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California Personal Injury Proof

Prepare confidently for depositions, hearings, or trial with powerful, tested ways to lay a foundation and handle personal injury witnesses and evidentiary exhibits that prove your case.

Prepare confidently for depositions, hearings, or trial with powerful, tested ways to lay a foundation and handle personal injury witnesses and evidentiary exhibits that prove your case. With its succinct explanation of important evidentiary principles and many sample courtroom dialogues, this book will instruct you in:

  • Examining and impeaching specific types of witnesses
    • Plaintiffs
    • Police officers
    • Technical and medical experts
    • Witnesses on damages
  • Using and introducing exhibits and other evidence
    • Business, hospital, medical, and other records
    • Medical tests and bills
    • Depositions and statements given at accident scenes
    • Photographs, videos, and computer-generated presentations
    • Models, maps, and diagrams
  • Establishing facts through judicial notice and requests for admission


OnLAW TO94150

Web access for one user.

 

$ 205.00
Print TO34156

softcover, 2020

 

Available late May 2020

 

$ 215.00

Prepare confidently for depositions, hearings, or trial with powerful, tested ways to lay a foundation and handle personal injury witnesses and evidentiary exhibits that prove your case. With its succinct explanation of important evidentiary principles and many sample courtroom dialogues, this book will instruct you in:

  • Examining and impeaching specific types of witnesses
    • Plaintiffs
    • Police officers
    • Technical and medical experts
    • Witnesses on damages
  • Using and introducing exhibits and other evidence
    • Business, hospital, medical, and other records
    • Medical tests and bills
    • Depositions and statements given at accident scenes
    • Photographs, videos, and computer-generated presentations
    • Models, maps, and diagrams
  • Establishing facts through judicial notice and requests for admission


1

Examining Witnesses

  • I.  INITIAL CONSIDERATIONS
    • A.  Importance of Considering Type of Proceeding
      • 1.  Court and Jury Trials in General  1.1
      • 2.  Judicial Arbitrations  1.2
    • B.  Preparing Witness for Direct Examination
      • 1.  Need for Witness Preparation  1.3
      • 2.  Attendance; Dress; Behavior  1.4
      • 3.  How to Answer Questions  1.5
      • 4.  Testimony on Time, Speed, Distance  1.6
    • C.  Direct Examination Techniques
      • 1.  Style and Sequence  1.7
      • 2.  Phrasing Questions  1.8
      • 3.  Semantics  1.9
      • 4.  Addressing and Referring to Parties and Witnesses  1.10
    • D.  Using Questions Objectionable in Form
      • 1.  Calling for Narrative Answers  1.11
      • 2.  Leading
        • a.  Description and Use of Leading Questions in General  1.12
        • b.  Preliminary and Foundational Matters  1.13
        • c.  Experts  1.14
  • II.  EXAMINING LAY WITNESSES
    • A.  Qualifications
      • 1.  Credibility  1.15
      • 2.  Role of Competency and Capacity in Assessing Qualifications as Witness
        • a.  All Persons Generally Qualified, Absent Exception  1.16
        • b.  Children  1.17
      • 3.  Personal Knowledge  1.18
    • B.  Lay Opinion Testimony
      • 1.  General Ability of Competent Lay Witness to Give Opinion Testimony  1.19
      • 2.  Subject Matter  1.20
      • 3.  Foundation  1.21
  • III.  EXAMINATION OF EXPERT WITNESSES
    • A.  Establishing Special Qualifications
      • 1.  How Witness Is Qualified and What Constitutes Expert Testimony  1.22
      • 2.  Reasons for Showing Special Qualifications  1.23
      • 3.  Sufficiency of Evidence to Qualify Expert Witness  1.24
      • 4.  Offers to Concede  1.25
      • 5.  Arguing Comparative Qualifications  1.26
    • B.  Expert Opinion Testimony
      • 1.  When Expert Opinion Permitted  1.27
      • 2.  Subject Matter  1.28
      • 3.  Bases for Opinions
        • a.  Acceptable “Matter” on Which to Base Opinion  1.29
        • b.  California State Court Testimony  1.30
        • c.  Federal Court Testimony  1.31
      • 4.  Stating Reasons and Bases  1.32
    • C.  Using Hypothetical Questions
      • 1.  Nature of Questions and Basis for Use  1.33
      • 2.  On Direct Examination  1.34
      • 3.  On Cross-Examination  1.35
  • IV.  REFRESHING MEMORY
    • A.  What Constitutes Refreshing Memory  1.36
    • B.  Writings Used to Refresh Memory
      • 1.  Types of Writings  1.37
      • 2.  Before Testimony
        • a.  Writings  1.38
        • b.  Suggestion  1.39
      • 3.  During Testimony
        • a.  Writing Handed to Witness or Taken to Stand  1.40
        • b.  Leading Questions  1.41
    • C.  Adverse Party’s Rights  1.42
    • D.  Request for Production as Discovery Device  1.43
  • V.  TACTICS AGAINST CROSS-EXAMINATION
    • A.  Preparing Witness  1.44
    • B.  Objecting  1.45
    • C.  Eliciting Unfavorable Matter on Direct Examination  1.46
  • VI.  REDIRECT EXAMINATION
    • A.  Purposes; Limitations  1.47
    • B.  Showing Prior Consistent Statements  1.48
  • VII.  REBUTTAL  1.49

2

Impeachment

  • I.  IMPEACHMENT DEFINED; RELATED CONCEPTS
    • A.  Impeachment Defined  2.1
    • B.  Related Concepts: Suppression, Spoliation of Evidence  2.2
  • II.  GROUNDS FOR IMPEACHMENT
    • A.  Bias; Interest; Motive  2.3
    • B.  Prior Settlement With Adversary  2.4
    • C.  Faulty Perception or Recollection
      • 1.  Examining Witness on Perception or Recollection  2.5
      • 2.  Evidence of Witness’s Impairment  2.6
      • 3.  Expert Testimony on Witness’s Ability to Perceive Events  2.7
    • D.  Bad Character for Veracity  2.8
    • E.  Prior Felony Conviction  2.9
    • F.  Prior Inconsistent Statements
      • 1.  Identifying Inconsistent Statements; Uses Summarized  2.10
      • 2.  Pinning Down Testimony  2.11
      • 3.  Not Confronting Witness With Statement  2.12
      • 4.  Confronting Witness With Statement  2.13
      • 5.  Pressing for Admission  2.14
      • 6.  Introducing Extrinsic Evidence of Prior Inconsistent Statement  2.15
    • G.  Contradictory Facts; Introducing Otherwise Inadmissible Matter  2.16
  • III.  IMPEACHING EXPERTS
    • A.  Grounds and Techniques in General  2.17
    • B.  Expert’s Qualifications
      • 1.  Full Cross-Examination Permitted  2.18
      • 2.  Bringing Out Gaps and Weaknesses in Qualifications  2.19
    • C.  Fees and Court Appearances  2.20
    • D.  Bias, Interest, Motive; Inconsistency  2.21
    • E.  Subject of Testimony  2.22
    • F.  Reasons and Bases for Opinion  2.23
    • G.  Use of Technical or Medical Publications to Impeach Expert
      • 1.  Methods of Impeachment Summarized  2.24
      • 2.  Impeachment Using Specific Authorities  2.25

