenancies Only)

08-053

§8.53

3-Day Notice to Pay Rent or Quit

08-065

§8.65

3-Day Notice to Perform Covenant of Lease or Quit (Curable Breach)

08-066

§8.66

3-Day Notice to Quit for Breach of Covenant (Noncurable Breach)

08-087

§8.87

Notice to Renters (Following Foreclosure Against Owner’s Interest)

08-100

§8.100

30-Day, 60-Day, or 90-Day Termination Notice

08-146

§8.146

Complaint for Forcible Entry and Forcible Detainer

08-163

§8.163

Notice to Tenant of Right to Reclaim Abandoned Property (CC §1984)

08-164

§8.164

Notice to Owner Other Than Tenant of Right to Reclaim Abandoned Property (CC §1985)

08-178

§8.178

Notice of Right to Request Inspection of Premises and to Reclaim Abandoned Property

08-185

§8.185

Waiver of Right to Receive Documents With Security Deposit Refund

CH09

Chapter 9

Unlawful Detainer: Preparing and Filing the Action

09-019

§9.19

Stipulation for Entry of Judgment or Dismissal (Attorney-Drafted)

09-027

§9.27

Sample Eviction Questionnaire

CH10

Chapter 10

Unlawful Detainer: Responsive Pleadings

10-019

§10.19

Notice of Motion to Quash Service of Summons; Supporting Memorandum and Declaration

10-022

§10.22

Checklist: Demurrable Defects in Complaint

10-027

§10.27

Demurrer to Complaint; Memorandum Supporting Demurrer (Defective 3-Day Notice Case)

10-039

§10.39

Notice of Motion to Strike; Memorandum Supporting Motion to Strike Allegations of Improper Damages

10-041

§10.41

Application for Order Extending Time to Respond; Order

10-070

§10.70

Checklist: Common Defects in Preparing and Serving Unlawful Detainer Complaint

CH12

Chapter 12

Unlawful Detainer: Trial

12-046

§12.46

Sample Instruction on Burden of Proof, Preponderance of Evidence

12-047

§12.47

Sample Instruction on Facts Plaintiff Must Establish

12-048

§12.48

Sample Instruction on Service of Notices; Computation of Time

12-049

§12.49

Sample Instruction on Calculation of Rent and Damages

12-050

§12.50

Sample Instruction on Definition of “Fair Rental Value” for Assessing Damages

12-051

§12.51

Sample Instruction on Witnesses’ Opinions Concerning Fair Rental Value

12-052

§12.52

Sample Instruction on Statutory Damages; Definition of Malice

12-054

§12.54

Landlord’s Instruction

12-054A

§12.54A

Tenant’s Instruction

12-055

§12.55

Sample Instruction on Breach of Warranty—Factors to Consider; Notice of Defects

12-057

§12.57

Sample Instruction on Calculation of Reasonable Rent—Percentage-Reduction-in-Use Method

12-058

§12.58

Sample Instruction on Calculation of Reasonable Rent—Difference-in-Value Method

12-059

§12.59

Sample Instruction on Calculation of Reasonable Rent—Factoring in Tenant’s Discomfort and Annoyance

12-061

§12.61

Sample Instruction on Elements of Retaliatory Eviction (Month-to-Month Tenancy)

12-062

§12.62

Sample Instruction When Tenant Bears Entire Burden of Proof on Defense

12-062A

§12.62A

Sample Instruction When Rebuttable Presumption Exists That Landlord Evicted Tenant Because of Tenant’s Immigration or Citizenship Status

12-062B

§12.62B

Sample Instruction When Rebuttable Presumption Exists That Landlord Evicted Tenant or Resident Because He or She Exercised Right to Summon Law Enforcement or Emergency Assistance to the Premises

12-063

§12.63

Sample Instruction When Landlord Bears Burden of Disproving Intent

12-063A

§12.63A

Sample Instruction on Breach of Implied Covenant of Quiet Enjoyment

12-063B

§12.63B

Sample Instruction on Waiver

12-063C

§12.63C

Sample Instruction on Estoppel

12-063D

§12.63D

Sample Instruction on Landlord’s Refusal of Rent

CH13

Chapter 13

Unlawful Detainer: Judgment and Posttrial Proceedings

13-034

§13.34

Judgment for Plaintiff (Attorney-Drafted)

13-041

§13.41

Order for Judgment for Defendant—Warranty of Habitability (Attorney-Drafted)

13-054

§13.54

Ex Parte Application for Stay of Execution

13-055

§13.55

Tenant’s Declaration of Hardship

13-057

§13.57

Application for Relief From Forfeiture

13-062

§13.62

Notice of Motion for Stay of Execution Pending Appeal

CH14

Chapter 14

Tenant Bankruptcies: Relief From Stay, Rent Claims, and Lease Issues

14-058

§14.58

Request for Special Notice and Proof of Service

14-060

§14.60

Landlord’s Request for Payment of Postpetition Administrative Rent; Sample Letter to Debtor’s Counsel

14-061

§14.61

Motion for Allowance and Payment of Administrative Rent Claim; Supporting Memorandum; Supporting Declarations

14-062

§14.62

Objection of Landlord to Debtor’s Motion to Extend Date to Assume or Reject Nonresidential Lease

14-062A

§14.62A

Objection to Debtors’ Motion on Proposed Going Out of Business Sale

14-062B

§14.62B

Objection to Proposed Expedited Procedures for Assumption and Rejection of Leases

14-063

§14.63

Motion to Terminate or Modify Stay; Supporting Memorandum; Supporting Declaration

14-064

§14.64

Order Granting Motion to Terminate or Modify Automatic Stay

14-067

§14.67

Stipulation and Order for Relief From Automatic Stay

14-068

§14.68

Ex Parte Application

14-069

§14.69

Order to Vacate Real Property

14-070

§14.70

Memorandum in Support of Application for Order to Surrender Property

 

Selected Developments

April 2020 Update

Top 6 Legislative Changes. Under the Tenant Protection Act of 2019 (TPA) (Stats 2019, ch 597 (AB 1482)), effective January 1, 2020, California adopted (for a 10-year period) temporary statewide rent and eviction controls that limit rent increases in many residential tenancies (see details in §§3.65, 3.66D–3.66I) and require many residential evictions to be supported by just cause (see details in §§8.136A–8.136E). There are numerous exemptions for residential property, and the law does not apply to commercial tenancies. For short summaries of the TPA, see §§3.1B, 3.65A, 3.66D, 4.44F, 7.1, 8.136A.

