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Employee Leave Laws: Compliance and Litigation

Get the book you need to accurately calculate, track, and comply with California and federal employee leave entitlements. Confidently advise employees or employers on any leave-related question, including litigating leave law claims. Make sure your clients are in compliance with all applicable regulations.

 

"I use the leave law book almost daily. I regularly field legal questions about FMLA, CFRA, reasonable accommodations, and pregnancy-related leave issues."

Jannah Manansala, Weinberg, Roger and Rosenfeld, Alameda

 

"I use the leave law book almost daily. I regularly field legal questions about FMLA, CFRA, reasonable accommodations, and pregnancy-related leave issues."
Jannah Manansala, Weinberg, Roger and Rosenfeld, Alameda

Get the book you need to accurately calculate, track, and comply with California and federal employee leave entitlements. Confidently advise employees or employers on any leave-related question, including litigating leave law claims. Make sure your clients are in compliance with all applicable regulations.

  • Family and Medical Leave Act and its interaction with the California Family Rights Act
  • Calculating leave entitlements
  • Numerous charts and examples to clarify complex calculations
  • Pregnancy, disability, and other leaves
  • Vacations, sick leave, holidays, and paid time off
  • Bringing an action to enforce leave law rights
  • Responding to leave law claims
  • Litigating leave law claims: discovery, summary judgment, trial, and attorney fees
  • Settlement and alternative dispute resolution 
OnLAW BU94090

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"I use the leave law book almost daily. I regularly field legal questions about FMLA, CFRA, reasonable accommodations, and pregnancy-related leave issues."
Jannah Manansala, Weinberg, Roger and Rosenfeld, Alameda

Get the book you need to accurately calculate, track, and comply with California and federal employee leave entitlements. Confidently advise employees or employers on any leave-related question, including litigating leave law claims. Make sure your clients are in compliance with all applicable regulations.

  • Family and Medical Leave Act and its interaction with the California Family Rights Act
  • Calculating leave entitlements
  • Numerous charts and examples to clarify complex calculations
  • Pregnancy, disability, and other leaves
  • Vacations, sick leave, holidays, and paid time off
  • Bringing an action to enforce leave law rights
  • Responding to leave law claims
  • Litigating leave law claims: discovery, summary judgment, trial, and attorney fees
  • Settlement and alternative dispute resolution 

1

Leave Under the Family and Medical Leave Act and the California Family Rights Act

