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California Law of Contracts

A fresh and up-to-date alternative for business lawyers seeking to ensure that their contracts are fully enforceable and for litigators seeking to challenge enforceability.

A fresh and up-to-date alternative for business lawyers seeking to ensure that their contracts are fully enforceable and for litigators seeking to challenge enforceability.

  • Clear and comprehensive treatment of all aspects of contract law
  • Integrated discussion of current California case law and Civil Code sections
  • Chapter outlines and extensive index enable quick location of topics of interest
  • Capacity, consent, legality, consideration
  • Offer and acceptance, formalities, electronic contracting
  • Contract interpretation, modification, waiver
  • Representations, warranties, covenants, conditions
  • Assignment and delegation, third-party beneficiaries, joint and several obligations
  • Performance or breach of contract
  • Selected enforcement issues, damages, injunctive and declaratory relief
  • Commercial code provisions
  • Selected international issues
OnLAW BU94610

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$ 385.00
Print BU33610

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$ 385.00

A fresh and up-to-date alternative for business lawyers seeking to ensure that their contracts are fully enforceable and for litigators seeking to challenge enforceability.

  • Clear and comprehensive treatment of all aspects of contract law
  • Integrated discussion of current California case law and Civil Code sections
  • Chapter outlines and extensive index enable quick location of topics of interest
  • Capacity, consent, legality, consideration
  • Offer and acceptance, formalities, electronic contracting
  • Contract interpretation, modification, waiver
  • Representations, warranties, covenants, conditions
  • Assignment and delegation, third-party beneficiaries, joint and several obligations
  • Performance or breach of contract
  • Selected enforcement issues, damages, injunctive and declaratory relief
  • Commercial code provisions
  • Selected international issues

1

Introduction to the California Law of Contracts

  • I.  SCOPE OF TREATISE  1.1
  • II.  NATURE OF CONTRACT
    • A.  Definition of “Contract”  1.2
    • B.  Freedom of Contract and Its Limits  1.3
    • C.  Boundaries of Contract Law: Transactions Excluded and Included  1.4
  • III.  SOURCES OF LAW
    • A.  Civil Code: Its Origins and Relative Importance  1.5
    • B.  Commercial Code  1.6
    • C.  Other California Codes  1.7
    • D.  Decisions of California State Courts  1.8
    • E.  Federal and Out-of-State Decisions  1.9
    • F.  Restatement (Second) of Contracts  1.10

2

Contract Formation: Capacity to Contract

  • I.  INTRODUCTION TO CAPACITY (CC §§1550, 1556)  2.1
  • II.  MINORS (CC §1557; Fam C §§6710–6713, 6751)  2.2
    • A.  Void Contracts: Contracts a Minor Cannot Make (Fam C §6701)  2.3
      • 1.  Delegation of Power (Fam C §6701(a))  2.4
      • 2.  Contracts Relating to Real Property (Fam C §6701(b))  2.5
      • 3.  Contracts Relating to Personal Property Not in Minor’s Immediate Possession or Control (Fam C §6701(c))  2.6
    • B.  Voidable Contracts: Contracts a Minor May Disaffirm
      • 1.  When Disaffirmance Permitted (Fam C §6710)  2.7
      • 2.  Time for Disaffirmance (Fam C §6710)  2.8
      • 3.  No Estoppel by Misrepresentation of Age  2.9
      • 4.  No Need to Restore Consideration  2.10
      • 5.  Disaffirmance of Releases and Settlements  2.11
    • C.  Binding Contracts  2.12
      • 1.  Contracts for Necessaries (Fam C §6712)  2.13
      • 2.  Contracts Authorized or Directed by Statute (Fam C §6711)
        • a.  Certain Contracts for Medical and Health-Related Services  2.14
        • b.  Consent Relating to Adoption  2.15
        • c.  Miscellaneous Contracts Authorized by Statute  2.16
      • 3.  Art, Entertainment, and Professional Sports Contracts (Fam C §§6750–6751)
        • a.  Generally  2.17
        • b.  Coogan’s Law (Fam C §§6752–6753)  2.18
      • 4.  Actions by Parents or Guardians Binding Minors  2.19
      • 5.  Ratification on Attaining Majority  2.20
      • 6.  Contracts by Emancipated Minors
        • a.  Requirements for Emancipation  2.21
        • b.  Effect of Emancipation (Fam C §7050)  2.22
    • D.  Treatment of Minors Under Commercial Code  2.23
  • III.  MENTALLY INCAPACITATED PERSONS (CC §§38–41, 1557(b))
    • A.  Defining Mental Incapacity  2.24
    • B.  Proving Mental Incapacity  2.25
    • C.  Judicial Determination of Incapacity  2.26
    • D.  Conveyance of Real Estate by Incapacitated Person  2.27
    • E.  Intoxicated Persons  2.28
  • IV.  PRISONERS AND PERSONS DEPRIVED OF CIVIL RIGHTS (CC §1556)  2.29
  • V.  AGENCY AUTHORITY (CC §§2295–2300)
    • A.  Definition of Agency Relationship (CC §2295)  2.30
    • B.  Scope of Authority (CC §§2304–2326)  2.31
    • C.  Liability of Principal on Agent’s Contracts (CC §2330)  2.32
    • D.  Actual and Ostensible Authority
      • 1.  Definitions; Creation (CC §§2299–2300, 2315–2317)  2.33
      • 2.  Actual Authority (CC §§2299, 2316)  2.34
      • 3.  Ostensible or Apparent Authority (CC §2317)  2.35
    • E.  Acting Without or in Excess of Authority (CC §2333)  2.36
      • 1.  Ratification by Principal
        • a.  Time and Effect of Ratification  2.37
        • b.  Equal Dignities Rule (CC §§2309–2310)  2.38
        • c.  Ratification by Principal’s Conduct or Acquiescence  2.39
        • d.  Voluntariness Requirement for Ratification  2.40
        • e.  Partial Ratification (CC §2311)  2.41
      • 2.  Ratifications That Prejudice Third Persons (CC §2313)  2.42
      • 3.  Rescission of Ratification (CC §2314)  2.43
    • F.  Notices to Principal or Agent (CC §2332)  2.44
    • G.  Termination of Agency Relationship (CC §2355)  2.45
  • VI.  POWERS OF ATTORNEY (Prob C §§4000–4545)
    • A.  Generally (Prob C §4022)  2.46
    • B.  Application of Power of Attorney Law (Prob C §4050)  2.47
    • C.  Execution of Power of Attorney (Prob C §4120)  2.48
    • D.  Durable and Nondurable Power of Attorney (Prob C §§4022, 4124)  2.49
    • E.  Springing Power of Attorney (Prob C §§4030, 4129)  2.50
    • F.  Scope of Authority Granted in Power of Attorney (Prob C §4123)  2.51
      • 1.  Limited or Special Powers of Attorney (Prob C §4262)  2.52
      • 2.  General Powers of Attorney (Prob C §4261)  2.53
      • 3.  When Express Authority Is Required (Prob C §4264)  2.54
    • G.  Modification of Power of Attorney (Prob C §§4121, 4150)  2.55
    • H.  Revocation or Termination of Power of Attorney (Prob C §4151)  2.56
    • I.  Attorneys-in-Fact
      • 1.  Qualifications (Prob C §4200)  2.57
      • 2.  Multiple Attorneys-in-Fact; Successors (Prob C §4202)  2.58
      • 3.  Delegation of Authority by Attorney-in-Fact (Prob C §4205)  2.59
      • 4.  Resignation of Attorney-in-Fact (Prob C §4207)  2.60
      • 5.  Duties of Attorney-in-Fact (Prob C §4230)  2.61
      • 6.  Revocation or Termination of Authority of Attorney-in-Fact
        • a.  Revocation of Authority (Prob C §4153)  2.62
        • b.  Termination of Authority
          • (1)  Terminating Events (Prob C §4152)  2.63
          • (2)  Affidavit of Lack of Actual Knowledge (Prob C §§4305–4306)  2.64
      • 7.  Third Persons Dealing With Attorney-in-Fact (Prob C §§4300, 4302–4303, 4309–4310)  2.65
    • J.  Uniform Statutory Form Power of Attorney
      • 1.  Use of Form (Prob C §§4401–4402)  2.66
      • 2.  Form Provisions (Prob C §4401)  2.67
      • 3.  Form: Uniform Statutory Form Power of Attorney  2.68
  • VII.  AUTHORITY OF ENTITIES TO CONTRACT
    • A.  Corporations
      • 1.  Contracts With Other Entities (Corp C §§207, 7140)  2.69
      • 2.  Contracts With Directors or Other Entity in Which Director Has an Interest (Corp C §310)  2.70
      • 3.  Preincorporation Contracts  2.70A
      • 4.  Contracts Made While Corporate Powers Suspended  2.70B
    • B.  General Partnerships
      • 1.  Mutual Agency Relationship (Corp C §16301)  2.71
      • 2.  Transfers of Partnership Property (Corp C §16302)  2.72
      • 3.  Statement of Partnership Authority (Corp C §16303)  2.73
      • 4.  Authority of Former Partners to Bind Partnership (Corp C §16702)  2.74
      • 5.  Liability of Dissociated Partner (Corp C §16703)  2.75
    • C.  Limited Partnerships
      • 1.  Authority of General Partners to Contract (Corp C §§15904.02, 15904.04, 15904.06)  2.76
      • 2.  Authority of Limited Partners to Contract (Corp C §§15903.02, 15903.03)  2.77
    • D.  Limited Liability Partnerships (Corp C §16306)  2.78
    • E.  Limited Liability Companies (Corp C §§17703.01, 17713.04(b))  2.79
    • F.  Trusts (Prob C §16200)  2.80
    • G.  Municipalities  2.81
    • H.  State; State and Local Agencies  2.82