The Fair Employment and Housing Act (FEHA) (Govt C §§12900–12996) was amended, effective January 1, 2020, to prohibit housing discrimination on the basis of a person’s veteran or military status. The FEHA now (1) prohibits discrimination on the basis of the tenant’s receiving government rent subsidies, such as a Section 8 voucher, and (2) has a broader definition of race, a protected class that includes traits “historically associated with race” such as “hair texture” and “protective hair styles,” including braids, locks, and twists, as defined in Govt C §12926(w)–(x). See §§2.9B, 2.48–2.49, 4.15A, 6.15.

The FEHA now applies to short-term rentals transacted over the Internet. A “housing accommodation” is any building, structure, or portion of a building or structure that is occupied, or intended to be occupied, as a residence by one or more families, and any vacant land offered for sale or lease for the construction of such a building, structure, or portion of it, and by amendment in 2019, now includes one that is occupied, or intended to be occupied, under a transaction “facilitated by a hosting platform,” as defined in Bus & P C §22590. See Govt C §12927(d), cited in §2.50.

When a local government entity declares “a shelter crisis,” the entity “may adopt by ordinance reasonable local standards and procedures for the design, site development, and operation of homeless shelters” and the structures and facilities in them. Govt C §8698.4(a)(2)(A)(i). During a shelter crisis, the laws codified in CC §§1941–1942.5, which provide a statutory cause of action for habitability or tenantability, are suspended for homeless shelters, provided that the entity “has adopted health and safety standards for homeless shelters and those standards are complied with.” Govt C §8698.4(a)(2)(A)(ii). See §3.11.

To assist “those at risk of homelessness and to encourage landlords and tenants to permit those persons to temporarily reside on their property,” the California Legislature enacted CC §1942.8 (effective January 1, 2020, and only until January 1, 2024). Despite any other law or the terms of the lease or rental agreement, a tenant may with the written approval of the landlord or owner temporarily permit the occupancy of the tenant's dwelling unit by an at-risk person. CC §1942.8(b). But the occupancy by such person is not permissible if the addition of another person in the dwelling unit would violate the building's occupancy limits or other applicable building standards. CC §1942.8(j). See §§3.59B, 8.27B.

A landlord must give a 90-day notice of a rent increase for a residential tenancy if the increase is greater than 10 percent of the rent charged to the tenant during the previous 12 months. CC §827(b)(3), amended by Stats 2019, ch 595 (AB 1110) (increasing notice period from 60 to 90 days), unless the property is subject to a local rent control ordinance or the rent control provisions of the Tenant Protection Act of 2019, which limits the amount of rent increases for specified residential property. See §§3.65A, 6.130, 10.49.

Supreme Court Cases. In White v Square, Inc. (2019) 7 C5th 1019, the California Supreme Court ruled that a person has standing to bring a state law discrimination claim under the Unruh Civil Rights Act (CC §51) when the person visits an online business with the intent of using its services, but encounters terms and conditions that appear to deny that person full and equal access to the services, and then leaves the website without entering into an agreement with the business. See §2.67.

In Knick v Township of Scott (2019) ___ US __ , 139 S Ct 2162, 2167, the U.S. Supreme Court held that a real property owner may bring a claim in federal court under 42 USC §1983 when the government takes property without just compensation and that owner is not required to first bring state litigation, which was the previous test under an older case decided by the supreme court in 1985. See §§6.16, 7.14.

In Heimlich v Shivji (2019) 7 C5th 857, the California Supreme Court reviewed and clarified the proper procedure for claiming and awarding costs arising from CCP §998 offers made in arbitration proceedings. It then ruled that a request for costs under §998 was timely when it was made 15 days after an arbitrator’s award. It found, however, that the arbitrator’s belief that he lacked jurisdiction to consider costs did not constitute grounds for judicial review of the award. See §13.58.

Leasing Disclosures, Lease Provisions, and Insurance. Covenants or options to extend or renew leases are sometimes part of a residential lease, although they are more common in commercial leases. If the covenant does not specify the terms of the extension or renewal, the essential terms of the original lease are presumed to apply. But if the renewal of a particular term of the lease is not provided for explicitly, and the term is not essential, the carryover of that provision will not always be presumed. Smyth v Berman (2019) 31 CA5th 183 (right of first refusal to purchase commercial property not considered essential). See §§1.16, 3.61.

Civil Code §1962 requires the owner of one or more rental units to include, in the lease or rental agreement, the name, telephone number, and usual street address at which personal service may be effected on the owner or agent. This information must be kept current, and a new owner or manager must update it within 15 days of succeeding the previous owner or manager. But in DLI Props., LLC v Hill (2018) 29 CA5th Supp 1, the court held that after a landlord purchased the property at a foreclosure sale and the landlord’s manager entered into a new lease with the tenant, neither the landlord nor the manager were a “successor” owner or manager under §1962 so the eviction bar in §1962(c) for noncompliance did not apply. See §§1.30, 4.45, 8.49.

For a military servicemember who intends to reside in a residential unit, the total security deposit demanded or received may not exceed an amount equal to 1 month’s rent on an unfurnished unit or 2 months’ rent on an unfurnished unit. CC §1950.5(c)(2). See §§1.37, 4.24, 6.14, 8.173.

Under Health & S C §§25400.10–25400.47, a property owner has specific disclosure, remediation, and recordkeeping obligations after the owner has been notified by a local health officer that the property is contaminated by methamphetamine. In 2019, these code sections were amended and renamed the “Methamphetamine or Fentanyl Contaminated Property Cleanup Act.” Health and Safety Code §25400.10 was further amended to apply property owner site assessment, remediation, cleanup, financial liability, civil penalties, and local health officer responsibilities to a property contaminated by fentanyl as well as methamphetamine. See §§1.40, 3.10, 6.13.

In 2019, CC §2079.13 was amended to define “single-family residential property” and “single-family residential real property” to mean real property improved with one to four dwelling units, a unit in a residential stock cooperative, condominium, or planned unit development and a mobilehome or manufactured home when offered for sale or sold through a real estate broker under Bus & P C §10131.6. This definition affects hazards disclosures that must be given to lessees under CC §2079.7. See §1.40.

For any tenancy commenced or renewed on or after July 1, 2020, if the landlord’s property is exempt from the newly enacted statewide rent and eviction controls under CC §1946.2(e)(8) and CC §1947.12(d)(5), statutory notice must be provided in the rental agreement. See §§1.40, 3.66F, 3.66I, 8.136D, 8.136E.

The Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013 (VAWA) (Pub L 113–4, 127 Stat 54; 34 USC §12491) prevents a public housing agency from denying rental to, or terminating the tenancy of, a person who is or has been a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking. The VAWA expired in February 2019 and may be reauthorized in 2020 under pending HR 1585, 116th Cong, 1st Sess (2019), or S 2920, 116th Cong, 1st Sess (2019). Counsel would be prudent to encourage landlords to honor its substance until it can be determined affirmatively that it will not be reauthorized. See §§1.44, 2.15A, 2.27J, 8.27.

Landlords must be extremely cautious about obtaining adequate liability insurance coverage. See, e.g., Terrell v State Farm Gen. Ins. Co. (2019) 40 CA5th 497 (accident that injured tenant was not covered under landlords’ homeowners insurance policy that specifically excluded coverage for injuries arising out of insureds’ business pursuits or rental of their home). See §§1.54, 9.28.

Attorney fee clauses in leases vary greatly and sometimes are not broad enough to support an award of fees in a tort cause of action. See, e.g., Orozco v WPV San Jose, LLC (2019) 36 CA5th 375 (tenant who prevailed in action against landlord for misrepresentation arising from lease transaction was not entitled to award of attorney fees, because lease provided for fee award only in actions arising from provisions of lease or any default under it; but lease guarantor’s fraud action arising from same facts did merit attorney fee award, because guaranty broadly provided for fee award in actions against other party “arising out of or in connection with” guaranty), cited in §1.70.

Fair Housing. In Connecticut Fair Hous. Ctr. v Corelogic Rental Prop. Solutions, LLC (D Conn 2019) 369 F Supp 3d 362, 376, the court on reviewing a motion to dismiss held that allegations concerning a consumer information reporting agency that offered a service to landlords making decisions on the eligibility of prospective tenants, and that used criminal background criteria selected by the landlord from the agency’s form providing specific alternatives, stated causes of action for discriminatory housing practices amounting to disparate treatment under 42 USC §3604, failure to reasonably accommodate under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), as well as disparate impact under the Fair Housing Act (FHA). See §§2.5B, 2.27A, 2.63.

Although a California court held in 2010 that the California FEHA’s source of income protection does not require landlords to accept tenants in the federal Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher program (see Sabi v Sterling (2010) 183 CA4th 916, 943), that decision was superseded by an amendment to FEHA in 2019. See §§2.9B, 4.15A, 2.49, 7.19.

In Inclusive Communities Project v Lincoln Props. (5th Cir 2019) 920 F3d 890, the Fifth Circuit affirmed the dismissal of the action by the district court, which held that policies of not accepting tenants using Section 8 vouchers did not constitute either disparate treatment or disparate impact under the FHA, when defendants’ policy of not accepting vouchers applied to all voucher holders equally and plaintiff failed to provide a causal link between the policy and any statistical disparity on the availability of Section 8 households or any information showing the number of African-American or black voucher holders that were denied in the relevant tract. See §2.9B.

The FEHA does not prevent local governments from expanding protections to those who receive Section 8 assistance. See City & County of San Francisco v Post (2018) 22 CA5th 121 (FEHA did not preempt city’s antidiscrimination ordinance that defined “source of income” to include Section 8 housing vouchers). See §§2.9B, 4.15A.

A recent example of the failure by a housing provider to make reasonable accommodations for a disabled individual is Schaw v Habitat for Humanity (11th Cir 2019) 938 F3d 1259, which refused to consider the financial condition of the disabled person receiving federal disability benefits when he applied to receive a home from Habitat for Humanity, which was denied because he did not meet the minimum income requirement, and denying his requested accommodation that Habitat also consider his food stamps and monthly familial support as income, cited in §2.27A.

For the most recent cases that apply laws requiring owners to make reasonable accommodations in and around buildings to make them accessible to disabled persons, see §2.27E.

In Curto v A Country Place Condominium Ass’n (3d Cir 2019) 921 F3d 405, the association adopted rules for swimming pool use creating certain hours when only members of a single sex were allowed to swim. The court held that separate pool rules for men and women violated the FHA, despite the desire of the association to observe an Orthodox Jewish principle of modesty between the sexes, because the most popular times of the day and week favored men. See §2.27H.

The implementing regulation issued by HUD under the federal FHA, regarding the proof required in disparate impact housing discrimination cases (see 24 CFR §100.500) is being reexamined by HUD, as explained in 84 Fed Reg 42854 (Aug. 19, 2019). See §2.65.

The California Department of Fair Employment and Housing is authorized to prosecute all meritorious complaints under both the FEHA and specified federal fair housing laws, including the ADA and the FHA, by a 2019 amendment. See Govt C §12930(h), cited in §2.67.

The court of appeal in Ruiz v Musclewood Inv. Props., LLC (2018) 28 CA5th 15 ruled that a blind person had standing to sue the defendant under the Disabled Persons Act when the defendant’s guard dog attacked the blind person’s service dog on a public sidewalk, even though the blind person was not a customer of the defendant. See §§2.67, 5.7.

Rights and Obligations Before, During, and After Tenancy. Covenants or options to extend or renew leases are sometimes part of a residential lease, although they are more common in commercial leases. If the covenant does not specify the terms of the extension or renewal, the essential terms of the original lease are presumed to apply. But if the renewal of a particular term of the lease is not provided for explicitly, and the term is not essential, the carryover of that provision will not always be presumed. Smyth v Berman (2019) 31 CA5th 183 (right of first refusal to purchase commercial property not considered essential). See §§1.16, 3.61.

In Garcia v Myllyla (2019) 40 CA5th 990, the court of appeal upheld a judgment awarding emotional distress damages, in the amount of either $10,000 or $15,000, for each of nine tenants, as well as punitive and other damages for an egregious breach of the implied warranty of habitability. See §§3.7, 3.27, 3.35, 3.38–3.38A, 3.40, 3.67.

As of January 1, 2020, a property owner is generally prohibited from enforcing any rule or restrictive covenant that limits the display of religious symbols in entry doors or door frames; there are numerous exemptions. CC §1940.45 (newly enacted). See §§3.7G, 4.50A, 5.7.

When a local entity obtains the appointment of a receiver under Health & S C §17980.7, a lender who subsequently forecloses and becomes a temporary owner afterward is not liable for the receiver’s expenses, but the court may ensure that such expenses are paid by authorizing a receiver to place a “super-priority” lien ahead of the interests of any lender. See City of Sierra Madre v SunTrust Mortgage, Inc. (2019) 32 CA5th 648. See §3.10.