Sharon A. Terman

Elizabeth Kristen

Julia Parish

Katherine Wutchiett

Conor Ahern

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  1.1
    • A.  History and Purpose of the Acts  1.2
    • B.  Basic 12-Week Leave Entitlement  1.3
    • C.  Longer Leave May Be Available
      • 1.  Pregnancy Leave  1.4
      • 2.  Military Caregiver Leave  1.5
      • 3.  Accommodation of Disability  1.6
    • D.  How FMLA and CFRA Interact
      • 1.  FMLA and CFRA Leaves Run Concurrently  1.7
      • 2.  Greater Benefit Applies  1.8
  • II.  COVERED EMPLOYERS
    • A.  Private Employers
      • 1.  General Rules of Coverage  1.9
        • a.  “Engaged in Commerce” or “Industry or Activity Affecting Commerce”  1.10
        • b.  Determining Whether Employer Has Requisite Number of Employees  1.11
        • c.  Twenty Calendar Workweeks in Current or Preceding Calendar Year (FMLA only)  1.12
      • 2.  Corporations  1.13
      • 3.  Successors-in-Interest  1.14
        • a.  Balancing of Equities Test  1.15
        • b.  FMLA Regulations  1.16
        • c.  Merger or Transfer of Assets Not Required  1.16A
        • d.  Employee of Successor Has Continuous Entitlements  1.17
      • 4.  Joint Employers  1.18
        • a.  Determining Existence of Joint Employment Relationship
          • (1)  FMLA/CFRA Regulations  1.19
          • (2)  Moreau v Air France Factors  1.20
        • b.  Primary Employer Provides Leave and Benefits  1.21
      • 5.  Integrated Employers  1.22
      • 6.  Person Acting in Interest of Employer  1.23
    • B.  Public Employers  1.24
    • C.  Elementary and Secondary Schools  1.25
  • III.  ELIGIBLE EMPLOYEES
    • A.  General Requirements  1.26
      • 1.  Employed for 12 Months  1.27
        • a.  Determined at Start of Leave  1.28
        • b.  Effect of 7-Year Break in Service  1.29
      • 2.  Worked at Least 1,250 Hours  1.30
        • a.  Standards for Determining Hours  1.31
        • b.  Effect of Employee’s Military Service  1.32
        • c.  Teachers on Academic Year  1.33
        • d.  Airline Flight Crewmembers and Flight Attendants  1.34
      • 3.  Worksite With 50 Employees Within 75 Miles (FMLA only)  1.35
        • a.  Subsequent Change in Number of Employees Irrelevant  1.36
        • b.  Worksite Defined  1.37
      • 4.  Requalification  1.38
      • 5.  Protection for Pre-Eligibility Request for Post-Eligibility Leave  1.38A
    • B.  Former Employees  1.39
    • C.  Employees of Educational Institutions  1.39A
    • D.  Estoppel When Employer Misrepresents Employee’s Eligibility  1.40
  • IV.  QUALIFYING REASONS FOR LEAVE
    • A.  Serious Health Conditions, Child Bonding, and Military Exigencies  1.41
      • 1.  California Variation: Pregnancy Exception  1.42
      • 2.  California Variation: Domestic Partners  1.43
      • 3.  California Variation: Leave to Care for Sibling, Grandparent, Grandchild, or Parent-in-Law  1.43A
    • B.  Definitions
      • 1.  “Spouse”  1.44
      • 2.  “Child” or “Son or Daughter”  1.45
      • 3.  “In Loco Parentis”  1.46
      • 4.  “Parent” and “Parent-in-Law”  1.47
      • 5.  “Health Care Provider”  1.47A
    • C.  Birth of Child  1.48
    • D.  Adoptive or Foster Child  1.49
    • E.  Employee’s Own Serious Health Condition  1.50
      • 1.  “Serious Health Condition”  1.51
        • a.  Inpatient Care  1.52
        • b.  Continuing Treatment  1.53
        • c.  Treatment for Substance Abuse  1.54
      • 2.  Unable to Perform Essential Functions of Job  1.55
    • F.  Family Medical Care
      • 1.  Certain Family Members With Serious Health Condition  1.56
      • 2.  “Caring For” Defined  1.57
    • G.  Qualifying Exigencies
      • 1.  Twelve Weeks of Family Military Leave  1.58
      • 2.  What Constitutes Qualifying Exigency  1.59
    • H.  Military Caregiver Leave  1.60
      • 1.  Current Servicemember  1.61
      • 2.  Recent Veteran  1.62
  • V.  AMOUNT OF LEAVE
    • A.  Twelve Weeks in 12-Month Period (“Leave Year”)  1.63
      • 1.  Employer Determines “Leave Year”  1.64
      • 2.  Multi-State Employers  1.65
      • 3.  Holidays  1.66
      • 4.  Overtime  1.67
      • 5.  When Spouses/Parents Work for Same Employer (FMLA Only)  1.68
      • 6.  When Employee Works Rotational Schedule  1.68A
    • B.  Intermittent or Reduced-Schedule Leave  1.69
      • 1.  Qualifying Reasons  1.70
      • 2.  California Variation: Short Bonding Leave  1.71
      • 3.  Prerequisites to Leave
        • a.  Reasonable Effort to Avoid Disruption  1.72
        • b.  Medical Necessity  1.73
        • c.  Permission for Intermittent Bonding  1.74
      • 4.  Calculating Leave Taken  1.75
      • 5.  Exempt Employee Status  1.76
      • 6.  Temporary Transfer to Alternative Position  1.77
      • 7.  When Leave Is Not Physically Possible  1.78
      • 8.  Special Rules for Instructional Employees  1.79
    • C.  Servicemember Care Leave
      • 1.  Twenty-Six Weeks in 12-Month Period  1.80
      • 2.  Determining 12-Month Period  1.81
  • VI.  EMPLOYER’S POSTING AND NOTICE REQUIREMENTS
    • A.  Posting Notice of Leave Rights
      • 1.  “In Conspicuous Places”  1.82
      • 2.  Form and Content of Poster  1.83
      • 3.  Non-English-Speaking Workforce  1.84
      • 4.  Civil Penalty for Willful Failure to Post Notice  1.85
    • B.  Notice in Employee Handbook and to New Employees  1.86
  • VII.  PROCEDURES FOR REQUESTING AND GRANTING LEAVE
    • A.  Advance Notice of Procedures Required  1.87
    • B.  Employee’s Responsibility to Give Notice of Need for Leave
      • 1.  Timing of Notice
        • a.  When Need for Leave Is Foreseeable  1.88
        • b.  When Need for Leave Is Unforeseeable  1.89
        • c.  Determining Whether Need for Leave Is Foreseeable or Unforeseeable  1.89A
        • d.  Employee Need Only Give Notice Once  1.90
        • e.  Employee’s Failure to Give Timely Notice
          • (1)  May Delay Start of Protected Leave  1.91
          • (2)  Employer Must Have Provided Notice of Deadlines  1.92
          • (3)  Employer May Waive Deadlines  1.93
      • 2.  Manner of Giving Notice  1.94
      • 3.  Content of Notice
        • a.  Information Sufficient to Make Employer Aware of Need for Leave  1.95
        • b.  Employer’s Duty to Inquire Further When Notice Is Unclear  1.96
        • c.  Compliance With Employer Policy  1.97
        • d.  Employer May Waive Notice Requirements  1.98
        • e.  Constructive Notice  1.99
      • 4.  When Leave Is for Planned Medical Treatment  1.100
    • C.  Employer’s Response to Employee’s Notice of Need for Leave  1.101
      • 1.  Eligibility Notice
        • a.  Timing, Form, and Contents  1.101A