3

Contract Formation: Consent, Legality, Consideration

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER (CC §1550)  3.1
  • II.  CONSENT
    • A.  Generally (CC §1550(2))  3.2
    • B.  Mutual Consent
      • 1.  Generally (CC §1580)  3.3
      • 2.  Meeting of the Minds  3.4
      • 3.  Knowledge of and Assent to Contract Terms  3.5
      • 4.  Fraud in the Execution  3.6
    • C.  Communication of Consent (CC §§1565, 1581–1583)  3.7
    • D.  Freedom of Consent (CC §§1566–1568)  3.8
      • 1.  Duress
        • a.  Statutory Duress (CC §1569)  3.9
        • b.  Economic Duress  3.9A
      • 2.  Menace (CC §1570)  3.10
      • 3.  Fraud
        • a.  Generally; Fraud in the Inducement (CC §§1571–1574)  3.11
        • b.  Actual Fraud
          • (1)  Intentional Misrepresentation (CC §1572(1))
            • (a)  Elements; False Representation; Scienter  3.12
            • (b)  Misrepresentations of Fact; Statements of Opinion  3.13
            • (c)  Intent to Deceive  3.14
            • (d)  Justifiable Reliance; Materiality  3.15
          • (2)  Negligent Misrepresentation (CC §1572(2))  3.16
          • (3)  Concealment, Suppression of Fact (CC §1572(3))  3.17
          • (4)  Promissory Fraud (CC §1572(4))  3.18
          • (5)  “Any Other Act Fitted to Deceive” (CC §1572(5))  3.19
        • c.  Constructive Fraud (CC §1573)  3.20
      • 4.  Undue Influence (CC §1575)
        • a.  Generally  3.21
        • b.  Fiduciary and Confidential Relationships  3.22
          • (1)  Particular Fiduciary Relationships: Trustee and Beneficiary (Prob C §16004(c))  3.23
          • (2)  Particular Fiduciary Relationships: Attorney and Client  3.24
          • (3)  Particular Fiduciary Relationships: Health Care Provider and Patient  3.25
          • (4)  Particular Fiduciary Relationships: Spouses; Registered Domestic Partners; Unmarried Persons
            • (a)  Spouses (Fam C §721(b))  3.26
            • (b)  Registered Domestic Partners (Fam C §297.5)  3.27
            • (c)  Unmarried Persons  3.28
          • (5)  Particular Fiduciary Relationships: General and Limited Partnerships; LLCs
            • (a)  General Partnerships; Joint Ventures (Corp C §16404)  3.29
            • (b)  Limited Partnerships (Corp C §15904.08)  3.29A
            • (c)  Limited Liability Companies (Corp C §17704.09; Former Corp C §17153)  3.29B
          • (6)  Other Fiduciary Relationships  3.30
          • (7)  Legal Relationships That Are Not Fiduciary Relationships  3.31
      • 5.  Mistake (CC §§1567(5), 1576–1579)
        • a.  Generally  3.32
        • b.  Mistake of Fact (CC §§1577, 1579)  3.33
        • c.  Mistake of Law (CC §1578)  3.34
    • E.  Ratification of Voidable Contract (CC §1588)  3.35
  • III.  LEGALITY
    • A.  Generally (CC §§1550(3), 1595–1596, 1667)  3.36
    • B.  Contracts Contrary to Express Provision of Law (CC §1667(1))  3.37
    • C.  How Many Illegal Objects? (CC §§1598–1599)  3.38
    • D.  Balancing Test for Unenforceability  3.39
    • E.  Contracts Contrary to Public Policy (CC §§1667(2), 1668, 1669.7, 1670.6–1670.8)
      • 1.  General Rule (CC §1667(2))  3.40
      • 2.  Examples From Case Law  3.40A
      • 3.  Contracts Unlawful by Statute (CC §§1668, 1669.7, 1670.6–1670.10)  3.40B
    • F.  Contracts Concerning Marriage or Morals (CC §§1667(3), 1669, 1669.5)  3.41
  • IV.  CONSIDERATION
    • A.  Generally (CC §1605)  3.42
    • B.  Adequacy; Sufficiency  3.43
    • C.  Forbearance (CC §1606)  3.44
    • D.  Preexisting Duty Rule (CC §1606)  3.45
    • E.  Moral Obligations; Love and Affection (CC §1606)  3.46
    • F.  Past Consideration  3.47
    • G.  Mutuality of Obligation; Illusory Promises  3.48
    • H.  Unlawful Consideration (CC §1607)  3.49
    • I.  Unilateral Contracts
      • 1.  Generally  3.50
      • 2.  Employment Policies; Personnel Manuals; Bylaws  3.51
      • 3.  Options  3.52
    • J.  Promissory Estoppel  3.53
    • K.  Consideration in Commercial Code Contracts (Com C §1204)  3.54

4

Contract Formation: Offer and Acceptance, Formalities, Electronic Contracting

  • I.  OFFER
    • A.  Generally  4.1
    • B.  Definition of Offer  4.2
    • C.  Requirement of Certainty  4.3
    • D.  Preliminary Negotiations Distinguished
      • 1.  Generally  4.4
      • 2.  Advertisements  4.5
      • 3.  Application Forms  4.6
      • 4.  Price Quotations  4.7
      • 5.  Auctions  4.8
      • 6.  Invitations to Bid; Requests for Proposals
        • a.  Generally  4.9
        • b.  Acceptance of Bids  4.10
        • c.  Subcontractor Bids  4.11
        • d.  Offers by Merchants Under Com C §2205(b)  4.12
    • E.  Revocable Offers (CC §§1586–1587)  4.13
    • F.  Irrevocable Offers; Option Contracts  4.14
    • G.  Firm Offers by Merchants Under Com C §2205(a)  4.15
    • H.  Agreements to Agree, Contracts to Negotiate
      • 1.  Generally  4.16
      • 2.  Letters of Intent  4.17
      • 3.  Loan Commitment Letters  4.18
    • I.  Statutory Offers to Compromise (CCP §998)  4.19
    • J.  Lapse or Expiration of an Offer (CC §1587(2))  4.20
  • II.  ACCEPTANCE
    • A.  Generally  4.21
    • B.  Manifestation of Assent (CC §1581)  4.22
    • C.  Content of Acceptance: Mirror Image Rule; Counteroffers (CC §1585)  4.23
    • D.  Who May Accept  4.24
    • E.  Communication of Acceptance
      • 1.  Generally (CC §1582)  4.25
      • 2.  Timing of Acceptance; Mailbox Rules  4.26
        • a.  Mailbox Rule: Acceptance (CC §1583)  4.27
        • b.  Mailbox Rule: Revocation of Offer  4.28
        • c.  Mailbox Rule: Later Rejection Overtaking Acceptance  4.29
      • 3.  Ratification (CC §1588)  4.30
    • F.  Acceptance by Conduct
      • 1.  Generally  4.31
      • 2.  Silence  4.32
      • 3.  Unsolicited Sending of Merchandise (CC §§1584.5–1584.6)  4.33
    • G.  Implied-in-Fact Contracts (CC §1621)  4.34
    • H.  Rejection of Offers  4.35
  • III.  FORMATION OF CONTRACTS FOR SALE OR LEASE OF GOODS
    • A.  Formation Generally (Com C §§2204, 10204)  4.36
    • B.  Manner of Acceptance (Com C §§2206, 10206)  4.37
    • C.  Nonconforming Acceptance (Com C §2207)  4.38
    • D.  Invoices  4.38A
  • IV.  FORMALITIES
    • A.  Generally  4.39
    • B.  Signatures (CC §14; Com C §1201(b)(37))  4.40
    • C.  Oral Contracts (CC §1622)  4.41
    • D.  Approval by Third Parties  4.42
    • E.  Consent of Spouse or Domestic Partner (Fam C §§297.5, 1100, 1102; Corp C §25246)  4.43
    • F.  Statute of Frauds
      • 1.  Civil Code Statutes of Fraud
        • a.  CC §1624(a)  4.44
        • b.  Certain Contracts for Sale of Personal Property (CC §1624.5)  4.45
        • c.  Other Types of Contracts  4.46
      • 2.  Commercial Code Statutes of Frauds (Com C §2201)  4.47
      • 3.  Requirement of Written Contract  4.48
      • 4.  Divisibility of Agreement  4.49
      • 5.  Estoppel to Plead Statute of Frauds  4.50
    • G.  Delivery (CC §§1626–1627)  4.51
    • H.  Contract Modification
      • 1.  CC §§1697–1698  4.52
      • 2.  Com C §2209  4.53
  • V.  ELECTRONIC CONTRACTING
    • A.  E-Sign (15 USC §§7001–7031)
      • 1.  Introduction to E-Sign  4.54
      • 2.  Electronic Signatures  4.55
      • 3.  Exceptions to Applicability of E-Sign  4.56
      • 4.  Consumer Protection Features  4.57
      • 5.  Electronic Record Retention  4.58
    • B.  Uniform Electronic Transactions Act (UETA) (CC §§1633.1–1633.17)
      • 1.  Overview of UETA; Federal Preemption Issue  4.59
      • 2.  Scope of UETA; Exceptions  4.60
      • 3.  Consent to Conduct Transactions Electronically Required  4.61
      • 4.  Authentication of Electronic Signatures  4.61A
      • 5.  Statute of Frauds  4.61B
    • C.  Model Computer Information Transactions Act (MCITA)  4.62
    • D.  ALI Software Contract Principles  4.62A
    • E.  Enforceability of Shrink-Wrap, Click-Wrap, and Browse-Wrap Agreements
      • 1.  Introduction  4.63
      • 2.  Shrink-Wrap Software Licenses  4.64
      • 3.  Click-Wrap Agreements  4.65
      • 4.  Browse-Wrap Agreements  4.66
    • F.  Smart Contracts; Blockchain Technology   4.67

5

Contract Interpretation, Modification, Waiver

  • I.  GENERAL RULES OF INTERPRETATION
    • A.  Objective Manifestations of Intention  5.1
    • B.  Titles and Headings in Contracts  5.2
    • C.  Civil and Civil Procedure Code Rules of Contract Interpretation  5.3
      • 1.  Uniformity of Interpretation (CC §1635)  5.4
      • 2.  Mutual Intention to Be Given Effect (CC §1636)  5.5
      • 3.  Ascertaining Intention: Civil Code Rules (CC §1637)  5.6
      • 4.  Ascertaining Intention: Contract Language (CC §§1638–1639)  5.7
      • 5.  When Writing May Be Disregarded (CC §1640)  5.8
      • 6.  Interpreting Whole Contract (CC §1641; CCP §1858)  5.9
      • 7.  Interpreting Multiple Contracts in Single Transaction Together (CC §1642)  5.10
      • 8.  Interpreting Contracts to Make Them Lawful and Effective (CC §1643; CCP §1866)  5.11
      • 9.  Interpreting Words in Their Ordinary Sense (CC §1644; CCP §§1861, 1865)  5.12
      • 10.  Technical Words (CC §1645)  5.13
      • 11.  Law and Usage of Place (CC §§1646, 1646.5)  5.14
      • 12.  Circumstances (CC §1647; CCP §1860)  5.15
      • 13.  Restricting Contract to Its Apparent Object (CC §1648)  5.16
      • 14.  Ambiguity or Uncertainty (CC §1649; CCP §1864)  5.17
      • 15.  Particular Clauses Subordinate to General Intent (CC §1650; CCP §1859)  5.18
      • 16.  Original Writing Controls Over Printed Form (CC §1651; CCP §1862)  5.19
      • 17.  Reconciling Repugnancies (CC §1652)  5.20
      • 18.  Inconsistent Words (CC §1653)  5.21
      • 19.  Interpretation Against Persons Causing Uncertainty (CC §1654)  5.22
      • 20.  Implied Stipulations (CC §1655; CCP §1856(c))  5.23
      • 21.  Implied Incidentals (CC §1656)  5.24
      • 22.  Presumptions Concerning Sales Tax, Schedules (CC §1656.1)  5.25
      • 23.  Time of Performance (CC §1657)  5.26
      • 24.  Joint and Several Liability Presumed if Joint Benefit Conferred (CC §1659)  5.27
      • 25.  Joint and Several Liability Presumed in Joint Undertaking (CC §1660)  5.28
      • 26.  Executed and Executory Contracts Defined (CC §1661)  5.29
      • 27.  Uniform Vendor and Purchaser Risk Act (CC §1662)  5.30
      • 28.  Euro as Form of Payment (CC §1663)  5.31
      • 29.  Ascertaining Consideration (CC §§1610–1613)  5.32
    • D.  “Best Efforts” Provisions  5.32A
  • II.  PAROL EVIDENCE RULE
    • A.  Generally (CC §§1625, 1639; CCP §1856)  5.33
    • B.  Parol Evidence Analysis  5.34
      • 1.  Standard of Review  5.35
      • 2.  Merger or Integration Clauses  5.36
      • 3.  Collateral Agreements; Incorporation of Extrinsic Documents by Reference  5.37
      • 4.  Contradictory Evidence  5.38
      • 5.  Latent Versus Patent Ambiguities  5.39
      • 6.  Evidence of the Circumstances (CCP §§1856(g), 1860)  5.40
      • 7.  Exceptions for Mistake, Invalidity, Illegality, Fraud (CCP §1856(e)–(g))  5.41
      • 8.  Course of Dealing, Usage of Trade, Course of Performance (CCP §1856(c))  5.42
    • C.  Commercial Code Parol Evidence Rule (Com C §2202)  5.43
  • III.  CHOICE OF FORUM, CHOICE OF LAW
    • A.  Forum Selection Clauses, Consent to Personal Jurisdiction
      • 1.  Generally  5.44
      • 2.  Who May Enforce  5.45
      • 3.  Mandatory Versus Permissive Forum Selection Clauses  5.46
      • 4.  Forum Selection Clauses in California Federal Courts  5.46A
      • 5.  Venue Selection Clauses  5.47
      • 6.  Construction Contracts (CCP §410.42)  5.48
      • 7.  Employment Agreements (Lab C §925)  5.48A
      • 8.  Letters of Credit (Com C §5116(e))  5.49
      • 9.  Consumer Lease Contracts (Com C §10106(b))  5.50
    • B.  Conflicts of Law; Choice of Law
      • 1.  In Absence of Choice-of-Law Clause  5.51
      • 2.  Enforceability of Choice-of-Law Clauses
        • a.  Choice of California Law
          • (1)  Generally  5.52
          • (2)  Transactions of $250,000 or More (CC §1646.5)  5.53
        • b.  Choice of Non-California Law: Nedlloyd Lines B.V. v Superior Court  5.54
      • 3.  Employment Agreements (Lab C §925)  5.54A
      • 4.  Commercial Code Transactions (Com C §1301)  5.55
  • IV.  COMMERCIAL CODE RULES OF CONTRACT INTERPRETATION
    • A.  Course of Dealing and Usage of Trade (Com C §1303)  5.56
      • 1.  Course of Dealing Defined (Com C §1303(b))  5.57
      • 2.  Usage of Trade Defined (Com C §1303(c))  5.58
    • B.  Course of Performance (Com C §1303(a))  5.59
    • C.  Gap-Filling Rules  5.60
      • 1.  Course of Dealing; Usage of Trade; Course of Performance (Com C §1303(d))  5.61
      • 2.  Open Price Term (Com C §2305)  5.62
      • 3.  Open Quantity Term
        • a.  Output and Requirements Contracts (Com C §2306(1))  5.63
        • b.  Exclusive Dealing Arrangements (Com C §2306(2))  5.64
      • 4.  Open Delivery Terms
        • a.  Number of Deliveries (Com C §2307)  5.65
        • b.  Place of Delivery (Com C §2308)  5.66
      • 5.  Contract Duration: Time for Delivery or Other Performance (Com C §2309)  5.67
      • 6.  Open Payment Terms (Com C §2310)  5.68
      • 7.  Details of Performance (Com C §2311)  5.69
  • V.  SEVERABILITY; DIVISIBILITY
    • A.  General Rules Concerning Severance of Unenforceable Terms (CC §1599)  5.70
    • B.  Severability Issues in Contract Drafting  5.71
    • C.  Divisible Contracts  5.71A
  • VI.  ADHESION CONTRACTS
    • A.  What Is an Adhesion Contract?  5.72
    • B.  Enforceability of Adhesion Contracts  5.73
    • C.  Examples of Adhesion Contracts  5.74
  • VII.  UNCONSCIONABILITY
    • A.  Generally (CC §1670.5)  5.75
    • B.  Procedural Unconscionability  5.76
    • C.  Substantive Unconscionability  5.77
    • D.  Class Action Waivers  5.78
    • E.  Remedies  5.79
  • VIII.  FOREIGN LANGUAGE TRANSLATIONS (CC §1632)  5.80
  • IX.  CONTRACT MODIFICATIONS, WAIVERS, RELEASES
    • A.  Non­Commercial Code Contracts  5.81
      • 1.  Amendments or Modifications
        • a.  Generally  5.82
        • b.  Oral Contracts (CC §1697)  5.83
        • c.  Written Contracts (CC §1698)  5.84
        • d.  Arbitration Agreement Amendments  5.84A
      • 2.  Supplemental Agreements  5.85
      • 3.  Rescission; Cancellation  5.86
      • 4.  Waiver  5.87
      • 5.  Novation (CC §§1530–1532)  5.88
    • B.  Modification, Rescission, and Waiver Under Commercial Code (Com C §§1306, 2209, 10208)  5.89
    • C.  Settlement Agreements; Releases
      • 1.  Generally  5.90
      • 2.  Covenants Not to Sue  5.91
      • 3.  Releases of Existing Obligations (CC §1541)  5.92
      • 4.  Scope of General Releases (CC §1542)  5.93
      • 5.  Third Parties (CC §1543)  5.94
      • 6.  Exculpation Agreements; Prospective Releases (CC §1668)  5.95
    • D.  Statutory Offers to Compromise (CCP §998)  5.96