When rent is unpaid, the landlord must serve a notice allowing the tenant to comply with the lease before commencing an eviction. A significant change, effective on September 1, 2019, is that when a 3-Day Notice to Pay Rent or Quit is served under CCP §1161(2) or a 3-Day Notice to Cure or Quit is served under CCP §1161(3), the landlord must exclude “Saturdays, Sundays and other judicial holidays” in calculating the tenant’s time to comply. See amendments to CCP §1161 (Stats 2018, ch 260 (AB 2343), effective Sept. 1, 2019), explained in §§8.35, 9.44. See also §§1.31, 1.56, 1.67, 5.24A, 7.56–7.57, 8.54.

Whether employed by the owner or a management firm, a resident apartment building manager is subject to many state employment regulations affecting both compensation and the amount of rent that may be applied toward an employer’s minimum wage obligations (rent credit). See, e.g., Department of Industrial Relations Wage Order No. 5–2001, amended effective January 1, 2020, as described in §4.47.

Restrictive ordinances are often used to regulate short-term tenancies and avoid negative impacts on the quality of life in residential neighborhoods and disruption to residents. These restrictions are broad and prescribe length-of-stay terms anywhere from 1 to 30 days. For example, Santa Monica prohibits vacation rentals for 30 days or less, unless the primary resident remains on site. Rosenblatt v City of Santa Monica (9th Cir 2019) 940 F3d 439 (only home-sharing is allowed). See §§4.50F, 7.62, 7.68.

See also “Top 6 Legislative Changes,” above, which directly affect rights and obligations before, during, and after tenancy.

Anti-SLAPP Motions. Landlords have successfully invoked the anti-SLAPP statute (CCP §425.16) in defending numerous types of suits filed by tenants. See, e.g., Valuerock TN Props., LLC v PK II Larwin Square SC LP (2019) 36 CA5th1037, in which the tenant sued the landlord for its unreasonable withholding of consent to assign the tenant’s interest in the lease. After litigation commenced, the tenant made an amended lease assignment request, which the landlord again denied. The tenant then filed a second amended complaint, adding allegations about the refusal to consent to the amended assignment request. The landlord filed an anti-SLAPP motion to strike the second amended complaint, claiming that the amended assignment request and its response were settlement communications and statements made in litigation, thus protected activity, but the motion was denied. See §§5.18B, 7.78B, 10.30.

A plaintiff can proceed with a malicious prosecution claim in the face of an anti-SLAPP motion by establishing minimal merit on (or a probability of prevailing on the merits of) the claim. Olivares v Pineda (2019) 40 CA5th 343 (also denied defense based on litigation privilege to wrongful eviction cause of action arising from invalid 3-day notice to pay rent or quit). See §§5.18C, 7.78A.

Mobilehome Park Tenancies. In 2020, the California Department of Housing and Community Development (HCD) will be amending its regulations related to “registration and titling” of mobilehomes in 25 Cal Code Regs §§5535–5536.5. This is a critical issue for both mobilehome owners and park management. If ownership of a mobilehome is an issue in occupancy or litigation, counsel should ensure that the current regulations are reviewed. See §§6.1, 6.13.

Although most mobilehome parks are created under and governed by the Mobilehome Residency Law (MRL) (CC §§798–799.11), other types of mobilehome communities may exist or be created under nontraditional circumstances. In response to the homelessness crisis, if a local government enacts a shelter emergency ordinance under Gov C §8698.4, it may create shelter communities consistent with the California Residential Code (24 Cal Code Regs, pt 2.5, App X) or even under its own locally adopted standards by virtue of Govt C §8698.4(a)(2)(A). Small or large mobilehome parks for agricultural workers may be created with special rules allowed under Health & SC §17021.6(e) or the authority granted under various laws by Stats 2019, ch 866. Mobilehome parks are not uncommon on Indian reservations which are subject to tribal governance, rather than general state laws or the MRL. See §6.10.

To enable owners to pay significant arrearages of state registration fees and penalties or local personal property taxes, interest, and penalties, the legislature established a partial fee and tax waiver program for new registrations starting January 1, 2016, and it was extended another year to December 31, 2020, as codified in Health & S C §§18116.1(d) and 18550.1 and in Rev & T C §5832, as amended in 2019. See §6.12.

Although this book focuses on the parties in a landlord-tenant relationship, note that the MRL creates rights and protections not only for mobilehome tenants, but also for lenders, lienholders, park management, selling homeowners (whether or not they are also residents), and purchasers of mobilehomes as well. Canyon View Ltd. v Lakeview Loan Servicing (2019) 42 CA5th 1096. See §§6.12, 6.88, 6.92.

The prior requirement that the mobilehome be registered to the sublessor was removed temporarily, but will be reinstated by Health & S C §18550.1, effective January 1, 2021, under Stats 2019, ch 488. See §6.13.

Resident and landlord rights and responsibilities regarding the operation of childcare centers in a mobilehome were enacted by Stats 2019, ch 244. Intended to promote the development and expansion of regulated childcare, the amendments appear to include mobilehomes and mobilehome parks since the structural types identified in Health & S C §1596.78(d) “include” a broad definition of dwelling. Under Health & S C §1597.41, a written instrument, such as a lease, cannot prohibit the use of a home for family day care, but notice must be given to the landlord and licensing is required. See §6.13.

Effective July 1, 2020, the Mobilehome Residency Law Protection Act (Health & S C §§18800–18806) was established. It authorizes HCD, under the newly established Mobilehome Residency Law Protection Program, to investigate or pursue conciliation or remedies arising from a complaint by a park resident under the mobilehome laws and help to resolve or coordinate the resolution of those complaints. Health & S C §18802. HCD may not arbitrate, mediate, negotiate, or provide legal advice in connection with mobilehome park rent disputes, lease or rental agreements, or disputes arising from lease or rental agreements. Health & S C §18802(c). For details, see §6.13.

Every lease or rental agreement contains the landlord’s implied covenant of quiet enjoyment, which in part promises that the tenant’s possession will not be terminated or disturbed by the landlord or anyone deriving title from the landlord. Thus, the covenant protects the tenant from acts or omissions of the landlord that disturb the tenant’s peaceful possession of the premises, including the failure to maintain the premises and common areas in good condition. See Bevis v Terrace View Partners, LLP (2019) 33 CA5th 230 (also allowed or considered other causes of action, including nuisance, breach of implied warranty of habitability, but did not allow relief on causes of action for alleged excessive rent increases that were permitted by mobilehome park lease), discussed in detail in §§6.18, 6.31. See also §§3.5, 3.15C, 3.42, 3.48A, 6.22, 6.95.