        • b.  New Notice for Subsequent Leaves  1.101B
      • 2.  Rights-and-Responsibilities Notice  1.101C
        • a.  Timing and Form  1.101D
        • b.  Required Contents  1.101E
        • c.  Additional Contents as Needed  1.101F
        • d.  Notice of Changed Information for Subsequent Leaves  1.101G
      • 3.  Designation Notice  1.101H
        • a.  Basis for Designation  1.102
          • (1)  When Employee Merely Requests Paid Time Off  1.103
          • (2)  Employee May Expressly Decline FMLA Designation  1.103A
        • b.  Timing and Form of Designation Notice  1.104
        • c.  Contents of Designation Notice  1.104A
        • d.  Written or Oral Notice of Amount of Leave to Be Counted Against Entitlement  1.104B
        • e.  Retroactive Designation  1.105
      • 4.  Effect of Failure to Provide Notices or Properly Designate  1.106
      • 5.  Resolution of Disputes  1.106A
    • D.  Medical Certifications  1.107
      • 1.  Employer Must Provide Notice of Certification Requirement  1.108
      • 2.  Employee’s Deadline to Provide Certification
        • a.  Fifteen Days After Request  1.109
        • b.  When Failure to Meet Deadline May Be Excused  1.110
      • 3.  Employee Must Provide Any Necessary Authorizations  1.111
      • 4.  Contents of Certification
        • a.  FMLA
          • (1)  General Rules  1.112
          • (2)  Additional Information for Intermittent or Reduced-Schedule Leave Requests  1.113
          • (3)  DOL or Employer-Drafted Forms  1.113A
          • (4)  Certification When Leave Is to Care for Covered Servicemember
            • (a)  Information From Health Care Provider  1.113B
            • (b)  Information From Employee or Covered Servicemember  1.113C
            • (c)  DOL or Employer-Drafted Forms  1.113D
            • (d)  Documents Deemed Sufficient Certification  1.113E
            • (e)  Employer May Not Penalize Employee for Administrative Delays  1.113F
        • b.  CFRA
          • (1)  Leave to Care for Covered Family Member  1.114
          • (2)  Leave for Employee’s Serious Health Condition  1.115
          • (3)  Certification Need Not Reveal Serious Health Condition or Other Information  1.116
        • c.  CFRA Certification Form Should Be Used in California  1.117
      • 5.  Employer’s Use of Additional Medical Information  1.118
      • 6.  Incomplete or Insufficient Certification  1.119
      • 7.  “Negative” Certification  1.119A
      • 8.  Failure to Provide Certification  1.120
      • 9.  Recertification
        • a.  When Employer May Request Recertification  1.121
        • b.  Contents of Recertification  1.122
        • c.  Time for Submission  1.123
      • 10.  Authentication and Clarification  1.124
      • 11.  When Employer Doubts Validity of Medical Certification
        • a.  Second Opinion  1.125
        • b.  Third Opinion  1.126
      • 12.  Certification for Qualifying Exigency Leave  1.126A
        • a.  Required Information  1.126B
        • b.  Verification  1.126C
        • c.  Employer’s Duty to Maintain Confidentiality of Medical Certifications  1.126D
  • VIII.  RETURNING TO WORK
    • A.  Right to Reinstatement
      • 1.  Same or Equivalent Position  1.127
      • 2.  What Constitutes Equivalent Position  1.128
        • a.  Equivalent Pay  1.129
        • b.  Equivalent Benefits  1.130
          • (1)  Must Not Require Requalification for Benefits  1.131
          • (2)  Accrued Benefits  1.132
        • c.  Substantially Similar Terms and Conditions of Employment  1.133
          • (1)  Duties and Responsibilities  1.134
          • (2)  Same or Similar Worksite  1.135
          • (3)  Same Shift and Schedule  1.136
          • (4)  Employee May Request Different Position  1.137
    • B.  Limitations on Right to Reinstatement
      • 1.  No Greater Rights Than if Employee Had Not Taken Leave  1.138
      • 2.  Position Was Eliminated or Reduced  1.139
      • 3.  Employee Is Unable to Perform Job  1.140
      • 4.  Employer May Deny Reinstatement of “Key Employee”  1.141
        • a.  Who Qualifies as Key Employee  1.142
          • (1)  “Salaried Employee”  1.143
          • (2)  Highest Paid 10 Percent of Employees  1.144
        • b.  “Substantial and Grievous Economic Injury”  1.145
        • c.  Notification Requirements for Key Employees
          • (1)  General Notice  1.146
          • (2)  Notice When Employee Is Determined to Be Key Employee  1.147
          • (3)  If Key Employee Does Not Return to Work  1.148
          • (4)  May Request Reinstatement  1.149
      • 5.  Failure to Provide Fitness-for-Duty Certification  1.150
      • 6.  Fraudulently Obtained Leave  1.151
    • C.  Periodic Reports of Employee’s Intent to Return to Work  1.152
    • D.  Employer May Not Force Employee to Take Leave for Longer Period  1.153
    • E.  Fitness-for-Duty Certification  1.154
      • 1.  Contents  1.155
      • 2.  Clarification and Authentication  1.156
      • 3.  Multiple Certifications for Intermittent or Reduced-Schedule Leave  1.157
      • 4.  Failure to Provide Certification  1.158
  • IX.  COMPENSATION DURING LEAVE
    • A.  Leave Is Generally Unpaid  1.159
    • B.  Substitution of Vacation, Sick Leave, or Other Paid Leave
      • 1.  FMLA
        • a.  Employee May Opt to Substitute Employer Provided Paid Leave for Unpaid FMLA Leave  1.160
        • b.  Limitations  1.161
        • c.  Employee May Affirmatively Decline FMLA Leave  1.162
        • d.  Employer May Require Substitution  1.163
      • 2.  CFRA  1.164
    • C.  Employer Policy  1.165
    • D.  Limitation on Substitution of Other Paid Leave  1.166
    • E.  Exempt Employees  1.167
    • F.  State Disability Insurance Program  1.168
      • 1.  Disability Insurance  1.169
      • 2.  Paid Family Leave  1.170
  • X.  EFFECT OF LEAVE ON EMPLOYEE BENEFITS
    • A.  Health Insurance Benefits
      • 1.  Employer Must Maintain Coverage During Leave  1.171
      • 2.  Changes to Coverage During Leave  1.171A
      • 3.  When Employer May Discontinue Coverage  1.171B
      • 4.  Payment of Premiums
        • a.  Employee Must Continue to Pay Share During Leave  1.172
        • b.  Employee’s Failure to Pay Premiums  1.172A
      • 5.  Employee May Choose to Drop Coverage  1.173
      • 6.  When Employee Does Not Return to Work  1.174
    • B.  Benefit Level, Vesting, and Seniority  1.175
    • C.  Other Health and Welfare Benefits  1.176
    • D.  Effect of Leave on Employer’s No-Fault Absenteeism Policy  1.176A
  • XI.  ENFORCEMENT AND REMEDIES
    • A.  Theories of Liability  1.177
    • B.  Remedies Under the FMLA  1.178
    • C.  Remedies Under the CFRA  1.179