6

Representations, Warranties, Covenants, Conditions, Indemnities

  • I.  INTRODUCTION TO REPRESENTATIONS, WARRANTIES, COVENANTS, CONDITIONS, AND INDEMNITIES  6.1
  • II.  REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES
    • A.  Representations
      • 1.  Generally  6.2
      • 2.  Actionable Misrepresentations  6.3
      • 3.  Financial Statements  6.4
      • 4.  Insurance Contracts  6.5
      • 5.  Statements of Opinion Distinguished  6.6
    • B.  Contractual Warranties
      • 1.  Generally  6.7
      • 2.  Implied Warranties in Residential Real Estate Leases and New Construction  6.8
      • 3.  Disclaimer of Warranties  6.9
      • 4.  Survival of Warranties  6.10
      • 5.  Common Law Requirement for Privity of Contract  6.11
    • C.  Commercial Code Warranties  6.12
      • 1.  Express Warranties by Affirmation, Promise, Description, or Sample (Com C §2313)  6.13
      • 2.  Implied Warranty of Merchantability (Com C §2314)  6.14
      • 3.  Implied Warranty of Fitness for Particular Purpose (Com C §2315)  6.15
      • 4.  Warranty of Title; Warranty Against Infringement (Com C §2312)  6.16
      • 5.  Exclusion or Modification of Commercial Code Warranties (Com C §2316)  6.17
      • 6.  Privity of Contract  6.18
      • 7.  Conflict of Warranties (Com C §2317)  6.19
      • 8.  Leases of Goods
        • a.  Generally  6.20
        • b.  Implied Warranties Against Interference and Infringement (Com C §10211)  6.21
    • D.  Consumer Protection Warranties
      • 1.  Generally  6.22
      • 2.  California Law
        • a.  Consumers Legal Remedies Act (CLRA) (CC §§1750–1784)  6.23
        • b.  Song-Beverly Consumer Warranty Act (Lemon Law; CC §§1790–1795.8)  6.24
        • c.  Motor Vehicle Warranty Adjustment Programs (CC §§1795.90–1795.93)  6.25
        • d.  Standards for Warranty Work (CC §§1796, 1796.5)  6.26
        • e.  Mobilehome Warranties (CC §§1797–1797.7)  6.27
        • f.  Grey Market Goods (CC §§1797.8–1797.86)  6.28
        • g.  Home Roof Warranties (CC §§1797.90–1797.96)  6.29
      • 3.  Federal Law
        • a.  Magnuson Moss Warranty-Federal Trade Commission Improvements Act  6.30
        • b.  FTC Regulations Concerning Written Consumer Warranties  6.31
  • III.  COVENANTS
    • A.  Generally
      • 1.  Express Covenants  6.32
      • 2.  Implied Covenants  6.33
    • B.  Implied Covenant of Good Faith and Fair Dealing
      • 1.  Generally  6.34
      • 2.  Requires a Contract  6.35
      • 3.  In Exercise of Discretion  6.36
      • 4.  Insurance Contracts  6.37
    • C.  Implied Covenant Regarding Manner of Performance  6.37A
    • D.  Covenants Not to Compete  6.38
    • E.  Covenants Not to Solicit Employees  6.38A
    • F.  Consumer’s Right to “Yelp"  6.38B
    • G.  Covenants in Contracts Regulated by Civil Code  6.39
    • H.  Attorney Fee Agreements (Bus & P C §6148)  6.40
  • IV.  CONDITIONS
    • A.  Generally (CC §§1434–1435)  6.41
    • B.  Express and Implied Conditions  6.42
    • C.  Conditions Precedent, Concurrent, Subsequent
      • 1.  Conditions Precedent (CC §§1436, 1439)  6.43
      • 2.  Concurrent Conditions (CC §§1437, 1439)  6.44
      • 3.  Conditions Subsequent (CC §1438)  6.45
    • D.  Condition of “Satisfaction”  6.46
    • E.  Condition of “No Material Adverse Change”  6.47
    • F.  Waiver of Conditions  6.48
    • G.  Conditions Resulting in Forfeiture (CC §1442)  6.49
    • H.  Excuse of Conditions (CC §§1440–1441)  6.50
  • V.  INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS
    • A.  Generally (CC §2772)  6.51
    • B.  Indemnity Agreements Under the Civil Code
      • 1.  Agreements to Indemnify Against Past or Future Wrongful Acts (CC §§2773–2774)  6.52
      • 2.  Extension to Acts of Agents (CC §2775)  6.53
      • 3.  Multi-Party Indemnifications (CC §§2776–2777)  6.54
      • 4.  Rules of Interpretation (CC §2778)  6.55
      • 5.  Reimbursement (CC §2779)  6.56
      • 6.  Indemnification Provisions in Construction and Hauling Contracts (CC §§2782–2784.5)  6.57
    • C.  Equitable Indemnity  6.58
    • D.  Guaranty and Suretyship Contracts Distinguished  6.59

7

Assignment and Delegation, Third Party Beneficiaries, and Joint and Several Obligations