3

Plaintiff

  • I.  EXTENT OF PLAINTIFF’S TESTIMONY
    • A.  Direct Examination  3.1
    • B.  Cross-Examination  3.2
  • II.  PLAINTIFF’S PERSONAL BACKGROUND
    • A.  Scope of Examination  3.3
    • B.  Name; Age; Birthplace; Residence  3.4
    • C.  Family Status  3.5
    • D.  Occupation and Work History  3.6
    • E.  Financial Status; Need to Return to Work  3.7
    • F.  Social Media Presence  3.7A
  • III.  LIABILITY TESTIMONY USING VEHICLE ACCIDENTS FOR ILLUSTRATION
    • A.  Categories of Facts Discussed  3.8
    • B.  Plaintiff’s Condition and Appearance Before Accident  3.9
    • C.  Destination; Route; Purpose  3.10
    • D.  Vehicle Description  3.11
    • E.  Scene of Accident; Time of Day; Weather  3.12
    • F.  Chronology of Accident
      • 1.  Plaintiff’s and Defendant’s Conduct Before Impact  3.13
      • 2.  Impact  3.14
      • 3.  Conditions After Impact  3.15
    • G.  Defendant’s Admissions; Insurance  3.16
    • H.  Habit or Custom  3.17
    • I.  Plaintiff’s Other Accidents  3.18
  • IV.  INJURY TESTIMONY
    • A.  Focus on Showing Effects of Injury  3.19
    • B.  Health Before Accident
      • 1.  Good Health  3.20
      • 2.  Prior Conditions  3.21
      • 3.  Aggravation of Prior Condition; Predisposition to Injury  3.22
    • C.  Mechanics of Injury  3.23
    • D.  Description of Injuries and Treatment  3.24
    • E.  Pain  3.25
    • F.  Disability; Impairment of Normal Life
      • 1.  Showing Disability to Support Claims for Lost Wages and Impaired Earning Capacity  3.26
      • 2.  Workers  3.27
      • 3.  Homemakers  3.28
    • G.  Mental Suffering  3.29
  • V.  IMPAIRED EARNING CAPACITY
    • A.  Scope of Claim and Means of Proof  3.30
    • B.  Checklists
      • 1.  Checklist: Effect of Injury When Plaintiff Was Employed at Time of Injury  3.31
      • 2.  Checklist: Effect of Injury When Plaintiff Was Not Employed at Time of Injury  3.32
      • 3.  Checklist: Effect of Injury on Future Earning Capacity  3.33
    • C.  Plaintiff’s Testimony on Loss of Earnings  3.34
    • D.  Plaintiff’s Testimony as Expert  3.35

4

Police Officers

  • I.  PREPARATION
    • A.  Value of Officer as Witness  4.1
    • B.  Reviewing Accident Report
      • 1.  Importance of Prompt Review  4.2
      • 2.  Focusing on Specific Information in Report  4.3
    • C.  Identifying the Investigating Officer  4.4
    • D.  Interviewing the Officer
      • 1.  Purpose of Interview  4.5
      • 2.  Arranging Time and Place for Interview  4.6
      • 3.  Compensation for Interview  4.7
      • 4.  Summary of Interview Questions for Officer  4.8
      • 5.  Evaluating Officer as Witness  4.9
    • E.  Officer’s Deposition  4.10
    • F.  Compelling Attendance at Trial
      • 1.  Using Subpoena  4.11
      • 2.  Range of Subpoena  4.12
      • 3.  Depositing Fees; Reimbursing Police Agency  4.13
    • G.  Courthouse Interview  4.14
  • II.  QUALIFYING OFFICER AS GENERAL WITNESS
    • A.  Competency and Credibility as Witness  4.15
    • B.  Police and Investigative Background  4.16
    • C.  Impartiality  4.17
    • D.  Investigative Procedure  4.18
  • III.  USING REPORT TO AID TESTIMONY
    • A.  Evaluating Officer’s Ability to Testify Regarding Accident Report  4.19
    • B.  Refreshing Memory  4.20
    • C.  Past Recollection Recorded  4.21
  • IV.  OFFICER’S ACTIVITIES AND OBSERVATIONS AT ACCIDENT SCENE
    • A.  Time of Arrival  4.22
    • B.  Aiding Victims; Clearing Traffic  4.23
    • C.  The Roadway
      • 1.  Using Diagram  4.24
      • 2.  Layout; Contour; Surface  4.25
      • 3.  Obstructions  4.26
    • D.  Vehicles
      • 1.  Identity  4.27
      • 2.  Point of Rest  4.28
      • 3.  Damage  4.29
      • 4.  Mechanical Condition  4.30
    • E.  Drivers; Passengers
      • 1.  Possession of License  4.31
      • 2.  Identity; Position in Vehicle  4.32
      • 3.  Injuries  4.33
      • 4.  Intoxication  4.34
    • F.  Skid Marks; Debris  4.35
    • G.  Traffic Controls  4.36
    • H.  Weather  4.37
    • I.  Visibility  4.38
    • J.  Citations; Arrests  4.39
  • V.  STATEMENTS OF PARTIES AND WITNESSES
    • A.  Admissibility Under Hearsay Exceptions
      • 1.  Potential Hearsay Exceptions for Statements in Accident Report  4.40
      • 2.  Party’s Admissions  4.41
      • 3.  Adoptive Admissions  4.42
      • 4.  Driver’s Statement to Show Liability of Employer or Owner  4.43
      • 5.  Spontaneous Statements  4.44
      • 6.  Statements Reported by Qualified Law Enforcement Officer at Preliminary Hearing  4.45
    • B.  Statements About Liability Insurance  4.46
    • C.  Conviction; Plea of Guilty or Nolo Contendere  4.47
  • VI.  OFFICER AS EXPERT
    • A.  Potential Bases on Which Officer May Qualify as Expert  4.48
    • B.  Deciding Whether to Use Officer as Expert  4.49
    • C.  Special Qualifications  4.50
    • D.  Attacking Qualifications  4.51
    • E.  Subjects of Officer’s Expert Testimony
      • 1.  Point of Impact  4.52
      • 2.  Vehicle’s Mechanical Condition  4.53
      • 3.  Loading of Truck  4.54
      • 4.  Safe Speed for Conditions at Time of Accident  4.55
      • 5.  Speed Before Accident  4.56
      • 6.  Influence of Narcotics  4.57
  • VII.  ELICITING UNFAVORABLE MATTER ON DIRECT EXAMINATION  4.58