Special resident selection criteria apply when a mobilehome park has been destroyed by a natural disaster and later reconstructed, which are set out in CC §798.62, enacted by Stats 2019, ch 504, §2. The park owner is required to offer new tenancies to previous homeowners with a valid prior tenancy, subject to many special procedures and requirements related to the offers, the terms of the offers, rents, and reoccupancy. See §6.22.

Civil Code §798.34(b) allows a homeowner living alone in a mobilehome park to have a single designated person as a companion without being charged a fee. As a result of amendments to this section by Stats 2019, ch 504, this law currently allows up to three such designations each calendar year, with only one companion allowed at any given time, unless otherwise authorized by management. The park may reject a proposed companion in a park with age restrictions if the proposed companion is unable or unwilling to provide documentation that he or she meets those age restrictions. See §§6.42, 6.102.

Park operators must have in place an emergency preparedness plan that has additional mandates since January 1, 2020, as a result of the enactment of Stats 2019, ch 299, amending Health & S C §§18603(c), 18603.1(a). See §6.51.

As a result of extensive amendments to CC §798.74 by Stats 2019, ch 504, §3, the process of park management approval of a mobilehome purchaser was significantly changed. Within 15 days after a selling homeowner gives notice of a pending sale, park management must provide to both the seller and prospective purchaser (1) a list of standards to be used to approve an application (including minimum credit scores from a consumer credit reporting agency that management requires for approval) and (2) a list of documentation that will be required to determine qualification. CC §798.74(b). There are also extensive changes to the purchaser application and approval requirements. See §§6.59, 6.61, 6.128–6.129.

Under an amendment made by Stats 2019, ch 299, Health & S C §18029.6 requires, effective January 1, 2020, that at the time of sale or rental of a used mobilehome, it must have an operable smoke alarm installed consistent with the State Fire Marshal requirements and the manufacturer’s information regarding the smoke alarm must be provided to the purchaser or renter. See §6.64.

A new form, Reasonable Accommodation Request/Modification Form, was added to the book. It must be used when a requesting party seeks an accommodation due to a documented disability, such as senior citizens with disabilities, residents who seek comfort animals, or others with existing or new disabilities. It should be submitted to park management, along with a Medical Determination of Disability form, with an application to rent, with the executed lease, or whenever a disability is diagnosed. See §6.153B.

Local Rent and Eviction Controls; Constitutional Issues. Some local rent control ordinances exempt all dwellings (or parcels) with fewer than a specified number of units. In a case arising from the Los Angeles Rent Stabilization Ordinance (LARSO), renting individual bedrooms in a single-family home disqualified an owner from claiming the exemption when occupants did not have access to all such rooms. See Chun v Del Cid (2019) 34 CA5th 806. See §§1.13, 7.16, 10.51.

A tenant who sues for wrongful eviction under the San Francisco Residential Rent Stabilization and Arbitration Ordinance may seek damages based on rent differential (the difference between the rent-stabilized unit that the tenant would have paid for the expected duration of her tenancy and the market rent for the unit from which she was evicted) rather than out-of-pocket losses for increased rent; trebling of such damages is also permitted. DeLisi v Lam (2019) 39 CA5th 663. See §§5.22, 7.53, 7.67–7.68, 7.75, 7.78C–7.78D.

In Reynolds v Lau (2019) 39 CA5th 953, the court of appeal held that the offering of short-term rentals by a tenant, which resulted in large and disruptive parties that disturbed neighboring tenants, was not severe enough to establish a duty to evict the tenant offering the short-term rentals, even though the owner was well informed about the facts. Reynolds also held that the tenants offended by the disruption, who were residing in a 2-unit residential, 1-unit commercial building and who signed a settlement agreement asserting the other residential unit was neither comparable nor available during relevant periods cannot later sue the landlord for violation of the San Francisco rent control law, after failing to choose the other apartment for their own occupancy. See §§4.50F, 6.18, 7.65, 7.67–7.68, 8.68A, 8.70.

A recent facial challenge to the Oakland rent control ordinance was dismissed in Ballinger v City of Oakland (ND Cal 2019) 398 F Supp 3d 560. The district court held the Oakland rent control ordinance did not constitute a physical taking and the requirement that the landlord pay relocation fees for an owner move-in eviction did not constitute a seizure in violation of the Fourth Amendment. 398 F Supp 3d at 573. See §§7.10, 7.12.

A landlord may not argue it will not receive a constitutionally fair return if it has not first petitioned for an increase in the maximum allowable rent. 1041 20th Street, LLC v Santa Monica Rent Control Board (2019) 38 CA5th 27, 45. See §§7.13, 7.41–7.42, 7.51.

To encourage the construction of rental housing, municipalities have begun exempting newly constructed secondary units, often called “in-law” units or ADUs (accessory dwelling units). See e.g., Berkeley Mun C §13.76.050N. See §§7.18, 7.24. See also §§4.49A.

San Francisco became the first city in California to require legal counsel for tenants facing evictions and the second in the nation behind New York. Under an initiative, Proposition F, the city must provide an attorney to residential tenants through all stages of the eviction process until the eviction notice or unlawful detainer complaint is withdrawn, the case is dismissed, or a judgment in the matter is entered. The legal representation is full scope and available to a tenant within 30 days after the tenant is served with an eviction tenancy notice or on the service of an unlawful detainer complaint, whichever occurs first. See §7.53.

Amendments in December 2018 to the San Francisco Residential Rent Stabilization and Arbitration Ordinance were added in §37.10A(i), which makes it unlawful for a landlord to attempt to recover possession by first increasing the rent in bad faith with the intent to defraud, intimidate, or coerce the tenant into vacating. (Former §37.10A(i) was renumbered §37.10A(j).) Section 37.10B was amended so that an attempt to recover possession with a bad faith threat of a rent increase constitutes tenant harassment. See §7.53.

Under West Hollywood Mun C §17.52.140, tenant buyout agreements are regulated. Before making a buyout offer, the landlord must provide each tenant in the unit a written disclosure on an RSD form. The tenant must sign and date the form, and the landlord must keep the signed form for 5 years. The tenant may rescind the buyout agreement within 30 days after signing by all parties and at any time if the agreement fails to meet the requirements of §17.52.140. See §7.54.