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  7.1
  • II.  ASSIGNMENT AND DELEGATION
    • A.  Definition of Assignment (CC §1039)  7.2
    • B.  Principles of Assignment
      • 1.  Assignment of Contract Rights (CC §1458)  7.3
      • 2.  Assignments of Rights to Payment; Nonnegotiable Instruments
        • a.  Relationship to UCC; Definition of “Account” (Com C §§9102, 9109)  7.4
        • b.  Transfers of Nonnegotiable Instruments (CC §1459)  7.5
      • 3.  Assignments of Choses in Action (CC §§953–954; CCP §§368, 368.5)  7.6
      • 4.  Assignments of After-Acquired Rights, Future Interests (CC §1045)  7.7
      • 5.  How Made
        • a.  Assignments of Contract Rights Generally (CC §§1040, 1052–1056, 1084)  7.8
        • b.  Notice of Assignment  7.9
        • c.  Perfection of Transfers of Nonnegotiable Instruments and Certain Payment Rights (CC §§955, 955.1)  7.10
        • d.  Equitable Assignments  7.11
      • 6.  Effect of Assignment
        • a.  Generally (CC §1084)  7.12
        • b.  Assumption of Obligations (CC §1589)  7.13
        • c.  Effect of “Successors and Assigns” Clause  7.14
        • d.  Assignments for Security  7.15
        • e.  Assignee Subject to Obligor’s Claims and Defenses Against Assignor (CC §1459; CCP §368); Waiver of Defenses  7.16
      • 7.  Priority Among Successive Assignees  7.17
    • C.  Restrictions on Assignment  7.18
      • 1.  Contractual Restrictions
        • a.  Enforcement of Anti-Assignment Clauses Generally  7.19
        • b.  When Assignment Requires Consent of Nonassigning Party  7.20
          • (1)  Real Estate Leases (CC §1995.260)  7.21
          • (2)  Franchise Agreements  7.22
          • (3)  Other Contracts  7.23
        • c.  When Contractual Restrictions Not Enforceable
          • (1)  Assignments of Money Due  7.24
          • (2)  Assignments of Accounts; Grants of Security Interests (Com C §§9406(d), 9408(a))  7.25
          • (3)  Assignments by Operation of Law  7.26
      • 2.  Legal Restrictions
        • a.  Contracts Requiring Unique Personal Skill  7.27
        • b.  Assignments of Patent and Copyright Licenses  7.28
        • c.  Assignments of Wages (Lab C §300)  7.29
    • D.  Delegation of Duties
      • 1.  Definition of Delegation  7.30
      • 2.  Principles of Delegation (CC §1457)  7.31
      • 3.  Novation Compared (CC §§1530–1532)  7.32
      • 4.  How Made  7.33
      • 5.  Nondelegable Duties; Personal Services Contracts  7.34
    • E.  Revocability of Assignments; Modification of Assigned Contract  7.35
    • F.  Assignments for Benefit of Creditors  7.36
  • III.  ASSIGNMENT AND DELEGATION OF CONTRACTS FOR THE SALE OR LEASE OF GOODS  7.37
    • A.  Contracts for the Sale of Goods (Com C §2210)
      • 1.  Scope of Com C §2210  7.38
      • 2.  Distinction Between Assignment and Delegation  7.39
      • 3.  Financing Assignments  7.40
    • B.  Assignment of Rights  7.41
      • 1.  Creation of Security Interest Not Deemed Material  7.42
      • 2.  Contractual Restrictions on Assignment  7.43
      • 3.  When Restrictions on Assignment Are Unenforceable
        • a.  Fully Executed Contracts  7.44
        • b.  Creation of Security Interest  7.45
      • 4.  Material Adverse Effect on Nonassigning Party  7.46
    • C.  Delegation of Duties
      • 1.  Principles of Delegation  7.47
      • 2.  Delegation Implied by Assignment  7.48
      • 3.  Effect of Delegation
        • a.  As Between Nondelegating Party and Assignee  7.49
        • b.  As Between Nondelegating Party and Assignor  7.50
        • c.  As Between Assignor and Assignee  7.51
      • 4.  When Delegation of Duties Prohibited  7.52
    • D.  Leases of Goods (Com C §10303)
      • 1.  Scope of Com C §10303  7.53
      • 2.  Assignment and Delegation  7.54
      • 3.  Subleases of Goods  7.55
      • 4.  Restrictions on Lease Transfers  7.56
      • 5.  When Restrictions on Transfer Unenforceable
        • a.  Transfers of Right to Payment or Damages on Default  7.57
        • b.  Creation of Security Interest  7.58
        • c.  Material Adverse Effect on Other Party  7.59
      • 6.  Priorities Among Conflicting Claimants  7.60
  • IV.  THIRD PARTY BENEFICIARIES
    • A.  Generally (CC §1559)  7.61
    • B.  Scope of Third Party’s Rights  7.62
    • C.  Creditor and Donee Beneficiaries  7.63
    • D.  Intended and Incidental Beneficiaries
      • 1.  Intended Beneficiaries  7.64
      • 2.  Incidental Beneficiaries  7.65
    • E.  Who Qualifies as Third Party Beneficiary  7.66
    • F.  Defenses to Enforcement by Third Party Beneficiary  7.67
    • G.  Rescission or Modification of Third Party Beneficiary Contracts  7.68
  • V.  JOINT AND SEVERAL OBLIGATIONS
    • A.  Introduction (CC §1430)  7.69
    • B.  Two or More Obligors
      • 1.  Interpreting the Contract  7.70
      • 2.  When Joint and Several Liability Presumed (CC §§1659, 1660; Corp C §16306)  7.71
      • 3.  Joint Obligations Distinguished (CC §1431)  7.72
      • 4.  Several Obligations Distinguished  7.73
      • 5.  Suretyship Relationships Distinguished  7.74
      • 6.  Effect of Joint and Several Liability
        • a.  Performance by One Obligor (CC §1474)  7.75
        • b.  Release of One Obligor (CC §1543; CCP §877)  7.76
        • c.  Assignment by Obligee to One Obligor  7.77
        • d.  Rights of Contribution (CC §1432)  7.78
        • e.  Joinder of Joint Obligors in Action on Contract  7.79
    • C.  Two or More Obligees (CC §§1431, 1475)  7.80

8

Performance or Breach of Contract

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  8.1
  • II.  PERFORMANCE OF CONTRACTS UNDER THE CIVIL CODE
    • A.  Full and Part Performance
      • 1.  Full Performance Discharges Obligation; Substantial Performance (CC §§1473–1475)  8.2
      • 2.  Performance in Manner Directed by Creditors (CC §1476)  8.3
      • 3.  Effect of Partial Performance (CC §1477); Indivisible and Divisible Contracts  8.4
      • 4.  Payment Defined (CC §1478)  8.5
      • 5.  Payment by Check or Promissory Note (Com C §3310)  8.6
      • 6.  Application of Performance to Two or More Obligations (CC §1479)  8.7
      • 7.  Time for Performance
        • a.  Time of Performance of Contract (CC §1657)  8.8
        • b.  Contracts of Indefinite Duration  8.9
        • c.  When “Time Is of the Essence”  8.10
        • d.  When Time for Performance Falls on a Holiday (CCP §13)  8.11
      • 8.  Performance of Conditions (CC §1439)  8.12
    • B.  Offer or Tender of Performance
      • 1.  Obligation Extinguished by Offer of Full Performance (CC §1485)  8.13
      • 2.  Effect of Offer of Partial Performance (CC §1486)  8.14
      • 3.  Offer of Performance by or on Behalf of Debtor to Creditor (CC §§1487–1488)  8.15
      • 4.  Place of Offer of Performance (CC §1489)  8.16
      • 5.  Time of Offer of Performance (CC §§1490–1491, 1806.3)  8.17
      • 6.  Delay in Performance (CC §1492)  8.18
      • 7.  Good Faith; Ability and Willingness to Perform (CC §§1493, 1495)  8.19
      • 8.  Production of Thing to Be Delivered (CC §§1496–1497; CCP §2074)  8.20
      • 9.  Conditional Offers of Performance (CC §§1494, 1498)  8.21
      • 10.  Debtor’s Right to Written Receipt (CC §1499; CCP §2075)  8.22
      • 11.  Extinction of Pecuniary Obligation by Deposit (CC §1500)  8.23
      • 12.  Waiver of Objections to Tender of Performance (CC §1501; CCP §2076)  8.24
      • 13.  Title to, and Custody of, Thing Offered (CC §§1502, 1503)  8.25
      • 14.  Effect of Offer of Performance on Interest and Other Incidents (CC §1504)  8.26
      • 15.  Creditor’s Retention of Thing Without Acceptance (CC §1505)  8.27
    • C.  Excuse of Performance
      • 1.  Generally  8.28
        • a.  Prevention of Performance by Act of Creditor or Operation of Law (CC §1511(1))  8.29
          • (1)  Act of Creditor  8.30
          • (2)  Operation of Law  8.31
        • b.  Force Majeure (CC §1511(2))  8.32
        • c.  Creditor Induces Debtor’s Nonperformance (CC §1511(3))  8.33
        • d.  Nonoccurrence or Nonperformance of Condition  8.34
        • e.  Impossibility or Impracticability
          • (1)  Generally (CC §1598)  8.35
          • (2)  Temporary Impossibility or Impracticability  8.36
          • (3)  Death or Incapacity  8.37
        • f.  Frustration of Purpose  8.38
      • 2.  Debtor’s Entitlement to Contract Benefits (CC §1512)  8.39
      • 3.  Ratable Recovery of Consideration (CC §1514)  8.40
      • 4.  Refusal to Accept Performance (CC §1515)  8.41
    • D.  Accord and Satisfaction
      • 1.  Generally (CC §§1521, 1523)  8.42
      • 2.  Intent of Parties (CC §§1524–1525)  8.43
      • 3.  Distinguished From Novation (CC §1522)  8.44
      • 4.  Accord and Satisfaction by Use of Instrument (Com C §3311; CC §1526)  8.45
    • E.  Novation (CC §§1530–1532)  8.46
    • F.  Release (CC §§1541–1543)  8.47
  • III.  PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL CODE CONTRACTS
    • A.  Performance Standards
      • 1.  General Obligations of Parties (Com C §§2301, 10301)  8.48
      • 2.  Manner of Seller’s Tender of Delivery (Com C §2503)  8.49
      • 3.  Seller’s Performance by Shipment (Com C §2504)  8.50
      • 4.  Seller’s Shipment Under Reservation (Com C §2505)  8.51
      • 5.  Perfect Tender Rule (Com C §2601)  8.52
      • 6.  Seller’s Cure of Improper Tender or Delivery (Com C §§2508, 2614, 10406)  8.53
      • 7.  Tender of Payment by Buyer (Com C §2511)  8.54
      • 8.  Payment by Buyer Before Inspection (Com C §2512)  8.55
      • 9.  Buyer’s Right to Inspection of Goods (Com C §2513)  8.56
      • 10.  Preserving Evidence (Com C §2515)  8.57
      • 11.  Right to Adequate Assurance of Performance (Com C §2609)  8.58
      • 12.  Acceptance of Performance
        • a.  Sales of Goods (Com C §§2301, 2606–2607)  8.59
        • b.  Revocation of Acceptance (Com C §2608)  8.60
        • c.  Acceptance of Leased Goods (Com C §10515)  8.61
    • B.  Excuse of Performance
      • 1.  Excuse by Failure of Presupposed Conditions; Commercial Impracticability (Com C §§2615, 10404)  8.62
      • 2.  Buyer’s Rights on Seller’s Notice of Inability or Delay in Performance (Com C §§2616, 10405)  8.63
      • 3.  Casualty to Identified Goods (Com C §§2613, 10221)  8.64
    • C.  Installment Contracts (Com C §2612)  8.65
  • IV.  BREACH OF CONTRACT
    • A.  Contracts Not Subject to Commercial Code
      • 1.  Generally  8.66
      • 2.  Elements of Cause of Action for Breach  8.67
      • 3.  Need for Demand for Performance  8.68
      • 4.  Total or Partial Breach  8.69
      • 5.  Material and Immaterial Breach  8.70
      • 6.  Anticipatory Repudiation (CC §1440)  8.71
      • 7.  Waiver of Breach  8.72
      • 8.  Abandonment of Construction Contracts  8.73
    • B.  Breach of Contracts for Sale of Goods
      • 1.  Generally (Com C §§2601–2603, 2605, 2607)  8.74
      • 2.  Anticipatory Repudiation (Com C §2610)  8.75
      • 3.  Retraction of Anticipatory Repudiation (Com C §2611)  8.76
    • C.  Breach of Personal Property Leases (Com C §10501)  8.77
  • V.  INTENTIONAL INTERFERENCE WITH CONTRACTUAL RELATIONS  8.78