5

Technical Experts

  • I.  REASONS FOR USING TECHNICAL EXPERTS
    • A.  Before and At Trial  5.1
    • B.  Examples in Personal Injury Cases  5.2
  • II.  IDENTIFYING TECHNICAL SPECIALTY AREAS; CHECKLISTS
    • A.  Using Checklists as General Guides  5.3
    • B.  Vehicle and Carrier Accidents  5.4
    • C.  Slip and Fall Accidents  5.5
    • D.  Premises; Buildings; Construction Sites  5.6
    • E.  Chemicals; Foods; Drugs; Explosions  5.7
  • III.  DESCRIPTIONS OF SPECIALTIES
    • A.  Ceramic Engineers  5.8
    • B.  Chemical Engineers  5.9
    • C.  Chemists  5.10
    • D.  Civil Engineers  5.11
    • E.  Climatologists; Meteorologists  5.12
    • F.  Electrical Engineers  5.13
    • G.  Health Chemistry Engineers  5.14
    • H.  Industrial Engineers  5.15
    • I.  Mechanical Engineers  5.16
    • J.  Metallurgical Engineers  5.17
    • K.  Nonprofessional Experts  5.18
    • L.  Pharmacologists  5.19
    • M.  Physicists  5.20
    • N.  Toxicologists  5.21
  • IV.  CRITERIA FOR SELECTING EXPERT
    • A.  Importance of Creativity in Selecting Expert  5.22
    • B.  Knowledge of Subject  5.23
    • C.  Credibility  5.24
    • D.  Personality and Manner of Expression  5.25
    • E.  Locality of Trial  5.26
    • F.  Cost  5.27
    • G.  Using More Than One Expert  5.28
  • V.  LOCATING EXPERTS
    • A.  Other Lawyers; Court Decisions  5.29
    • B.  Universities  5.30
    • C.  Books; Articles; Research Services  5.31
  • VI.  PREPARING TO EXAMINE
    • A.  When to Employ Expert; Discovery Considerations  5.32
    • B.  Testing Expert’s Hypothesis  5.33
    • C.  Determining Form of Questions  5.34
  • VII.  QUALIFICATIONS
    • A.  Sufficiency
      • 1.  To Permit Admission of Opinion Testimony  5.35
      • 2.  To Gain Jurors’ Confidence  5.36
    • B.  Handling Offers to Concede Qualifications  5.37
    • C.  Checklist: Expert’s Particular Qualifications  5.38
    • D.  Direct Examination of Expert on Qualifications
      • 1.  Name; Address; Occupation  5.39
      • 2.  Registration and Licenses  5.40
      • 3.  Education and Degrees
        • a.  Professionals  5.41
        • b.  Nonprofessionals  5.42
      • 4.  Present Employment
        • a.  Professor  5.43
        • b.  Officer of Research or Consulting Firm  5.44
        • c.  Employee of Defendant Company  5.45
        • d.  Nonprofessional  5.46
      • 5.  Specialization
        • a.  Professional  5.47
        • b.  Nonprofessional  5.48
      • 6.  Previous Employment  5.49
      • 7.  Military Service  5.50
      • 8.  Professional Societies  5.51
      • 9.  Lecturing and Teaching  5.52
      • 10.  Authorship  5.53
      • 11.  Patents  5.54
      • 12.  Consultation Experience in Other Cases  5.55
      • 13.  Knowledge of Subject at Issue  5.56
  • VIII.  ELICITING OPINION TESTIMONY
    • A.  Admissibility  5.57
    • B.  Showing Subject of Opinion  5.58
    • C.  Stating Bases of Opinions
      • 1.  Expert May and Sometimes Must State Bases of Opinions  5.59
      • 2.  Facts in Evidence  5.60
      • 3.  Expert’s Perceptions; Tests; Analyses
        • a.  Expert’s Personal Perception and Tests  5.61
        • b.  Distinguishing Expert Opinion and Scientific Evidence in Presenting Expert’s Analyses
          • (1)  California State Courts  5.62
          • (2)  Federal Courts  5.63
      • 4.  Expert’s Special Qualifications  5.64
      • 5.  Books; Treatises; Other Literature  5.65
      • 6.  Community and Industry Standards  5.66
      • 7.  Standards Set by Statute and Official Regulation  5.67
      • 8.  Hearsay and Other Inadmissible Matter  5.68
    • D.  Expressing Opinion  5.69
    • E.  Stating Reasons for Opinion  5.70