Throughout 2019, cities in the state enacted rent stabilization and just cause eviction laws. In southern California, the cities include Culver City and Inglewood. When landlords started serving 60-day notices of termination of tenancy in advance of CC §1946.2 taking effect, other cities quickly instituted a moratorium on evictions without just cause. In southern California, the cities passing such moratoriums included Redondo Beach and Los Angeles for non-rent-controlled units. Effective January 1, 2020, CC §1946.2 requires just cause for evictions in certain residential units built within the last 15 years throughout the state unless the unit is exempt. The 15-year limitation is a moving target. The state law will not cover units subject to a local rent control law. See §7.54.

Santa Monica regulates the short-term vacation rental market by authorizing licensed home-sharing (rentals in which residents remain on-site with guests) but prohibiting all other short-term home rentals of 30 consecutive days or less. Such legislation is not preempted by either the Communications Decency Act or the First Amendment rights of HomeAway.com, Inc., or Airbnb, Inc. HomeAway.com, Inc. v City of Santa Monica (9th Cir 2019) 918 F3d 676. See §7.62.

Los Angeles imposed new rules on renting out rooms and homes for short stays, as an amendment to its zoning ordinance, which became effective in July 2019. It allows owners to host such rentals only in their “primary residence,” not in a second home or investment property, which eliminates the use of units governed by the rent control ordinance as short-term rentals. Los Angeles Mun C §12.22.A.32. See §7.62.

Terminating Tenancies and Eviction Actions. A cause of action for unlawful detainer based on a 3-day notice to pay rent or cure violation of lease does not accrue until after 3 days have elapsed under CCP §1161. For decades, landlords often served the notice on Friday, leaving the tenant only the weekend and Monday to pay the rent. If the tenant failed to pay the rent by Monday, the landlord could file the complaint on Tuesday. Since September 1, 2019, however, the 3-day notice period under CCP §1161(2)–(3) explicitly excludes weekends and other judicial holidays. Consequently, if a landlord now serves the notice on a Friday, the tenant will have until the following Wednesday to cure. See §§5.24A, 8.35, 8.54, 9.44. See also §§1.31, 1.56, 1.67, 7.56–7.57, 8.65–8.66.

Since September 1, 2019, calculating the 5-day notice period in which to file an answer, or a demurrer or motion to quash or strike, after alleged service of the summons and complaint excludes judicial holidays, and Saturdays and Sundays are considered such holidays. See Stats 2018, ch 260 (AB 2343) (amending CCP §1167). See §§10.1, 10.9, 10.23, 10.29, 10.42. See also §§5.24A, 13.2.

In Bawa v Terhune (2019) 33 CA5th Supp 1, the superior court’s appellate division held that when a conventional housing landlord refused to accept a rent check that was one cent short and proceeded to evict for nonpayment of rent, the tenant may assert the landlord’s bad faith as an unlawful detainer defense. See §§7.57, 8.60, 10.50. See also §§1.42, 6.18, 6.74.

A commercial tenant is entitled to compensation on condemnation of the premises, despite a lease provision that the lease would terminate if the building were condemned. This is intended to compensate a tenant for items such as loss of good will in a business, which can exist independent of the leasehold interest. Thee Aguila, Inc. v Century Law Group (2019) 37 CA5th 22. See §8.6.

An additional cause of action to that of wrongful eviction against the landlord is a malicious prosecution action against the landlord and the landlord’s attorney. See, e.g., Connelly v Bornstein (2019) 33 CA5th 783 (tenant’s claim for malicious prosecution arose from unlawful detainer suit that landlord had voluntarily dismissed; court of appeal held that prevailing tenant in initial lawsuit has 2 years to bring malicious prosecution against losing landlord but only 1 year to sue landlord’s attorney). See §8.157A. See also §5.18C.

In pretrial discovery, CCP §2030.210 now provides that a party responding to interrogatories may request that the propounding party provide the interrogatories in an electronic format within 3 court days of the request. Conversely, a propounding party, after receipt of the answers to interrogatories, may request the responding party to provide the answers to interrogatories in an electronic format. On the format of the electronic information, see §11.17.

In pretrial discovery, CCP §2030.280 now provides for similar procedures in requests for production of documents. See §11.21.

Regarding mandatory sanctions in pretrial discovery, CCP §2023.050 imposes a $250.00 sanction when certain bad faith conduct occurs in discovery. See §11.29.

If an action was filed at least 5 years before the date of trial, the defendant should immediately move for mandatory dismissal under CCP §583.360. A mandatory dismissal is a decision on the merits that entitles the prevailing party to attorney fees under CC §1717 when there is a contractual basis for attorney fees. A mandatory dismissal under CCP §583.360 prevents the plaintiff’s later attempt to voluntarily dismiss the case under CCP §581(b)(1). Cole v Hammond (2019) 37 CA5th 912. See §§12.35, 13.27.

Under some circumstances, misconduct by the landlord and its attorney will warrant partial terminating sanctions. See, e.g., United Grand Corp. v Malibu Hillbillies, LLC (2019) 36 CA5th 142 (misconduct justified partial terminating sanction dismissing request for excessive attorney fees in action for unpaid rent that landlord won by default against some parties and settled as to remaining party; attorney’s appeal of sanctions order was dismissed under disentitlement doctrine). See §§13.5, 13.16.

Under CCP §473(b), a court must vacate a default or default judgment on grounds of attorney mistake, inadvertence, surprise, or neglect whenever an application for relief is made no more than 6 months after entry of judgment and is accompanied by an attorney’s sworn affidavit. In Pagnini v Union Bank (2018) 28 CA5th 298, the court of appeal concluded that the trial court was obligated to grant relief under §473(b), when counsel submitted a sworn declaration stating that he had mistakenly failed to respond to the demurrer by timely filing an amended complaint; in other words, a demurrer was effectively a dismissal motion for purposes of the mandatory relief afforded by §473(b). See §13.8.

In Jackson v Kaiser Found. Hosps., Inc. (2019) 32 CA5th 166, the court ruled that the mandatory relief afforded under §473(b) is unavailable to undo a voluntary dismissal. See §13.8.

If party makes a CCP §998 offer before trial, the offeree’s costs must be included in the analysis to determine whether the offeree received a more favorable judgment. If multiple offers are made by one party, then the trial court must include all costs reasonably incurred up to the date of the final offer. Hersey v Vopava (2019) 38 CA5th 792. See §13.26.

Effective September 1, 2020, a tenant will have 15 days to file a claim of exemption if the notice of levy was personally served, and 20 days to file the claim if notice was served by mail; also effective the same date, a creditor will have 15 days from the date of the service of a claim of exemption to give notice of opposition to the judgment debtor’s claim of exemption. CCP §703.520, as amended by Stats 2019, ch 554 (SB 616). See §13.74.