9

Selected Enforcement Issues

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  9.1
  • II.  CONTRACT STATUTES OF LIMITATIONS
    • A.  Written Contracts and Leases: 4 Years (CCP §§337, 337.2)  9.2
    • B.  Accrual of Cause of Action for Breach  9.3
    • C.  Special Rules (CCP §§336a, 337(1), 338, 339)  9.4
    • D.  Agreements Regarding Statutes of Limitations (CCP §§360, 360.5)  9.5
    • E.  UCC Statutes of Limitations (Com C §§2725, 3118, 5115, 10506)  9.6
  • III.  JURISDICTION; VENUE
    • A.  Jurisdiction, Forum Selection Clauses  9.7
    • B.  Venue Rules for Breach of Contract Actions (CCP §§395, 395.2, 395.5, 396a)
      • 1.  If Defendant Is an Individual Person
        • a.  Non-Consumer Contracts (CCP §395(a))  9.8
        • b.  Consumer Obligations (CCP §§395(b)–(c), 396a)  9.9
      • 2.  If Defendant Is a Corporation, an Unincorporated Association, or an Executor or Trustee (CCP §§395.1–395.2, 395.5)  9.10
      • 3.  Venue Selection Clauses  9.11
  • IV.  ATTORNEY FEES
    • A.  American Rule Prohibits Attorney Fee Award (CCP §1021)  9.12
    • B.  Recovery of Attorney Fees by Contract
      • 1.  General Rule (CCP §§1032, 1033.5; CC §1717(a))  9.13
      • 2.  CC §1717 Is Mutual and Reciprocal  9.14
      • 3.  Attorney Fees if Contract Is Invalid or Rescinded  9.15
      • 4.  CC §1717 Not Waivable  9.16
      • 5.  Determination of “Prevailing Party” (CC §1717(b)(1); CCP §1032(a)(4))
        • a.  Definition; Procedure for Determination  9.17
        • b.  Voluntary Dismissals  9.18
        • c.  Effect of CCP §998 Settlement Offer on Attorney Fee Award  9.19
        • d.  Tender of Payment by Defendant  9.20
      • 6.  What Is an “Action”?  9.20A
      • 7.  Rights of Third Party Beneficiaries  9.21
      • 8.  Fees Must Be “Reasonable”  9.22
      • 9.  Fees on Appeal  9.23
      • 10.  Costs of Litigation  9.24
      • 11.  Attorney Fees in Actions Including Tort or Other Noncontract Claims  9.25
      • 12.  Pro Se Litigants; In-House Counsel  9.26
      • 13.  Attorney Fee Clauses  9.27
    • C.  Statutes Allowing Recovery  9.28
    • D.  Statute Limiting Recovery  9.28A
  • V.  PREDISPUTE WAIVER OF RIGHT TO JURY TRIAL (CCP §631)  9.29
  • VI.  ARBITRATION OF CONTRACT DISPUTES
    • A.  Introduction  9.30
    • B.  Advantages and Disadvantages of Arbitration
      • 1.  Advantages  9.31
      • 2.  Disadvantages  9.32
    • C.  Drafting Arbitration Clauses
      • 1.  AAA Forms of Arbitration Clause  9.33
      • 2.  JAMS Forms of Arbitration Clause  9.34
      • 3.  Self-Executing Arbitration Clauses  9.35
      • 4.  Special Requirements  9.36
      • 5.  Discovery Provisions  9.37
    • D.  Enforcement of Arbitration Clauses
      • 1.  California Arbitration Act (CCP §§1280–1294.2)  9.38
      • 2.  Federal Arbitration Act (FAA) (9 USC §§1–16)
        • a.  Generally  9.39
        • b.  FAA Preemption of State Law  9.40
        • c.  FAA Saving Clause  9.40A
        • d.  Parties’ Agreement; Arbitration Procedures; Judicial Review   9.40B
      • 3.  Arbitrability; Scope of Arbitration Clause
        • a.  Presence or Absence of Delegation Clause  9.41
        • b.  Presumption of Arbitrability  9.41A
        • c.  Scope of Arbitration Clause  9.41B
    • E.  Defenses to Enforcement of Arbitration Clause
      • 1.  Unconscionability  9.42
        • a.  Procedural Unconscionability  9.43
        • b.  Substantive Unconscionability  9.44
      • 2.  Fraud in the Execution  9.45
      • 3.  Waiver of Right to Compel Arbitration  9.46
      • 4.  Unwaivable Statutory Rights
        • a.  Arbitration of Statutory Claims   9.46A
        • b.  Armendariz: Enforceability Subject to Particular Scrutiny  9.47
        • c.  Armendariz Requirements  9.47A
        • d.  Public Purpose  9.47B
        • e.  Enforceability Analysis  9.47C
        • f.  Private Claims  9.47D
      • 5.  Other Defenses  9.48
    • F.  Arbitration of Attorney Fee Disputes  9.49
    • G.  Obligation of Nonsignatories to Arbitrate  9.50
    • H.  Scope of Arbitrator’s Authority to Grant Relief  9.51
    • I.  Finality of Arbitration Award; Judicial Review  9.52
    • J.  Optional AAA Appellate Arbitration  9.52A
    • K.  Judicial Arbitration (CCP §§1141.10–1141.31)  9.53
  • VII.  MEDIATION
    • A.  Generally  9.54
    • B.  Forms of Mediation Clauses  9.55
  • VIII.  ELECTION OF REMEDIES
    • A.  Scope of Doctrine  9.56
    • B.  When Made  9.57

10

Remedies: Damages

  • I.  INTRODUCTION TO CONTRACT DAMAGES; GOVERNING LAW  10.1
  • II.  DAMAGES FOR BREACH OF PARTICULAR TYPES OF CONTRACTS  10.2
  • III.  DAMAGES FOR BREACH OF CONTRACT: GENERAL PRINCIPLES
    • A.  Benefit of the Bargain (CC §3300)  10.3
    • B.  Requirement of Foreseeability (CC §3300)  10.4
    • C.  Requirement of Reasonableness (CC §3359)  10.5
    • D.  Requirement of Reasonable Certainty (CC §3301)  10.6
    • E.  Rule Against Windfalls (CC §3358)  10.7
    • F.  General and Special Damages
      • 1.  General Damages  10.8
      • 2.  Special Damages  10.9
    • G.  Nominal Damages (CC §3360)  10.10
    • H.  Distinguished From Tort Damages  10.11
  • IV.  MITIGATION OF DAMAGES  10.12
  • V.  SPECIFIC ITEMS RECOVERABLE
    • A.  Failure to Pay Money Due (CC §3302)  10.13
    • B.  Lost Profits
      • 1.  Generally  10.14
      • 2.  Requirement of Proximate Causation  10.15
      • 3.  Evidence of Lost Profits; Measure of Damages  10.16
      • 4.  Breach of Contract Versus Tort Measures  10.17
      • 5.  Interruption or Destruction of Business  10.18
      • 6.  Lost Profits of New Businesses  10.19
      • 7.  Contract Price–Market Value Differential  10.20
      • 8.  Minority Discount  10.20A
      • 9.  Loss of Goodwill  10.21
    • C.  Interest (CC §§3287, 3289, 3289.5)
      • 1.  Express Contractual Provision for Interest (CC §§3289(a), 3289.5)  10.22
      • 2.  No Contractual Provision But Damages Certain or Calculable (CC §3287(a))  10.23
      • 3.  No Contractual Provision; Damages Unliquidated (CC §3287(b))  10.24
      • 4.  Date From Which Interest Runs  10.25
      • 5.  Prejudgment Interest in Indemnity Actions  10.26
      • 6.  Cost of Borrowing  10.27
      • 7.  Postjudgment Interest  10.28
    • D.  Out-of-Pocket Expenses; Reliance Damages  10.29
    • E.  Tort Damages
      • 1.  Generally  10.30
      • 2.  Damages for Emotional Distress  10.31
      • 3.  Breach of Implied Covenant of Good Faith and Fair Dealing
        • a.  General Rule  10.32
        • b.  Insurance Cases  10.33
        • c.  Other Circumstances  10.34
    • F.  Damages for Breach of Employment or Service Contracts
      • 1.  Contract Measure of Damages  10.35
      • 2.  Tort Remedies  10.36
    • G.  Attorney Fees (CC §1717)  10.37
    • H.  Expert Witness Fees  10.38
  • VI.  LIQUIDATED DAMAGES
    • A.  Introduction to Liquidated Damages (CC §1671)  10.39
    • B.  Contracts Made Before July 1, 1978 (Former CC §§1670–1671)  10.40
    • C.  Contracts Made On or After July 1, 1978 (CC §1671(b))
      • 1.  General Rule  10.41
      • 2.  Rule Against Penalties or Forfeitures (CC §3275)  10.42
    • D.  Liquidated Damages Under Other Applicable Law (CC §1671(a))  10.43
    • E.  Security Deposits as Liquidated Damages  10.44
    • F.  Commercial Code Contracts  10.45
    • G.  Sample Commercial Liquidated Damages Clause  10.45A
    • H.  Consumer Contracts (CC §1671(c)–(d))  10.46
    • I.  Real Property Purchase Contracts (CC §§1675–1681)  10.47
  • VII.  EXEMPLARY (PUNITIVE) DAMAGES (CC §§3294–3296)
    • A.  Generally  10.48
    • B.  Cases Involving Breach of Insurance Contract or Existence of Independent Tort  10.49
    • C.  Not Available for Bad Faith Denial of Contract’s Existence  10.50
    • D.  Proof of Defendant’s Financial Condition  10.51
  • VIII.  CONSUMERS LEGAL REMEDIES ACT (CLRA) (CC §§1750–1784)
    • A.  Application (CC §§1751, 1754, 1761, 1770)  10.52
    • B.  Remedies (CC §1780)  10.53
    • C.  Special Notice and Demand Procedures (CC §1782)  10.54
    • D.  Class Actions (CC §1781)  10.55

11

Remedies: Injunctive and Declaratory Relief; Other Remedies

  • I.  INTRODUCTION TO INJUNCTIVE AND DECLARATORY RELIEF AND OTHER REMEDIES  11.1
  • II.  INJUNCTIVE RELIEF GENERALLY
    • A.  Specific or Preventive Relief (CC §§3367–3368, 3422)  11.2
    • B.  Not Available to Enforce a Penalty or Forfeiture (CC §§3275, 3369)  11.3
    • C.  Preventive Relief for Breach of Contract
      • 1.  When Contract Is Specifically Enforceable (CC §3422; CCP §526(a))  11.4
      • 2.  When Contract Is Not Specifically Enforceable (CC §3423(e); CCP §526(b))  11.5
      • 3.  Certain Personal Service Contracts (CC §3423(e); CCP §526(b))  11.6
  • III.  SPECIFIC PERFORMANCE
    • A.  When Available (CC §3384)
      • 1.  Preliminary Considerations  11.7
      • 2.  Inadequacy of Legal Remedy  11.8
      • 3.  Mutuality of Remedy (CC §3386)  11.9
      • 4.  Contracts to Transfer Real Property (CC §§3387, 3395)  11.10
      • 5.  Contracts to Transfer Personal Property  11.11
      • 6.  Incidental Damages  11.12
      • 7.  Contracts Signed by One Party Only (CC §3388)  11.13
      • 8.  Contracts With Liquidated Damages Clauses (CC §3389)  11.14
      • 9.  Plaintiff’s Partial Performance Is Immaterial or Fully Compensable (CC §3392)  11.15
    • B.  When Specific Performance Is Not Available
      • 1.  Personal Service Contracts
        • a.  Contracts to Render Personal Services (CC §3390(1); Lab C §2855)  11.16
        • b.  Contracts to Employ Another in Personal Service (CC §3390(2))  11.17
        • c.  Collective Bargaining Agreements (Lab C §1126)  11.18
        • d.  Special or Unique Services  11.19
        • e.  Contracts to Make a Will: Quasi-Specific Performance  11.20
        • f.  Marvin Agreements  11.21
      • 2.  Inability Lawfully to Perform (CC §3390(3))  11.22
      • 3.  Agreement to Procure Act or Consent of a Third Party (CC §3390(4))  11.23
      • 4.  Agreements With Uncertain Terms (CC §3390(5))
        • a.  Requirement of Certainty  11.24
        • b.  Extrinsic Evidence  11.25
        • c.  Future Agreement of Parties  11.26
      • 5.  When Performance Is Impossible  11.27
      • 6.  Uniform Vendor and Purchaser Risk Act (CC §1662)  11.28
      • 7.  When Damages Are Adequate  11.29
      • 8.  Parties Who Cannot Be Compelled to Perform (CC §3391)  11.30
        • a.  Inadequate Consideration (CC §3391(1))  11.31
        • b.  Unjust or Unreasonable Contracts (CC §3391(2))  11.32
        • c.  Misrepresentation, Concealment, or Unfair Practices (CC §3391(3))  11.33
        • d.  Mistake, Misapprehension, Surprise (CC §3391(4))  11.34
      • 9.  Lack of Full Performance by Plaintiff (CC §3392)
        • a.  General Rule  11.35
        • b.  Time for Performance  11.36
        • c.  Relief From Forfeiture  11.37
      • 10.  Seller’s Inability to Convey Marketable Title (CC §3394)  11.38
      • 11.  Continuous Supervision  11.39
  • IV.  DECLARATORY RELIEF
    • A.  Availability in Contract Disputes (CCP §1060)  11.40
    • B.  Equitable Remedy  11.41
    • C.  Requirement of Actual Controversy (CCP §1060)  11.42
    • D.  Requirement of Urgency (CCP §1061)  11.43
    • E.  Cumulative Nature of Remedy (CCP §1062)  11.44
    • F.  Res Judicata Effect  11.45
  • V.  RESCISSION (CC §§1688–1695.17)
    • A.  General Rules (CC §§1688, 1689, 1690–1693)  11.46
    • B.  As Distinct From Restitution  11.47
    • C.  Who May Rescind  11.48
    • D.  Grounds for Rescission
      • 1.  Mutual Consent (CC §1689(a))  11.49
      • 2.  Unilateral Rescission (CC §1689(b))  11.50
      • 3.  Mistake or Fraud (CC §§1689(b)(1), 1690)  11.51
      • 4.  Failure of Consideration (CC §1689(b)(2)–(4))  11.52
    • E.  Must Involve Entire Contract  11.53
    • F.  Procedure for Rescission (CC §1691)  11.54
      • 1.  Notice of Rescission (CC §§1691(a), 1693)  11.55
      • 2.  Restoration of Consideration (CC §§1691(b), 1693)  11.56
    • G.  Relief Based on Rescission (CC §1692)  11.57
    • H.  Statutory Rescission Rights for Particular Types of Contracts  11.58
  • VI.  CANCELLATION
    • A.  Extrajudicial Cancellation (CC §§1699–1701)  11.59
    • B.  Judicial Cancellation (CC §§3412–3414)  11.60
  • VII.  ABANDONMENT  11.61
  • VIII.  REFORMATION
    • A.  Generally (CC §§3399, 3402)  11.62
    • B.  Presumption of Intent; Principles of Revision (CC §§3400–3401)  11.63
    • C.  Reformation for Mistake  11.64
  • IX.  LOST OR DESTROYED DOCUMENTS (CC §3415)  11.65
  • X.  QUASI-CONTRACT; RESTITUTION
    • A.  What Is Quasi-Contract?  11.66
    • B.  Effect of Express Contract  11.67
    • C.  Benefit or Enrichment  11.68
    • D.  Benefit or Enrichment Must Be Unjust  11.69
    • E.  Restitution as Remedy for Unjust Enrichment  11.70
    • F.  Common Counts
      • 1.  Generally  11.71
      • 2.  Quantum Meruit  11.72
      • 3.  Money Had and Received  11.73