6

Medical Experts

  • I.  REASONS FOR CALLING MEDICAL EXPERTS  6.1
  • II.  CATEGORIES OF MEDICAL EXPERTS; DISCLOSURE OF EXPERTS ON WITNESS LISTS  6.2
  • III.  CONTENT AND SEQUENCE OF TESTIMONY  6.3
  • IV.  EVIDENTIARY PRIVILEGES
    • A.  Attorney-Client  6.4
    • B.  Patient-Litigant Exception to Physician-Patient Privilege  6.5
  • V.  QUALIFICATIONS
    • A.  Experts’ Qualifications Usually Are Shown  6.6
    • B.  Sufficiency
      • 1.  Licensed Doctors  6.7
      • 2.  Nondoctors  6.8
    • C.  Form of Questions
      • 1.  Use of General Opening Questions  6.9
      • 2.  Use of Specific Questions  6.10
    • D.  Particular Items
      • 1.  Need for Selectivity in Establishing Special Qualifications  6.11
      • 2.  Name; Profession; Office Address  6.12
      • 3.  License  6.13
      • 4.  Education and Degrees  6.14
      • 5.  Internship and Residency  6.15
      • 6.  Military Service  6.16
      • 7.  Private Practice: Entry; Duration  6.17
      • 8.  Nature of Practice
        • a.  Doctor in General Practice  6.18
        • b.  Specialty: Orthopedic Surgery
          • (1)  Preliminary Questions  6.19
          • (2)  Training and Experience  6.20
          • (3)  Board Certification  6.21
      • 9.  Medical Society Memberships  6.22
      • 10.  Teaching and Lecturing  6.23
      • 11.  Hospital Staff Memberships  6.24
      • 12.  Authorship  6.25
      • 13.  Familiarity With Medical Literature  6.26
      • 14.  Honors; Prizes; Special Recognition  6.27
  • VI.  USING MEDICAL RECORDS, REPORTS, AND EXHIBITS
    • A.  Types  6.28
    • B.  Refreshing Memory  6.29
  • VII.  OCCASION FOR SEEING PATIENT: PROFESSIONAL RELATIONSHIP
    • A.  Showing Professional Physician-Patient Relationship  6.30
    • B.  Personal or Family Physician  6.31
    • C.  Medical-Legal Examiner  6.32
  • VIII.  PATIENT’S MEDICAL HISTORY
    • A.  Rationale for Eliciting Medical History  6.33
    • B.  Admissibility
      • 1.  Hearsay Issue Raised  6.34
      • 2.  Possible Admission Under Hearsay Rule Exceptions  6.35
      • 3.  Admissible Solely to Show Basis of Opinion  6.36
    • C.  Nature and Diagnostic Importance  6.37
    • D.  Symptoms; Subjective Signs  6.38
    • E.  Circumstances of Accident That Caused Injury  6.39
    • F.  Preaccident History  6.40
  • IX.  PHYSICAL EXAMINATION AND FINDINGS
    • A.  Testimony on Medical Facts Observed  6.41
    • B.  Admissibility  6.42
    • C.  Using Specific Questions  6.43
    • D.  Character and Type of Examination  6.44
    • E.  General Appearance and Mental Status  6.45
    • F.  Explaining Medical Terms and Injuries  6.46
    • G.  Connecting Findings to Injuries  6.47
    • H.  Findings as Direct Evidence of Injuries  6.48
    • I.  Clinical Tests and Manipulations  6.49
    • J.  Absent and Negative Findings  6.50
    • K.  Explaining Failure to Make Observation or Test  6.51
  • X.  SPECIAL DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES
    • A.  Commonly Used Special Diagnostic Procedures  6.52
    • B.  Admissibility  6.53
    • C.  Extent of Testimony  6.54
  • XI.  REPORTS FROM OTHER EXAMINERS
    • A.  Practice of Referring Patients to Other Doctors and Technicians  6.55
    • B.  Determining Whether to Call Outside Consultant as Witness  6.56
    • C.  Admissibility
      • 1.  To Show Basis of Referring Doctor’s Opinions  6.57
      • 2.  Extent of Showing  6.58
    • D.  Identity and Reliability of Tester or Examiner  6.59
    • E.  Referral as Customary Medical Practice  6.60
    • F.  Reasons for Test or Examination  6.61
    • G.  Return and Identity of Results and Report
      • 1.  Confirming Authenticity of Examination Results  6.62
      • 2.  Witness’s Reliance  6.63
    • H.  Contents  6.64
  • XII.  MEDICAL OPINION TESTIMONY
    • A.  Admissibility  6.65
    • B.  Bases for Medical Expert Opinion
      • 1.  Proper Bases  6.66
      • 2.  Improper Bases  6.67
      • 3.  Procedures for Showing Bases and Reasons  6.68
      • 4.  Diagnosis: Nature and Extent of Injuries
        • a.  Nature and Extent of Injuries More Important Than “Capsule Diagnosis”  6.69
        • b.  Admissibility  6.70
        • c.  Relating Diagnoses to Injuries  6.71
    • C.  Cause of Injuries
      • 1.  Relationship of Medical Cause to Proximate Cause of Injury  6.72
      • 2.  Value of Causation Testimony  6.73
      • 3.  Admissibility  6.74
      • 4.  Form of Testimony  6.75
    • D.  Prognosis: Continuing, Permanent, and Future Injuries
      • 1.  Prognosis as Starting Point for Testimony on Future Consequences of Injuries  6.76
      • 2.  Admissibility  6.77
      • 3.  Reasonable Medical Certainty  6.78
      • 4.  Continuing Conditions; Permanency  6.79
      • 5.  Future Conditions  6.80

7

Other Witnesses on Damages

  • I.  LAY WITNESSES GENERALLY
    • A.  Overall Role of Lay Witnesses  7.1
    • B.  Bystanders at Accident Scene  7.2
    • C.  Nurses; Medical Personnel  7.3
    • D.  Family Members
      • 1.  Suffering and Disability  7.4
      • 2.  Nursing Services by Family Members  7.5
    • E.  Fellow Workers; Supervisors  7.6
    • F.  Acquaintances; Neighbors  7.7
  • II.  EMPLOYER; PERSONNEL MANAGER  7.8
  • III.  ECONOMISTS AND OTHERS WHO TESTIFY ON IMPAIRED EARNING CAPACITY
    • A.  Use of Economists and Similar Experts at Trial  7.9
    • B.  Basis of Testimony  7.10
    • C.  Topics of Testimony  7.11
    • D.  Checklist: Expert Qualifications  7.12