Effective September 1, 2020, new exemptions from garnishments were created in CCP §§704.220 and 704.225. Under CCP §704.220, (1) there will be an automatic exemption equal to the minimum basic standard of adequate care for a family of four, as defined and annually adjusted by the State Department of Social Services, and (2) any levy against the judgment debtor’s deposit account must include a description of that exemption. Under CCP §704.225, there will be a new exemption applicable to a judgment debtor’s deposit account, which is not otherwise exempt, for money that is necessary for the support of the judgment debtor and their spouse and dependents. See §13.74.

Tenant Bankruptcies, Assuming or Rejecting Lease, and Stay Relief to Complete Eviction. A creditor may not be liable for violating the automatic stay if the debtor had no interest in the property at the time of bankruptcy. See Jones v Machado-Powell (In re Jones) (BAP 9th Cir 2018) 2018 Bankr Lexis 3156 (unpublished opinion) (debtor had no possessory right because creditor’s eviction of debtor and sale of debtor’s personal property at the premises occurred prior to bankruptcy). See §14.6.

Attorney fees incurred by the debtor for actions to remedy stay violations and to collect resulting damages, including attorney fees incurred on a successful appeal, are recoverable. Easley v Collection Serv. of Nev. (9th Cir 2018) 910 F3d 1286. See §14.6.

When a creditor brings a motion for relief from the automatic stay it initiates a “distinct proceeding” that terminates in a final, appealable order when the bankruptcy court rules dispositively on the motion. Ritzen Group, Inc. v Jackson Masonry, LLC (2020) 2020 US Lexis 526, ___ S Ct ___. Consequently, under 28 USC §158(c)(2) and Fed R Bankr P 8002(a), the parties must promptly file an appeal on the bankruptcy court's order granting or denying the stay relief motion within 14 days after entry of the order. See §14.29A.

In a bankruptcy case involving a debtor engaged in a marijuana-related business, In re Cwnevada LLC (D Nev 2019) 602 BR 717, the court acknowledged that Chapter 11 relief may be appropriate for an individual or an entity directly engaged in the business of marijuana, but the court found numerous reasons indicating that the interests of creditors and the debtor would be better served by dismissing the case under 11 USC §305(a)(1). See §14.32.

Some debtors try to avoid the dismissal of the bankruptcy on the creditor’s or the court’s motion by attempting to voluntarily dismiss the case before the hearing. This is not allowed in the Ninth Circuit if the debtor had filed the bankruptcy in bad faith. See recent cases on whether the right to dismiss is absolute in §14.32.

A prevailing landlord may recover attorney fees incurred in an adversary proceeding if the lease contains an attorney fees provision. See, e.g., Zito v Douglass Enters. (In re Zito) (BAP 9th Cir 2019) 604 BR 388 (creditor had attorney fee claim in context of a guaranty agreement that was subject of adversary proceeding, but fee award was premature until related state court action regarding underlying breach concluded). See §§14.32, 14.51.

A bankruptcy court may hold a creditor in civil contempt for deliberately violating a discharge order only when there is not a “fair ground of doubt” about whether the creditor’s conduct might be lawful under the discharge order. See Lorenzen v Taggart (In re Taggart) (2019) ___ US ___, 139 S Ct 1795. See §14.56.

The form in §14.62, Objection of Landlord to Debtor’s Motion to Extend Deadline to Assume or Reject Nonresidential Lease, was substantially revised to reflect current bankruptcy and business practices.

Two new forms, letter agreements concerning (1) debtors’ liquidation of inventory and store-closing sale and (2) expedited procedures for rejecting unexpired leases and abandonment of personal property are in §§14.62B and 14.62D.

About the Authors

MYRON MOSKOVITZ, who received his law degree in 1964 from the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law, coauthored chapters 3, 5, 7, and 8 and continued to update those chapters annually for this edition through 2017. He served as law clerk to Justice Raymond E. Peters of the California Supreme Court, Chief Attorney of the National Housing Law Project, and Chairman of the State Commission of Housing & Community Development. He was a Professor of Law at Golden Gate University in San Francisco for more than 40 years. In 2008, he was given the annual Spirit of CEB award for his contributions to CEB landlord-tenant titles. He is currently the Legal Director of Moskovitz Appellate Team in Piedmont; he has written several books on appellate law and teaches MCLE courses for attorneys on the subject.

SONYA BEKOFF MOLHO, B.A., 1971, San Fernando Valley College (now California State University, Northridge); J.D., 1977, Loyola Law School, Los Angeles, has worked as an update author on chapters 5, 7, 10, and 12 of this book since 2000. Ms. Molho has been a sole practitioner in Los Angeles continuously since 1978, representing primarily tenants. Her familiarity with tenant protection laws in both local ordinances and rent control regulations for the cities of Santa Monica and Los Angeles is especially helpful to the readers of this book. In 2012, she was given the annual Spirit of CEB award for her contributions to CEB landlord-tenant titles. She is also on the annual update team for CEB’s California Eviction Defense Manual (2d ed Cal CEB) and has been a speaker for both CEB and Rutter Group MCLE programs.

NANCY C. LENVIN, B.A., 1966, Barnard College, Columbia University; J.D., 1969, Rutgers University, coauthored chapters 3, 7, and 9 and updated those chapters annually for this edition until 2016. She wrote chapter 4 and continued to update that chapter annually until 2018, when she began consulting on the update. Ms. Lenvin is a partner with Utrecht & Lenvin LLP, San Francisco. She primarily represents residential property owners and commercial property owners and tenants. Currently, her practice focuses on the negotiation and drafting of leases and other contracts, providing management reviews to assist clients in problem avoidance, and representing clients before the San Francisco Rent Stabilization and Arbitration Board. Ms. Lenvin has served as an officer and director of the San Francisco Apartment Association and the California Apartment Association.

RONALD S. JAVOR, B.A., 1967, University of California, Los Angeles; J.D., 1974, University of Southern California, coauthored chapter 6 and has been updating the chapter since 1998. Now semi-retired, Mr. Javor was formerly the General Counsel, a senior legal counsel, and an Assistant Deputy Director with the California Department of Housing and Community Development in Sacramento. That affiliation is provided for identification only; opinions in chapter 6 do not represent those of the Department or the State of California.