12

Remedies: Commercial Code

  • I.  PRELITIGATION REMEDIES FOR BREACH OF CONTRACTS FOR THE SALE OF GOODS
    • A.  General Considerations
      • 1.  Remedies Cumulative  12.1
      • 2.  Supplementary Principles of Law Applicable (Com C §1103(b))  12.2
    • B.  Seller’s Remedies  12.3
      • 1.  Refusing Delivery Except for Cash on Buyer’s Insolvency (Com C §2702(1))  12.4
      • 2.  Withholding Delivery (Com C §2703)
        • a.  Grounds  12.5
        • b.  Effect  12.6
      • 3.  Stopping Delivery (Com C §2705)
        • a.  Grounds and Effect  12.7
        • b.  Limits on Right to Stop Delivery (Com C §2705(2))  12.8
        • c.  Procedure for Stopping Delivery (Com C §2705(3))  12.9
        • d.  Buyer’s Forfeiture of Its Deposit (Com C §2718)  12.10
      • 4.  Reclamation of Goods
        • a.  Grounds and Effect (Com C §2702(2))  12.11
        • b.  Ten-Day Limitation and Exception (Com C §2702(2))  12.12
        • c.  Other Limitations  12.13
        • d.  Rights of Third Parties  12.14
      • 5.  Identifying Goods to the Contract (Com C §2704)
        • a.  Grounds and Effect  12.15
        • b.  What Constitutes Identification? (Com C §2501(1))  12.16
        • c.  Unfinished Goods  12.17
        • d.  Seller’s Security Interest (Com C §2505(1))  12.18
      • 6.  Reselling Goods (Com C §2706)
        • a.  Grounds, Purpose, Good Faith Standard  12.19
        • b.  Public or Private Resale?  12.20
        • c.  Private Sale Procedures (Com C §2706(3))  12.21
        • d.  Public Sale Procedures (Com C §2706(4))  12.22
      • 7.  Canceling the Contract (Com C §2703(f))
        • a.  Grounds and Effect  12.23
        • b.  Limitation on Right to Cancel  12.24
    • C.  Buyer’s Remedies
      • 1.  Selection of Responses (Com C §2711)  12.25
      • 2.  Buyer’s Identification of Goods to the Contract (Com C §§2501–2502)  12.26
      • 3.  Buyer Remedies for Seller Defaults (Com C §§2711–2717)  12.27
      • 4.  Notice to Seller (Com C §2607(3)(A))  12.28
      • 5.  Remedies Available
        • a.  Rejecting Goods (Com C §2601)  12.29
          • (1)  Perfect Tender Rule (Com C §2601)  12.30
          • (2)  Limitations  12.31
          • (3)  Effect  12.32
          • (4)  Partial Acceptance (Com C §2601(c))  12.33
          • (5)  Time and Manner of Rejection (Com C §2602)  12.34
          • (6)  Duties of Buyer With Respect to Rejected Goods (Com C §§2602–2603)  12.35
        • b.  Revoking Acceptance
          • (1)  What Constitutes Acceptance? (Com C §2606(1))  12.36
          • (2)  Effect of Revocation of Acceptance  12.37
          • (3)  Circumstances in Which Acceptance May Be Revoked  12.38
          • (4)  Time and Manner of Revocation  12.39
        • c.  Covering
          • (1)  Purpose and Consequences  12.40
          • (2)  Time and Manner  12.41
          • (3)  Effect of Inability or Failure to Cover  12.42
        • d.  Duty to Repair or Replace Nonconforming Consumer Goods Under Warranty  12.43
        • e.  Enforcing Buyer’s Security Interest
          • (1)  Purpose and Scope of Security Interest  12.44
          • (2)  Procedure for Sale  12.45
        • f.  Buyer’s Right to Possession of Goods  12.46
        • g.  Offsetting Buyer’s Damages Against Price  12.47
        • h.  Canceling the Contract
          • (1)  Grounds and Effect  12.48
          • (2)  Notice of Cancellation  12.49
          • (3)  Contract Reinstatement  12.50
  • II.  REMEDIES IN LITIGATION OVER CONTRACTS FOR THE SALE OF GOODS  12.51
    • A.  Seller’s Remedies
      • 1.  Damages  12.52
        • a.  Damages Measured by Market Price  12.53
        • b.  Damages Measured by Resale  12.54
        • c.  Incidental and Consequential Damages  12.55
        • d.  Lost Profits  12.56
        • e.  Lost Volume Sellers  12.57
        • f.  Component Sellers  12.58
        • g.  Jobbers or Middlemen  12.59
        • h.  Punitive or Exemplary Damages  12.60
        • i.  Attorney Fees  12.61
      • 2.  Contract Price Recovery (Com C §2709)
        • a.  When Available  12.62
        • b.  Procedural Aspects  12.63
    • B.  Buyer’s Remedies
      • 1.  Damages Generally (Com C §§2711, 2713)  12.64
        • a.  Damages Measured by Market Price (Com C §2713)  12.65
        • b.  Damages Measured by Cover (Com C §2712)  12.66
        • c.  Damages After Acceptance (Com C §2714)  12.67
          • (1)  Determining Value of Goods as Accepted  12.68
          • (2)  Determining Value of Goods as Warranted  12.69
          • (3)  Choosing Appropriate Measures of Damages  12.70
      • 2.  Notice of Breach (Com C §2607(3))  12.71
      • 3.  Incidental Damages (Com C §2715(1))  12.72
      • 4.  Consequential Damages (Com C §2715(2))  12.73
        • a.  Lost Profits  12.74
        • b.  Loss of Goodwill  12.75
        • c.  Contractual Exclusion of Consequential Damages (Com C §2719(3))  12.76
        • d.  Mitigation of Damages (Com C §2715(2))  12.77
      • 5.  Attorney Fees  12.78
      • 6.  Punitive or Exemplary Damages  12.79
      • 7.  Deduction of Damages From Price (Com C §2717)  12.80
      • 8.  Replevin (Com C §2716(3))  12.81
      • 9.  Specific Performance (Com C §2716(1)–(2))  12.82
      • 10.  Restitution of Payments
        • a.  After Breach by Seller (Com C §2711(1))  12.83
        • b.  After Breach by Buyer (Com C §2718(2))  12.84
  • III.  RESTRICTION, QUALIFICATION, AND ENLARGEMENT OF REMEDIES
    • A.  Liquidated Damages (Com C §2718)  12.85
    • B.  Contractual Modification of Remedies (Com C §2719)
      • 1.  Power to Modify  12.86
      • 2.  Limitations
        • a.  Overview  12.87
        • b.  Types of Clauses  12.88
        • c.  Repair Time  12.89
        • d.  Consumer Goods  12.90
    • C.  Cumulation and Election of Remedies  12.91
  • IV.  REMEDIES FOR BREACH OF LEASES OF GOODS
    • A.  Lessee’s Remedies
      • 1.  General Provisions  12.92
      • 2.  Notice to Lessor (Com C §10502)  12.93
      • 3.  Rejection of the Goods (Com C §§10509–10510, 10513–10514)  12.94
      • 4.  Revocation of Acceptance (Com C §10517)  12.95
      • 5.  Security Interest (Com C §10508(e))  12.96
      • 6.  Damages
        • a.  Measure of Damages Following Cover (Com C §10518)  12.97
        • b.  Measure of Damages Without Cover or Nonqualifying Cover (Com C §10519)  12.98
        • c.  Incidental and Consequential Damages  12.99
      • 7.  Specific Performance and Other Remedies (Com C §10521)  12.100
      • 8.  Restitution  12.101
    • B.  Lessor’s Remedies
      • 1.  General Provisions (Com C §10523)  12.102
      • 2.  Retention or Repossession of Goods (Com C §10525)  12.103
      • 3.  Disposition of Goods Under Substantially Similar Lease (Com C §10527)  12.104
      • 4.  Damages
        • a.  Measure of Damages in Absence of Qualifying Disposition (Com C §10528)  12.105
        • b.  Recovery of Rent for Balance of Lease Term (Com C §10529)  12.106
        • c.  Incidental Damages (Com C §10530)  12.107
        • d.  Consequential Damages  12.108
    • C.  Other Remedies
      • 1.  Liquidated Damages (Com C §10504)  12.109
      • 2.  Cancellation; Termination (Com C §10505)  12.110