8

Handling Exhibits and Demonstrations

  • I.  TERMINOLOGY: “EXHIBIT” AND “DEMONSTRATION”  8.1
  • II.  VALUE AND USES OF EXHIBITS AND DEMONSTRATIONS  8.2
  • III.  OFFERING EXHIBITS IN EVIDENCE
    • A.  Summary of Steps in Offering Exhibits  8.3
      • 1.  Checklist: Pretrial Preparation for Exhibits  8.3A
      • 2.  Checklist: Offering Exhibits into Evidence  8.3B
    • B.  Bringing Exhibits to Court; When to Use  8.4
    • C.  Tracking Exhibits; Using Indexes and Duplicates  8.5
    • D.  Custody of Exhibits and Release to Owner
      • 1.  Transfer of Custody to Court Clerk  8.6
      • 2.  Release of Exhibit  8.7
      • 3.  Form: Stipulation and Order for Release of Exhibits  8.8
    • E.  Inspection of Exhibit by Adverse Counsel  8.9
    • F.  Marking Exhibit for Identification  8.10
    • G.  Laying Foundation to Admit Exhibit
      • 1.  Importance of Laying Foundation  8.11
      • 2.  Relevance  8.12
      • 3.  Authentication  8.13
      • 4.  Secondary Evidence Exception  8.14
      • 5.  Hearsay Exception  8.15
      • 6.  Formal Offer of Exhibit in Evidence  8.16
    • H.  Receiving and Marking in Evidence  8.17
    • I.  Presenting Exhibit to Jury
      • 1.  Passing to Jurors  8.18
      • 2.  Explaining; Interpreting; Reading  8.19
      • 3.  Using Viewing Aids  8.20
  • IV.  SENDING EXHIBITS TO JURY ROOM  8.21
  • V.  ADMISSION BY AGREEMENT
    • A.  Advantage of Obtaining Agreement to Admit Exhibit  8.22
    • B.  Written and Oral Stipulations
      • 1.  Written Stipulations
        • a.  Potential for Use  8.23
        • b.  Form: Stipulation for Admission of Exhibits  8.24
      • 2.  Oral Stipulations  8.25
    • C.  Matter Deemed Admitted by Request for Admissions  8.26
    • D.  Potential Pretrial Order on Exhibits  8.27
  • VI.  WRITINGS AS PAST RECOLLECTION RECORDED
    • A.  When Writings May Be Used Under Evid C §1237  8.28
    • B.  Distinguished From Writings Used to Refresh Memory  8.29
    • C.  Laying Foundation
      • 1.  Summary of Required Preliminary Facts  8.30
      • 2.  Witness’s Writing  8.31
      • 3.  Another Person’s Writing
        • a.  When Another Person’s Writing May Be Used  8.32
        • b.  Declarant’s Testimony  8.33
        • c.  Writer’s Testimony  8.34
    • D.  Reading Into Evidence  8.35
    • E.  Adverse Parties’ Rights  8.36
  • VII.  USING THINGS NOT IN EVIDENCE TO HELP WITNESSES TESTIFY  8.37
  • VIII.  VIEWING SCENES AND OBJECTS OUTSIDE COURTROOM
    • A.  Authority of Trial Judge  8.38
    • B.  Scenes and Objects Viewed as Evidence  8.39
    • C.  Appointment of Person to Show Place to Jury  8.40
    • D.  Motion for Jury View of Scene or Object  8.41
  • IX.  DEMONSTRATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS
    • A.  What Constitutes Demonstration or Experiment  8.42
    • B.  Court Permission; Sample Dialogues for Demonstration  8.43

9

Police Accident Reports

  • I.  VALUE OF REPORT TO CASE
    • A.  Contents  9.1
    • B.  Uses  9.2
  • II.  OBTAINING REPORT
    • A.  For Investigative Use
      • 1.  Obtaining Report by Person With Proper Interest  9.3
      • 2.  Special Rule for Reports of Prior Accidents Occurring at Same Location  9.4
    • B.  For Use at Trial
      • 1.  Use of Original Versus Copy of Report  9.5
      • 2.  Subpoena Duces Tecum  9.6
  • III.  ADMISSION OF REPORT AS EXHIBIT
    • A.  Admissibility  9.7
    • B.  By Stipulation  9.8
    • C.  Objections to Admission
      • 1.  Privilege  9.9
      • 2.  Hearsay  9.10
      • 3.  Authentication  9.11
      • 4.  Secondary Evidence  9.12
    • D.  Offering Report in Evidence  9.13
  • IV.  USING REPORT TO SHOW PRIOR STATEMENT OF WITNESS
    • A.  Prior Inconsistent Statement  9.14
    • B.  Prior Consistent Statement  9.15
  • V.  FORMS
    • A.  Form: Attorney’s Request and Declaration to Obtain Police Report  9.16
    • B.  Form: Authorization for Attorney to Obtain Police Report  9.17
    • C.  Form: Declaration for Subpoena Duces Tecum  9.18
    • D.  Form: California Highway Patrol Vehicle Accident (Traffic Collision) Report  9.19

10

Discovery Documents

  • I.  VALUE OF DISCOVERY  10.1
  • II.  DEPOSITIONS
    • A.  Deposition as Most Common Discovery Device  10.2
    • B.  Uses at Trial
      • 1.  To Refresh Memory
        • a.  Deposition Transcript Must Be Produced at Trial  10.3
        • b.  Refreshing Memory of Own Witness  10.4
        • c.  Refreshing Memory of Adverse Witness  10.5
      • 2.  To Show Prior Inconsistent Statement
        • a.  By Own Witness  10.6
        • b.  By Adverse Witness  10.7
      • 3.  To Show Prior Consistent Statement
        • a.  By Own Witness  10.8
        • b.  By Adverse Witness  10.9
      • 4.  As Past Recollection Recorded
        • a.  Distinguished From Refreshing Memory  10.10
        • b.  By Own Witness  10.11
        • c.  By Adverse Witness  10.12
      • 5.  As Substitute Testimony
        • a.  Deposition Less Preferred Than Oral Testimony at Trial  10.13
        • b.  When Witness Unavailable  10.14
        • c.  In Interests of Justice  10.15
        • d.  When Deposition Is of Adverse Party, Agent, or Witness  10.16
    • C.  Objections to Admission  10.17
    • D.  Substitution of Parties and Supplemental Proceedings  10.18
    • E.  Presentation at Trial
      • 1.  Reading Deposition Questions and Answers Into Court Record  10.19
      • 2.  Presentation of Video-Recorded Depositions
        • a.  Overall Uses at Trial  10.20
        • b.  Procedural Matters Affecting Use at Trial  10.21
        • c.  Seeking Agreement on Use of Deposition; Objections  10.22
    • F.  Deposition Not Available to Jury During Deliberations  10.23
  • III.  INTERROGATORIES
    • A.  Overall Uses  10.24
    • B.  Limitations on Use at Trial  10.25
  • IV.  OTHER DISCOVERY DOCUMENTS
    • A.  Requests for Admission  10.26
    • B.  Demands for Production and Inspection and for Examination by Physician
      • 1.  Demand for Production and Inspection  10.27
      • 2.  Demand for Examination by Physician  10.28