NANCY J. NEWMAN, B.A., 1980, University of California, Santa Cruz; J.D., 1983, University of California, Davis, School of Law, began annually updating chapter 14 in 1999 and has substantially rewritten the chapter. Ms. Newman is a partner with Hanson Bridgett LLP, San Francisco, specializing in commercial and real estate litigation for more than 30 years. She counsels clients on rights and remedies, and handles litigation to recover money or regain possession of property. She represents landlords in tenant bankruptcies nationwide and has particular expertise using provisional remedies. Ms. Newman has written and spoken on a variety of topics in business and lease litigation, including creative use of creditors’ remedies and bankruptcy strategies.

MOHAMMAD WALIZADEH, B.A., 2000, University of California, Los Angeles; J.D., 2004, University of California, Berkeley, School of Law, began annually updating chapter 14 in 2015. Mr. Walizadeh is a partner with Hanson Bridgett LLP, San Francisco, specializing in real property and commercial litigation. He handles a diverse range of litigation, including lease and contract actions, debt collection cases, bankruptcy matters, class actions, and probate and trust cases. Mr. Walizadeh represents landlords and property owners in national bankruptcy matters. He is active in the Bar Association of San Francisco’s Courthouse Landlord/Tenant Project and has conducted multiple settlement negotiations on behalf of low income tenants defending against evictions.

PAUL E. SMITH, B.A., University of California, Berkeley; J.D., Golden Gate University School of Law, San Francisco, is currently Chief of the Intake Branch, Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), in San Francisco. Before working at HUD, he was the Fair Housing Program Director at Midpeninsula Citizens for Fair Housing. The views expressed in chapter 2 are solely those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the Department of Housing and Urban Development or those of the United States Government.

SCOTT A. FREEDMAN, B.A., Tulane University, 2000; J.D., Santa Clara University School of Law, 2005, currently updates chapters 3, 7, and 8. Mr. Freedman is a partner with Zachs & Freedman, San Francisco, where he specializes in litigation, including real estate suits, landlord-tenant matters, construction defect cases, and business and partnership disputes. He is experienced in all aspects of litigation and has significant trial experience. Mr. Freedman is a member of the Small Property Owners of San Francisco (SPOSF), participates in SPOSF’s “ask-a-lawyer” program, and has contributed numerous articles to SPOSF’s newsletter.

PATRICIA H. TIREY, B.A., University of California, Santa Barbara; J.D., University of San Diego Law School, has worked as an annual update author on chapters 1, 11, and 13 since 2001. Ms. Tirey is a senior partner with Kimball, Tirey & St. John LLP, San Diego, specializing in unlawful detainer litigation and appeals, both residential and commercial, and was instrumental in building the unlawful detainer litigation department at KTS. She has lectured extensively on the subject of landlord-tenant law to property owners and managers and to other attorneys in MCLE courses, and is an instructor for KTS Preventive Law Seminars. In 2013, she was selected as one of the Top Lawyers in Southern California by San Diego Magazine.

LYNN N. DOVER, J.D., Western State University College of Law, with Honors, is a contributing author to chapter 4 of the 2019 update. Ms. Dover is a partner in the Fair Housing Practice Group at Kimball, Tirey & St. John LLP, San Diego. She specializes in fair housing consultation, letters, legal opinions, lease and document reviews for fair housing compliance, and training on fair housing and landlord-tenant issues. She is also an experienced trial attorney, having handled residential unlawful detainer trials for nine years before joining the firm in 2002, and is an instructor on residential landlord-tenant and fair housing law for property management companies.

JAMES MORALES, B.A., 1976, University of California, Berkeley; J.D., 1979, University of Michigan, wrote the initial version of chapter 2. Mr. Morales was the Director of the San Francisco Redevelopment Agency (SFRA), and is currently employed in the Successor Agency to the SFRA. At the time he wrote this chapter, he was a staff attorney with the National Center for Youth Law, San Francisco.

MICHAEL RAWSON, B.A., 1975, University of California, Santa Barbara; J.D., 1980, Golden Gate University School of Law, San Francisco, was the principal update author of chapter 2 from 1998 to 2010. Mr. Rawson is the director of the California Public Interest Law Project in Oakland, where he handles impact litigation on state and federal land use, community redevelopment, fair housing, and tenant-landlord law. He contributed substantial new material to chapter 2 during the 1998 and 1999 book updates.

TED KIMBALL, B.S., 1973, Arizona State University; J.D., 1977, Western State University, coauthored chapter 3 and for several years (1998–2001) worked as an update author on this edition. Mr. Kimball is a senior partner with Kimball, Tirey & St. John, San Diego, specializing in landlord-tenant law (commercial and residential), leases and related document review, opinion letters, and fair housing counseling.

TERRY R. DOWDALL, B.A., 1973, J.D., 1977, University of Southern California, coauthored chapter 6. Mr. Dowdall is the owner of Dowdall Law Offices, Orange, specializing in representing mobilehome park owners.

E. HOUSTON TOUCEDA, B.A., 1959, B.S., 1960, North Texas State University; L.L.B., 1981, San Fernando Valley College of Law, coauthored chapter 1. Mr. Touceda is the owner of the Law Offices of E. Houston Touceda, Los Angeles.

ROBERT S. COLDREN, B.A., 1975, University of Denver; J.D., 1978, Loyola Law School, worked on the annual updates for chapter 6 from 2004 through 2006. Mr. Coldren is a founding partner in Coldren Law Offices, APLC, Santa Ana, specializing in business and real estate issues, including landlord and tenant disputes, homeowners association law, manufactured housing and RVs, and broker commission disputes. Mr. Coldren enjoys a special reputation in the area of property rights, land use, and regulatory “taking” issues.

LINDA J. LESTER, B.A., 1971, Loyola Marymount University; J.D., 1978, University of California, Berkeley, School of Law, worked on the annual updates for chapter 6 from 2004 through 2006. Ms. Lester, now inactive, was an associate attorney in Hart, King & Coldren, Santa Ana, and represented owners of manufactured housing parks in unlawful detainer actions, including evictions based on substantial annoyance, in bankruptcy court to obtain relief from stay to complete evictions, and in foreclosures and warehousemen’s liens against mobilehomes. She has defended owners in suits based on violations of the Fair Housing Act.

ANDREW J. WIEGEL, B.A., 1972, M.A., 1974, California State University, San Francisco; J.D., 1977, Golden Gate University School of Law, San Francisco, coauthored chapters 9–13 and sometimes consults on annual updates. He is a principal with Wiegel Law Group, PLC, San Francisco, specializing in real property litigation with an emphasis on landlord-tenant law.

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