13

Selected International Issues

  • I.  INTRODUCTION TO UNCITRAL, CISG, AND UNIDROIT PRINCIPLES  13.1
  • II.  UNITED NATIONS COMMISSION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE LAW (UNCITRAL)
    • A.  Overview of UNCITRAL  13.2
    • B.  Selected UNCITRAL Model Codes, Rules, and Conventions  13.3
  • III.  UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON CONTRACTS FOR THE INTERNATIONAL SALE OF GOODS (CISG)
    • A.  Introduction to CISG  13.4
    • B.  Some Key Differences Between CISG and UCC  13.5
    • C.  Application of CISG
      • 1.  Application; Choice of Law  13.6
      • 2.  Scant U.S. Case Law  13.7
    • D.  Scope of CISG  13.8
    • E.  Preemption Issues  13.9
    • F.  Jurisdiction and Venue Issues  13.10
    • G.  Terms and Definitions  13.11
      • 1.  Incoterms  13.12
      • 2.  Goods  13.13
    • H.  Intent
      • 1.  Objective and Subjective  13.14
      • 2.  Relevant Factors  13.15
    • I.  Contract Formation
      • 1.  Offer  13.16
      • 2.  Acceptance  13.17
        • a.  Time Limits  13.18
        • b.  New or Different Terms  13.19
      • 3.  Statute of Frauds  13.20
      • 4.  Parol Evidence Rule  13.21
    • J.  Risk of Loss  13.22
      • 1.  Third Party Claims  13.23
        • a.  Intellectual Property Rights  13.24
        • b.  Need to Notify  13.25
      • 2.  Conforming and Nonconforming Goods  13.26
    • K.  Buyer’s Duties
      • 1.  Examination of Goods  13.27
      • 2.  Notice of Nonconformity  13.28
        • a.  Seller’s Opportunity to Cure  13.29
        • b.  Breach  13.30
      • 3.  Terms of Delivery
        • a.  Place of Delivery  13.31
        • b.  Consignment  13.32
        • c.  Time of Delivery  13.33
        • d.  Documentation  13.34
      • 4.  Payment  13.35
        • a.  Price of Goods  13.36
        • b.  Place and Time of Payment  13.37
        • c.  Preservation of Goods Pending Payment or Return  13.38
    • L.  Anticipatory Breach
      • 1.  Suspending Performance  13.39
      • 2.  Installment Contracts  13.40
    • M.  Excusing Performance  13.41
    • N.  Remedies for Breach
      • 1.  Remedies for Buyer’s Breach  13.42
        • a.  Delayed Performance  13.43
        • b.  Failure to Provide Specifications  13.44
      • 2.  Remedies for Seller’s Breach  13.45
        • a.  Nonconforming Goods  13.46
        • b.  Imperfect Delivery  13.47
        • c.  Avoiding the Contract  13.48
          • (1)  Refund and Restitution  13.49
          • (2)  Damages  13.50
          • (3)  Current Price  13.51
  • IV.  INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR THE UNIFICATION OF PRIVATE LAW (UNIDROIT)
    • A.  Introduction to UNIDROIT  13.52
    • B.  UNIDROIT Instruments  13.53
    • C.  Selected UNIDROIT Instruments  13.54
  • V.  UNIDROIT PRINCIPLES OF INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS
    • A.  Introduction to UNIDROIT Principles  13.55
    • B.  Summary of UNIDROIT Principles
      • 1.  Purpose and Scope  13.56
      • 2.  Application of UNIDROIT Principles  13.57
      • 3.  Contract Form  13.58
      • 4.  Meaning of Terms  13.59
      • 5.  Good Faith and Fair Dealing  13.60
      • 6.  Prohibition of Inconsistent Behavior  13.61
      • 7.  Elements of Contracting
        • a.  Offer  13.62
        • b.  Acceptance  13.63
        • c.  Acceptance With Different Terms  13.64
        • d.  Missing Terms  13.65
        • e.  Authority of Agents  13.66
      • 8.  Forming a Valid Contract  13.67
        • a.  Mistake  13.68
        • b.  Reasons for Avoidance  13.69
      • 9.  Interpretation
        • a.  Determining Intent  13.70
        • b.  Words and Terms  13.71
      • 10.  Express and Implied Obligations  13.72
      • 11.  Third Party Rights  13.73
      • 12.  Performance; Conditions  13.74
        • a.  Part Performance  13.75
        • b.  Hardship  13.76
      • 13.  Nonperformance  13.77
        • a.  Option to Cure  13.78
        • b.  Clauses Limiting Liability  13.79
        • c.  Force Majeure  13.80
        • d.  Specific Performance  13.81
      • 14.  Termination  13.82
        • a.  Anticipatory Repudiation  13.83
        • b.  Damages  13.84
          • (1)  Interest  13.85
          • (2)  Payment Methods  13.86
      • 15.  Set-off  13.87
      • 16.  Assignment of Rights, Transfer of Obligations, and Assignment of Contracts  13.88
      • 17.  Limitation Periods  13.89

Selected Developments

April 2020 Update

Contract formation.

Although spouses are fiduciaries and owe a duty of support in the family law context, this alone does not make a spouse an agent of the other spouse under general contract law. Valentine v Plum Healthcare Group, LLC (2019) 37 CA5th 1076, 1089 (agency cannot be implied from marital relationship alone). In Valentine, the court held that the patient did not designate her husband as her agent, nor did her silence or any other conduct establish ostensible agency. See §§2.30, 2.33, 2.35. 9.50.

In Juen v Alain Pinel Realtors, Inc. (2019) 32 CA5th 972, the court found that the language of the arbitration clause as a whole, including its initialing provision, contemplated that the parties’ assent would be shown only by their initials in the indicated space; therefore, the failure of both parties to initial the provision rendered the clause unenforceable See §§3.7, 4.40, 9.48.

In general, a party seeking to rescind an agreement for fraud must show that he or she actually relied on the misrepresentation and that such reliance was justified. However, in Orozco v WPV San Jose, LLC (2019) 36 CA5th 375, 392, the court held that the plaintiff’s failure to read the entire lease was not dispositive, given that there was ample evidence of fraud. The court found that even if the plaintiff had read the entire contract, he would not necessarily have been alerted to the defendant’s false oral representations that there would be no leases by competing businesses, and that the plaintiff’s reliance on the defendant’s multiple false oral representations was reasonable. See §§3.15, 3.33, 5.41, 6.3.

Contract formation may be implied from the conduct of a party. In Diaz v Sohnen Enters. (2019) 34 CA5th 126, 130, the court stated that “California law in this area is settled: when an employee continues his or her employment after notification that an agreement to arbitration is a condition of continued employment, that employee has impliedly consented to the arbitration agreement.” See §§4.31, 9.48.

Statute of frauds.

In Zakk v Diesel (2019) 33 CA5th 431, 453, the court held that full performance of obligations under an oral agreement that could not be performed within 1 year took the contract outside the statute of frauds. The court distinguished cases that involved oral contracts to make will, oral contracts not to be performed during the promisor’s lifetime, and oral contracts involving the sale of real property or an interest in real property. See §4.50.

Electronic contracting.

In Fabian v RenovateAmerica, Inc. (Nov. 19, 2019, No. D075519) ___CA5th___, 2019 Cal App Lexis 1215, *11, the court refused to enforce an arbitration agreement when the defendant company offered no evidence about the process used to verify the plaintiff’s electronic signature via DocuSign, including who sent the contract to the plaintiff, how it was sent, how the plaintiff’s electronic signature was placed on the contract, who received the signed contract, how the signed contract was returned to the company, and how the plaintiff’s identification was verified as the person who actually signed the contract. See §§4.55, 4.61A.

Contract interpretation.

In Lamps Plus, Inc. v Varela (2019) 587 US ___, 139 S Ct 1407, 1415, the U.S. Supreme Court held that the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA) (9 USC §§1–16) in effect preempted the rule that ambiguities in a contract should be construed against the drafter (in this case, the employer), holding that an ambiguous agreement cannot provide the necessary contractual basis for compelling class arbitration. The Court held that state contract rules of interpretation calling for ambiguities to be construed against the drafter are preempted by FAA to the extent they stand “as an obstacle to the accomplishment and execution of the full purposes and objectives” of the FAA. Emphasizing that arbitration relies on the affirmative consent of the parties, the Court held that “[c]ourts may not infer from an ambiguous agreement that parties have consented to arbitrate on a classwide basis.” See §§5.17, 5.22, 5.78, 9.40.

Concerning integration clauses, Oxford Preparatory Academy v Edlighten Learning Solutions (2019) 34 CA5th 605, 610 held that a termination agreement with an integration clause restricted to the “subject matter” of the termination agreement did not supersede an arbitration clause in the original agreement for purposes of resolving pretermination disputes. See §5.36.

Forum selection clauses.

Even if a forum selection clause is in an adhesion contract, it will be enforced “absent a showing that it was outside the reasonable expectations of the weaker or adhering party or that enforcement would be unduly oppressive or unconscionable.” Drulias v 1st Century Bancshares, Inc. (2018) 30 CA5th 696, 708 (corporate forum selection bylaw, adopted by Delaware corporation without stockholder consent, designating Delaware as exclusive litigation forum held reasonable and enforceable). See §5.44.

In Handoush v LeaseFinanceGroup, LLC (2019) 41 CA5th 729, the court held that a forum selection clause in an equipment lease agreement that designated New York as the forum and included a predispute jury trial waiver was unenforceable as contrary to California public policy. See §5.44.

Severance of unlawful provisions.

In Koenig v Warner Unified School Dist. (2019) 41 CA5th 43, the court held that an agreement to pay certain health benefits was unlawful because the benefits exceeded a statutory maximum; however, the unlawful provision could be severed. It was the sole illegality and was easily separated from the remainder of the agreement. Moreover, severance was consistent with the parties’ expressed intent. See §5.70.

Non-compete clauses.

At issue in Quidel Corp. v Superior Court (2019) 39 CA5th 530, petition for review granted (Nov. 13, 2019, No. S258283) ___C5th___ , 2019 Cal Lexis 8397, was a clause in an exclusive dealing agreement between two sophisticated biotechnology companies, each of which had been represented by legal counsel during negotiations. The clause prohibited the seller from certain potentially competing research and development until two years before the agreement’s expiration. Relying on case law that predated Edwards v Arthur Andersen LLP (2008) 44 C4th 937, the court of appeal held that the per se ban on noncompetition clauses as outlined in Edwards was limited to employment agreements. Quidel, 39 CA5th at 539. Instead, the court held that a rule of reason should apply, stating that “as long as a noncompetition provision does not negatively affect the public interests, is designed to protect the parties in their dealings, and does not attempt to establish a monopoly, it may be reasonable and valid.” 39 CA5th at 542. The California Supreme Court granted review of this decision on November 13, 2019. See §6.38.

Third party beneficiary doctrine.

In a major case concerning third party beneficiary doctrine in California, Goonewardene v ADP, LLC (2019) 6 C5th 817, 830, the California Supreme Court held that, to bring a breach of contract action against a party to a contract, a third party must establish each of the following three elements: “(1) that [the third party] is likely to benefit from the contract, ... (2) that a motivating purpose of the contracting parties is to provide a benefit to the third party, and ... (3) that permitting the third party to bring its own breach of contract action against a contracting party is consistent with the objectives of the contract and the reasonable expectations of the contracting parties.” Moreover, “the contracting parties must have a motivating purpose to benefit the third party, and not simply knowledge that a benefit to the third party may follow from the contract.” 6 C5th at 830. Courts examine “the express provisions of the contract at issue, as well as all of the relevant circumstances under which the contract was agreed to, in order to determine . . . . whether a motivating purpose of the contracting parties was to provide a benefit to the third party. . . .It is not enough that the third party would in fact be benefited by the contract.” 6 C5th at 830. The court held that an employee who was not an intended beneficiary of a payroll service provider’s contract with her employer could not bring a claim for negligent misrepresentation against the provider. See §§3.16, 7.61, 7.63, 7.64. 7.66.

Breach of contract actions.

In Magic Carpet Ride LLC v Rugger Investment Group, L.L.C. (2019) 41 CA5th 357, 364, the court held that substantial performance is a corollary of the doctrine of immaterial breach. As the court explained (41 CA5th at 364) (citations and internal quotation marks omitted):

[S]ubstantial performance is sufficient, and justifies an action on the contract, although the other party is entitled to a reduction in the amount called for by the contract, to compensate for the defects. . . . What constitutes substantial performance is a question of fact, but it is essential that there be no wilful departure from the terms of the contract, and that the defects be such as may be easily remedied or compensated, so that the promisee may get practically what the contract calls for. . . . The doctrine of substantial performance also applies when a party performs but misses a deadline. [W]here time is not of the essence of a contract, payment made within a reasonable time after the due date stated in the contract constitutes compliance therewith.

In Magic Carpet Ride, at issue was the enforceability of an aircraft sales agreement with a time-of-the-essence clause. The seller of the aircraft delivered the required lien release 8 days late, but the sale closed nevertheless and the aircraft was delivered free of liens. There was no evidence that the seller's failure to deliver the release by the specified date caused the buyer damages or that the seller had acted wilfully. Noting that strict compliance with the original deadline would not be required if the result would be an unjust forfeiture , the court held there was support for a finding of substantial performance in this case. The court emphasized that, to enforce a time of the essence clause, the court must know “[w]hat performance at what time is a condition of what party's duty to do what?” Sometimes the answer is simple and obvious, but at other times the answer is not clear. 41 CA5th at 366. See §§8.2, 8.3.