11

Business Records

  • I.  DEFINITION AND USES OF BUSINESS RECORDS; PRIVILEGE
    • A.  Business Records Defined  11.1
    • B.  Uses of Business Records at Trial  11.2
    • C.  When Records Privileged or Otherwise Protected  11.3
  • II.  ADMISSION IN EVIDENCE
    • A.  By Agreement  11.4
    • B.  By Laying Foundation
      • 1.  Foundational Requirements Summarized  11.5
      • 2.  Relevance  11.6
      • 3.  Authentication  11.7
      • 4.  Secondary Evidence  11.8
      • 5.  Hearsay  11.9
    • C.  By Subpoenaed Copy Delivered With Custodian’s Affidavit
      • 1.  Subpoena Duces Tecum Procedure Summarized  11.10
      • 2.  Issuance and Service of Subpoena  11.11
      • 3.  Supporting Declaration; Form
        • a.  Supporting Declaration  11.12
        • b.  Form: Declaration for Subpoena Duces Tecum  11.13
      • 4.  Notice Describing Procedure for Compliance; Form
        • a.  Notice Describing Procedure for Compliance  11.14
        • b.  Form: Notice Describing Compliance With Subpoena Duces Tecum  11.15
      • 5.  Custodian’s Declaration; Form
        • a.  Custodian’s Declaration  11.16
        • b.  Form: Declaration of Custodian of Records or Other Qualified Witness  11.17
      • 6.  Opening Record and Offering Copy in Evidence  11.18
    • D.  By Custodian’s Testimony
      • 1.  When Required  11.19
      • 2.  Using Clause Requiring Custodian’s Personal Attendance With Original Records  11.20
  • III.  USING WAGE RECORD TO SHOW EARNINGS LOSS
    • A.  Need for Wage Record  11.21
    • B.  Identifying Witness  11.22
    • C.  Identifying Record and Mode of Preparation  11.23
    • D.  Record Made in Regular Course of Business  11.24
    • E.  Time of Preparation At or Near Time of Act, Condition, or Event  11.25
    • F.  Trustworthiness  11.26
    • G.  Content of Record  11.27

12

Official Records

  • I.  ADMISSIBILITY
    • A.  Statutory Requirements for Admission  12.1
    • B.  By Agreement  12.2
    • C.  By Custodian’s Affidavit as Business Record  12.3
    • D.  By Judicial Notice and Independent Evidence of Trustworthiness  12.4
    • E.  By Foundational Testimony  12.5
  • II.  PARTICULAR RECORDS
    • A.  Laying Foundation for Plaintiff’s Public School Records  12.6
    • B.  Vital Statistics  12.7
    • C.  Findings of Presumed Death; Missing Person Records  12.8
  • III.  ABSENCE OF PUBLIC RECORD  12.9

13

Hospital and Medical Records

  • I.  USES AT TRIAL  13.1
  • II.  CONTENTS  13.2
  • III.  OBTAINING COPY OF CLIENT’S RECORD BEFORE SUIT
    • A.  Right to Seek Record Before Filing Action  13.3
    • B.  Form: Letter Requesting Medical Records  13.4
    • C.  Form: Authorization for Release of Medical Records  13.5
  • IV.  ADMISSIBILITY
    • A.  Two-Step Process in Determining Admissibility; Exemptions  13.6
    • B.  Foundational Requirements
      • 1.  Relevance  13.7
      • 2.  Authentication  13.8
      • 3.  Admissible Secondary Evidence  13.9
      • 4.  Hearsay  13.10
      • 5.  Physician-Patient Privilege  13.11
    • C.  Covering and Deleting Objectionable Items and Entries  13.12
  • V.  PROCEDURES FOR SECURING ADMISSION AS EXHIBIT
    • A.  Stipulation  13.13
    • B.  Obtaining Record by Subpoena Duces Tecum and Offering Record in Evidence
      • 1.  Subpoena Duces Tecum to Records Custodian; Form
        • a.  Subpoena Duces Tecum to Records Custodian  13.14
        • b.  Form: Attorney’s Supporting Declaration for Subpoena Duces Tecum  13.15
      • 2.  Encouraging Delivery of Copy  13.16
      • 3.  Offering Records in Evidence  13.17
    • C.  Personal Attendance of Custodian With Original Records  13.18
    • D.  Foundational Testimony  13.19
  • VI.  PARTICULAR ENTRIES: ADMISSIBILITY; INTERPRETATION
    • A.  Role of Medical Witness’s Testimony in Explaining Entries  13.20
    • B.  Various Locations and Types of Entries Within Records
      • 1.  Cover Sheet
        • a.  Data and Diagnostic Summary  13.21
        • b.  Personal Data  13.22
        • c.  Insurance Coverage  13.23
      • 2.  Narrative or Final Summary  13.24
      • 3.  Medical History  13.25
      • 4.  Circumstances of Accident That Produced Injury  13.26
      • 5.  Patient’s Past History and Family History  13.27
      • 6.  Physical Examination Reports  13.28
      • 7.  Vital Signs Chart  13.29
      • 8.  Laboratory and Electrographic Reports  13.30
      • 9.  Operation Report  13.31
      • 10.  Doctors’ Orders; Medication Sheet  13.32
      • 11.  Doctors’ Progress Notes  13.33
      • 12.  Nurses’ Notes  13.34
      • 13.  Medical Opinions
        • a.  Varied Location Within Records; Admission Issues  13.35
        • b.  Diagnosis  13.36
        • c.  Causation  13.37
        • d.  Prognosis  13.38
      • 14.  X-Ray Films and Reports  13.39
      • 15.  Letters and Other Extraneous Matter  13.40
  • VII.  USING RECORD TO SHOW BASIS FOR OPINION TESTIMONY  13.41
  • VIII.  USING RECORD TO IMPEACH
    • A.  Prior Inconsistent Statement
      • 1.  Patient’s Statements That Conflict With Trial Testimony  13.42
      • 2.  Confronting Witness  13.43
      • 3.  Forgotten Statement  13.44
      • 4.  Statement of Preaccident Health  13.45
      • 5.  Absence of Complaints  13.46
    • B.  Confronting Adverse Expert With Contradictory Matter  13.47