Successive causes of action for breach of contract may arise from a single contract with continuing obligations. CCP §1047 (“[s]uccessive actions may be maintained upon the same contract or transaction, whenever, after the former action, a new cause of action arises therefrom”). When a liability or an obligation arises on a recurring basis, a cause of action accrues each time a wrongful act occurs, triggering a new limitations period. Aryeh v Canon Business Solutions, Inc. (2013) 55 C4th 1185, 1199; Jenni Rivera Enterprises, LLC v Latin World Entertainment Holdings, Inc. (2019) 36 CA5th 766, 784. See §8.67.

Attorney fees.

Dane-Elec Corp., USA v Bodokh (2019) 35 CA5th 761, 774 (in absence of claim brought in bad faith, Lab C §218.5(a) “prohibits, as a matter of law, an award of attorney fees to a prevailing party for successfully defending a wage claim that overlaps with claims subject to a contractual prevailing-party attorney fees provision”). See §9.28A.

Arbitration.

The FAA does not apply to employment contracts of interstate transportation workers. 9 USC §1; New Prime Inc. v Oliveira (2019) 586 US ___, 139 S Ct 532, 543 (FAA exemption applied to contract between truck driver and interstate trucking company, even if driver was independent contractor). See §9.39.

In Muller v Roy Miller Freight Lines, LLC (2019) 34 CA5th 1056, 1071, the court stated that “[w]hen an agreement drafted by an employer does not expressly permit or prohibit class arbitration, but states the arbitrator must resolve ‘all disputes,’ . . . it logically follows that the arbitrator must resolve issues of class arbitrability.” See §9.41.

By a specific reference in the arbitration agreement, however, the parties may delegate to the arbitrator the issue of arbitrability. Henry Schein, Inc. v Archer & White Sales, Inc. (2019) 586 US ___, 139 S Ct 524, 527. See §9.41.

Under both the California Arbitration Act (CAA) (CCP §§1280–1294.2) and the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA) (9 USC §§1–16), there is a heavy presumption in favor of arbitrability. OTO, L.L.C. v Kho (2019) 8 C5th 111, 125; Lacayo v Catalina Restaurant Group Inc. (2019) 38 CA5th 244, 257; Salgado v Carrows Restaurants Inc. (2019) 33 CA5th 356, 360. See §9.41A.

In Howard v Goldbloom (2018) 30 CA5th 659, 667, the court held that an arbitration agreement that applied to “any and all claims arising out of, relating to, or resulting from employment with the Company” (emphasis in original) did not apply to the former employee’s breach of fiduciary duty claims as a minority stockholder. See §9.41B.

In both Franco v Greystone Ridge Condominium (2019) 39 CA5th 221 and Salgado v Carrows Restaurants, Inc. (2019) 33 CA5th 356, the courts held that broadly worded arbitration agreements covering any claims relating to any aspect of employment with the employer could be applied retroactively to employee claims that arose before the agreements were signed. In Franco, the agreement referred expressly to “pre-hire” claims. 39 CA5th at 224. In Salgado, the agreement covered “all disputes which may arise out of or be related in any way to . . employment.” 33 CA5th at 360. See §9.41B.The procedural unconscionability element focuses on “oppression” or “surprise” due to unequal bargaining power. Pinnacle Museum Tower Ass’n v Pinnacle Mkt. Dev. (US), LLC (2012) 55 C4th 223, 246; Armendariz v Foundation Health Psychcare Servs., Inc. (2000) 24 C4th 83, 114. See, e.g., OTO, L.L.C. v Kho (2019) 8 C5th 111 (extraordinarily high degree of procedural unconscionability resulted from arbitration agreement's complexity, its presentation for immediate signing without explanation and without copies for the employee-signer, and fact that employee’s first language was Chinese); Subcontracting Concepts (CT), LLC v De Melo (2019) 34 CA5th 201, 211 (arbitration clause had “at least a moderate level” of procedural unconscionability; agreement was adhesion contract; respondent was not fluent enough in English to fully understand agreement’s terms, did not understand what arbitration was, and no one explained it to him; respondent was not provided with copy of governing rules); See §9.43.

Procedural unconsionabililty was found by the courts in the following three recent cases: OTO, L.L.C. v Kho (2019) 8 C5th 111 (extraordinarily high degree of procedural unconscionability resulted from arbitration agreement's complexity, its presentation for immediate signing without explanation and without copies for the employee-signer, and fact that employee’s first language was Chinese); Subcontracting Concepts (CT), LLC v De Melo (2019) 34 CA5th 201, 211 (arbitration clause had “at least a moderate level” of procedural unconscionability; agreement was adhesion contract; respondent was not fluent enough in English to fully understand agreement’s terms, did not understand what arbitration was, and no one explained it to him; respondent was not provided with copy of governing rules); Ramos v Superior Court (2018) 28 CA5th 1042, 1063 (arbitration agreement was procedurally unconscionable; it was condition of employment, with no opportunity to negotiate). See §5.76.

In Subcontracting Concepts (CT), LLC v De Melo (2019) 34 CA5th 201, 212, the court found that the arbitration clause was substantively unconscionable; the clause required the worker to bear his own costs and barred the worker from recovering attorney fees and from seeking any statutory or Labor Commissioner remedies for wage claims. The clause also barred Private Attorney General Act (PAGA) (Lab C §§2698–2699.6) claims). Moreover, the clause was not severable. See §§5.70, 5.77, 5.79, 9.44.

An arbitration agreement cannot serve as a mechanism for the forfeiture or waiver of statutory rights that are unwaivable, such as discrimination claims under the Fair Employment and Housing Act (FEHA) (Govt C §§12900–12996)), the Consumers Legal Remedies Act (CLRA) (CC §§1750–1784), the unfair competition law (UCL) (Bus & P C §§17200–17210), or the false advertising law (Bus & P C §§17500–17509). Such agreements are invalid and unenforceable. ZB, N.A. v Superior Court (2019) 8 C5th 175, 185. See §9.46A.

In Correia v NB Baker Elec., Inc. (2019) 32 CA5th 602, 624, the court held that a PAGA claim cannot be compelled to arbitration based on an employee’s predispute arbitration agreement absent some evidence that the state consented to a waiver of the employee’s right to bring the claim in court. See §9.47B.

In Cohen v TNP 2008 Participating Notes Program, LLC (2019) 31 CA5th 840, 857, the court held that a nonsignatory attorney lacked standing to enforce arbitration agreements as an agent of his client-investors. However, the court also held that a nonsignatory parent corporation exercised such control over its signatory subsidiary that the subsidiary was a mere instrumentality of the parent; thus, the arbitration agreement could be enforced against the parent on an agency theory. See §§9.50, 9.50B, 9.52.

In Monster Energy Co. v City Bevs., LLC (9th Cir 2019) 940 F3d 1130, 1138, the Ninth Circuit held that the arbitrator's failure to disclose his ownership interest in JAMS, which had previously conducted 97 arbitrations for Monster Energy, created a reasonable impression of bias and supported vacatur of the arbitration award. See §9.52C.

Election of remedies.

The doctrine of election of remedies does not apply when claims are brought by two distinct juridical persons or entities. Orozco v WPV San Jose, LLC (2019) 36 CA5th 375, 404 (tenant-restaurant and restaurant’s individual owner, who entered into guarantee regarding restaurant’s lease, were “legally distinct entities, th[at] may pursue—and receive—separate remedies for [landlord’s] fraud”). In Orozco, the restaurant entity brought tort actions for intentional misrepresentation and concealment relating to the lease, and the individual brought an action for rescission of the guarantee. See §9.56.

Contract damages.

In Cheema v L.S. Trucking, Inc. (2019) 39 CA5th 1142, 1151, the court held that a legal dispute over defendant's liability or the proper measure of damages does not render damages unascertainable. See §§10.6, 10.23.

In Red & White Distribution, LLC v Osteroid Enterprises, LLC (2019) 38 CA5th 582, 588, the court found that a portion of a settlement was an unenforceable penalty. See §10.42.

In Mazik v Geico Gen. Ins. Co. (2019) 35 CA5th 455, 471, an insurance bad faith case, the court held that an approximate 3-to-1 ratio of punitive to compensatory damages was not excessive “[i]n light of the factors indicating significant reprehensible conduct.” The policyholder was financially vulnerable, the insurer’s approach to the claim was not isolated, and the insurer intentionally manipulated facts to create a favorable record justifying its offers below the policy limits. See §10.48.

Courts are required to consider meaningful evidence of a defendant’s financial condition before awarding punitive damages. Adams v Murakami (1991) 54 C3d 105, 118. The plaintiff has the burden of producing such evidence. 54 C3d at 119. Cases decided after Adams have elaborated on its meaning. See Farmers & Merchants Trust Co. v Vanetik (2019) 33 CA5th 638, 649 (expert evidence of defendants’ net worth that considered assets but not liabilities and defendants’ annual income 4 years before trial was inadequate evidence of financial condition). See §10.51.

The Consumers Legal Remedies Act (CLRA) (CC §§1750–1784) specifies a number of remedies available to a consumer “who suffers any damage” as a result of the use or employment by any person of any of the methods, acts, or practices that the CLRA declares unlawful. CC §1780(a). A consumer must suffer “lost money or property,” i.e., some form of economic injury, in order to have standing to sue under the CLRA. Kwikset Corp. v Superior Court (2011) 51 C4th 310, 323; Meyer v Sprint Spectrum LP (2009) 45 C4th 634, 644; Gutierrez v Carmax Auto Superstores (2018) 19 CA5th 1234, 1264. The court in Hansen v Newegg.com Ams., Inc. (2018) 25 CA5th 714, 727, held that the standing requirement was satisfied when the complaint alleged that: (1) electronics retailer Newegg.com used fictitious former price information in its advertisements that misled customers to believe they were receiving merchandise at a discounted price; (2) plaintiff had relied on the fictitious former price information in making two purchases from Newegg’s website; and (3) he would not have made the purchases had he known that the former price information was false. See §10.53.

About the Authors

GEORGE W. KUNEY is a Lindsay Young Distinguished Professor of Law and Director of the Clayton Center for Entrepreneurial Law at the University of Tennessee College of Law, Knoxville, Tennessee, where he teaches courses in business associations, bankruptcy, contracts, contract drafting, commercial leasing, remedies, property, and business law. He received his B.A., majoring in economics, from the University of California, Santa Cruz; his J.D., cum laude, from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law; and his M.B.A., with a new venture management emphasis, from the University of San Diego. Before his appointment to the faculty of the University of Tennessee School of Law, he was a partner in the San Diego office of Allen Matkins Leck Gamble & Mallory LLP, where he concentrated his practice on insolvency and reorganization matters. Previously, he practiced with Howard, Rice, Nemerovski, Canady, Robertson & Falk LLP and Morrison & Foerster LLP in his home town of San Francisco. He is a member of the State Bars of California and Tennessee and practices law and consults in matters nationwide. He is the author or co-author of numerous books (including Contracts: Transactions & Litigation (West 2011); The Elements of Contract Drafting (West 2014); Business Reorganizations (LexisNexis 2013); and Bankruptcy in Practice (ABI 2013)) and articles in the areas of business transactions, business litigation, bankruptcy, contract and property law, and Chapter 11 reorganization. He can be reached at https://law.utk.edu/directory/george-kuney/.

DONNA C. LOOPER is an Adjunct Professor of Law at the University of Tennessee College of Law, Knoxville, Tennessee, where she teaches legal process and related courses. She received her A.B. from Barnard College, Columbia University, New York, and her J.D., cum laude, from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law, San Francisco. She clerked for the Chief Judge of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana and then for the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. Before teaching at the University of Tennessee School of Law, Ms. Looper was a Senior Attorney for the California Court of Appeal, Fourth District, Division One, and prior to that was in private practice in San Diego and San Francisco. She is the co-author with George W. Kuney of A Civil Matter: A Guide to Civil Procedure and Litigation (West 2014); Mastering Appellate Advocacy and Process (Carolina Academic Press 2011); Mastering Intellectual Property (Carolina Academic Press 2009); and Mastering Legal Analysis and Drafting (Carolina Academic Press 2009). She is a member of the State Bars of California and Tennessee and practices and consults in matters nationwide.

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