14

Medical Bills

  • I.  PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS  14.1
  • II.  ADMISSIBILITY IN EVIDENCE
    • A.  Bases for Admission Summarized  14.2
    • B.  By Agreement  14.3
    • C.  By Foundational Testimony
      • 1.  Identifying Bills; Plaintiff’s Testimony  14.4
      • 2.  Necessity of Treatment  14.5
      • 3.  Reasonableness of Charges
        • a.  Means of Showing Charges Were Reasonable  14.6
        • b.  Billing Doctor  14.7
        • c.  Other Doctor or Witness Familiar With Customary or Standard Medical Charges  14.8
  • III.  SHOWING PAYMENT; COLLATERAL SOURCE RULE
    • A.  Application of Collateral Source Rule to Testimony  14.9
    • B.  Plaintiff’s Testimony That Bills Were Paid  14.10
    • C.  Defendant’s Testimony That Bills Were Paid by Defendant or Related Source  14.11
    • D.  When Payment by Workers’ Compensation Carrier May Be Shown  14.12
  • IV.  REDACTING OR DELETING NOTATIONS OF PAYMENT  14.13

15

Photographs

  • I.  VALUE AS EVIDENCE  15.1
  • II.  ADMISSIBILITY
    • A.  Treatment of Photograph as Writing  15.2
    • B.  By Agreement  15.3
    • C.  By Authentication
      • 1.  Level of Authenticity Required; Relating Photograph to Physical Scene Involved  15.4
      • 2.  Qualifying Authenticating Witness
        • a.  Nonphotographers  15.5
        • b.  Professional Photographers  15.6
        • c.  Amateur Photographers  15.7
      • 3.  Authenticating Particular Photographs
        • a.  Accident Scene  15.8
        • b.  Changed Scene  15.9
        • c.  Accident Reconstructions  15.10
        • d.  Damaged Vehicles  15.11
        • e.  Injured Persons  15.12
    • D.  Objections to Admission
      • 1.  Objections Summarized  15.13
      • 2.  Prejudicial; Unduly Inflammatory  15.14
      • 3.  Misrepresentative or Misleading; Credibility Versus Admissibility  15.15
      • 4.  Cumulative  15.16
      • 5.  Irrelevant  15.17
  • III.  PRESENTING TO JURY
    • A.  Prints; Enlargements  15.18
    • B.  Transparencies and Digital Photographs  15.19

16

X-Ray Films

  • I.  VALUE AS EVIDENCE  16.1
  • II.  ADMISSIBILITY
    • A.  By Agreement  16.2
    • B.  By Authentication  16.3
      • 1.  Laying Foundation
        • a.  Identity of Patient; Date Film Taken  16.4
        • b.  Interpretation  16.5
        • c.  Nature and Validity of X-Ray Process  16.6
        • d.  Filmmaking Procedure  16.7
        • e.  Dependability of Equipment  16.8
      • 2.  Choosing Authenticating Witness
        • a.  Using Doctor Who Explains X-Ray as Authenticating Witness  16.9
        • b.  Doctor Who Made Films  16.10
        • c.  X-Ray Technician  16.11
        • d.  Doctor Who Ordered Films  16.12
      • 3.  Authenticating Particular X-Ray Films
        • a.  Films of Normal Person  16.13
        • b.  Soft-Tissue Injuries  16.14
    • C.  As Aid to Testimony  16.15
    • D.  X-Ray Report  16.16
    • E.  Films in Hospital Records  16.17
  • III.  PRESENTING TO JURY
    • A.  Viewing Box  16.18
    • B.  Stereoscopic Films  16.19
    • C.  Positive Prints and Enlargements  16.20
    • D.  Cineradiography  16.21
  • IV.  SENDING FILMS TO JURY ROOM  16.22

17

Audiovisual Recordings and Computer-Generated Presentations

  • I.  WIDE RANGE OF POTENTIAL AUDIOVISUAL PRESENTATIONS  17.1
  • II.  VALUE AS EVIDENCE
    • A.  Visual Impact  17.2
    • B.  Common Uses of Motion Picture and Other Audiovisual Presentations; Computer-Generated Images
      • 1.  Uses Summarized   17.3
      • 2.  Computer Animation   17.3A
      • 3.  Computer Simulations  17.3B
  • III.  DANGERS  17.4
  • IV.  ADMISSIBILITY
    • A.  Court’s Discretion in Admitting Audiovisual Evidence  17.5
    • B.  Relevance  17.6
    • C.  Authentication
      • 1.  Need for Authentication  17.7
      • 2.  Qualifying Authenticating Witness
        • a.  Persons Who Can Authenticate  17.8
        • b.  Professional Cinematographer or Videographer  17.9
        • c.  Amateur Cinematographer or Videographer  17.10
      • 3.  Equipment and Lighting  17.11
      • 4.  Developing and Printing  17.12
      • 5.  Editing  17.13
      • 6.  Chain of Custody  17.14
      • 7.  Projection  17.15
      • 8.  Accuracy  17.16
    • D.  Challenging Authentication  17.17
  • V.  PARTICULAR MOTION PICTURES OR OTHER VIDEOS
    • A.  Surveillance
      • 1.  Use and Context of Surveillance  17.18
      • 2.  Authentication  17.19
      • 3.  Cross-Examination  17.20
      • 4.  Seeking Contradictory Testimony From Plaintiff Before Showing Film or Other Video Recording  17.21
      • 5.  Rehabilitation  17.22
    • B.  Reenactment of Event  17.23
    • C.  Experiments and Computer Simulations  17.24
    • D.  Normal Activity Before Injury  17.25
    • E.  Activity After Injury  17.26
  • VI.  PRESENTING TO JURY
    • A.  Equipment and Facilities in Courtroom  17.27
    • B.  Strategy  17.28
  • VII.  SENDING FILMS OR OTHER VIDEO MATTER TO JURY ROOM  17.29

18

Models

  • I.  VALUE AS EVIDENCE  18.1
  • II.  DANGERS OF USING MODELS  18.2
  • III.  SCALE MODELS
    • A.  Benefits of Scale Models  18.3
    • B.  Admissibility  18.4
    • C.  Authentication
      • 1.  Need for Authentication  18.5
      • 2.  Authentication by Model Maker  18.6
      • 3.  Authentication by Expert  18.7
  • IV.  NONSCALE MODELS
    • A.  Benefits of Nonscale Models  18.8
    • B.  Admissibility  18.9
    • C.  Authentication
      • 1.  For Admission in Evidence  18.10
      • 2.  For Illustration  18.11
  • V.  SKELETONS  18.12
  • VI.  DUPLICATES  18.13
  • VII.  PRESENTING TO JURY  18.14
  • VIII.  SENDING MODELS TO JURY ROOM  18.15

19

Maps and Diagrams

  • I.  KINDS; SOURCES
    • A.  Accident Scenes
      • 1.  Use of Maps and Diagrams  19.1
      • 2.  Stock Maps  19.2
      • 3.  Custom-Made Diagrams  19.3
      • 4.  Aerial Photographs  19.4
      • 5.  Police Accident Report Diagrams  19.5
      • 6.  Other Sources  19.6
    • B.  Medical Drawings  19.7
  • II.  ADMISSIBILITY
    • A.  Requirements
      • 1.  Authentication  19.8
      • 2.  Relevance; Changes in Scene  19.9
    • B.  By Agreement  19.10
    • C.  Foundation for Custom-Made Accident Scene Diagram
      • 1.  Qualifying Mapmaker  19.11
      • 2.  Identifying Diagram  19.12
      • 3.  Source of Data; Scale; Accuracy  19.13
      • 4.  Reconstruction of Conditions  19.14
    • D.  Judicial Notice of Official Maps  19.15
    • E.  To Aid or Illustrate Testimony  19.16
  • III.  PRESENTING TO JURY  19.17
  • IV.  USE BY WITNESSES
    • A.  Using Prepared Accident Scene Diagram  19.18
    • B.  Preparing Diagram During Testimony  19.19

20

Judicial Notice

  • I.  VALUE OF JUDICIAL NOTICE TO CASE
    • A.  Advantages and Disadvantages of Requesting Judicial Notice  20.1
    • B.  Evaluating Case Precedent  20.2
  • II.  MATTER NOTICED
    • A.  Mandatory and Permissive Notice
      • 1.  Mandatory  20.3
      • 2.  Permissive  20.4
      • 3.  Permissive Notice Made Mandatory  20.5
    • B.  Decisional Law as Authority
      • 1.  Matters Outside Evid C §§451–452  20.6
      • 2.  Matters Within Evid C §§451–452  20.7
    • C.  Matters of Law
      • 1.  Federal and State Law  20.8
      • 2.  Foreign Law  20.9
    • D.  Word Meanings  20.10
    • E.  Facts and Propositions  20.11
  • III.  PROCEDURES TO OBTAIN NOTICE
    • A.  Necessity of Making Request  20.12
    • B.  When to Make Request
      • 1.  On Demurrer
        • a.  Judicial Notice of Matter That Renders Complaint Defective  20.13
        • b.  Form: Sample Request to Take Judicial Notice  20.14
      • 2.  To Support Motion Before Trial  20.15
      • 3.  During Pretrial Proceedings  20.16
      • 4.  At Commencement of Trial  20.17
      • 5.  In Open Court  20.18
      • 6.  When Presenting Jury Instructions  20.19
      • 7.  After Trial  20.20
    • C.  Notifying Parties
      • 1.  Mandatory Versus Discretionary Notice to Parties; Sufficiency of Notice  20.21
      • 2.  Informal Oral or Written Notice  20.22
      • 3.  In Pleadings  20.23
      • 4.  By Notice of Motion  20.24
    • D.  Providing Opportunity to Be Heard  20.25
    • E.  Furnishing Information to Judge
      • 1.  Information From Parties or Other Sources  20.26
      • 2.  General Reference Books and Services  20.27
      • 3.  Books Published by Public Authority  20.28
      • 4.  Dictionaries  20.29
      • 5.  Maps; Atlases; Gazetteers  20.30
      • 6.  Calendars; Almanacs  20.31
      • 7.  Case Reports
        • a.  Published in Jurisdiction  20.32
        • b.  Unofficial Reports; Advance Sheets  20.33
      • 8.  Statutes; Ordinances  20.34
      • 9.  Rules; Regulations; Orders
        • a.  California and Federal Sources  20.35
        • b.  California Code of Regulations  20.36
        • c.  Federal Register  20.37
      • 10.  Miscellaneous Official Acts  20.38
      • 11.  Court Files and Records  20.39
      • 12.  Rules of Court  20.40
      • 13.  Mortality Tables  20.41
      • 14.  Government Documents and Their Depositories  20.42
      • 15.  Legislative History  20.43
      • 16.  Weather Bureau Reports  20.44
      • 17.  Census Statistics  20.45
      • 18.  Cost-of-Living Indexes  20.46
      • 19.  Expert Testimony  20.47
    • F.  Informing Jury of Matter Noticed  20.48

Selected Developments

May 2019

A summary of the most significant developments since publication of the 2018 update follows.

Testimony of Children

In People v Lopez (2018) 5 C5th 339, the California Supreme Court determined it was within the discretion of the trial judge to allow testimony of children aged 5 and 6 to events that occurred 18 months prior to their testimony. The defendant unsuccessfully argued that admitting the testimony was error under Evid C §702 and violated his right to due process under the Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution. See §1.17.

Writing Used to Refresh a Witness’s Memory

A writing used by a witness solely to assist him in giving his oral testimony has no independent evidentiary value and does not need to be listed on a trial exhibit list. A writing so used is inadmissible under Evid C §702(b) except when proffered by the adverse party. See Evans v Hood Corp. (2017) 5 CA5th 1022, discussed in §1.37.

Timing on Request to Limit Admissibility of Evidence

See §6.36 for a new practice tip recommending that a party who seeks to limit the admissibility of certain evidence let the court know of its request immediately.

Past Recollection Recorded

See the note in §8.30 for a recent case analyzing whether a witness’s statement written 16 years after an event was made while the event was still fresh in the witness’s memory.

Authentication of Business Records

For a recent case discussing whether a witness possessed sufficient personal knowledge of the identity and mode of preparation of documents for the business records exception to hearsay, see §11.7.

About the Author

Frank M. Pitre is a partner with Cotchett, Pitre & McCarthy, LLP, in Burlingame. He earned his undergraduate degree from the University of San Francisco in 1977 and his J.D. degree from the University of San Francisco School of Law in 1981. Mr. Pitre is a nationally recognized personal injury attorney and is certified as a civil trial advocacy specialist by the National Board of Legal Specialty Certification. He is a member of the American College of Trial Lawyers, the American Board of Trial Advocates (Secretary, San Francisco Chapter, 2013), the International Academy of Trial Lawyers, the International Society of Barristers, and the National Board of Trial Advocacy. Mr. Pitre is the author of numerous articles on tort matters and, since 1998, has authored the annual supplement to this publication. He has served on the faculty of the Hastings College of Advocacy and the University of San Francisco Trial Advocacy Program; he also has served as co-chair and presenter at several Masters in Trial programs sponsored by the American Board of Trial Advocates Foundation.

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PRACTICE AREA Civil Litigation & Torts
PRACTICE AREA Public Law
PRODUCT GROUP Publication