2

Pregnancy, Disability, and Other Leaves

Rachel S. Hulst

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  2.1
  • II.  PREGNANCY LEAVE LAWS
    • A.  Pregnancy Disability Leave Law (PDLL)  2.2
      • 1.  Relationship to PDA  2.3
      • 2.  Relationship to FMLA and CFRA  2.4
      • 3.  Relationship to ADA and FEHA  2.5
      • 4.  Covered Entities  2.6
      • 5.  Eligible Employees  2.7
      • 6.  Qualifying Reason for Leave
        • a.  “Disabled by Pregnancy, Childbirth, or a Related Medical Condition”  2.8
          • (1)  Disability Based on Employee’s Inability to Perform Job  2.9
          • (2)  Disability Based on Employee’s Health Needs  2.10
        • b.  Existence of Disability Must Be Determined by Health Care Provider  2.11
      • 7.  Length of Leave
        • a.  “Reasonable Period” Up to 4 Months  2.12
        • b.  Per Pregnancy, Not Per Year  2.13
        • c.  Calculating Leave Entitlement
          • (1)  Determined by Employee’s Normal Work Schedule  2.14
          • (2)  Intermittent or Reduced-Schedule Leave  2.15
            • (a)  Transfer  2.16
            • (b)  Reinstatement After Transfer  2.17
          • (3)  Impact of Holidays and Temporary Closures  2.18
        • d.  If Employer Has More Generous Leave Policy  2.19
      • 8.  Terms of Leave
        • a.  Generally Unpaid  2.20
        • b.  Use of Accrued Benefits
          • (1)  Sick Leave  2.21
          • (2)  Vacation and Other Time Off  2.22
        • c.  Continuation of Group Health Coverage
          • (1)  Up to 4 Months in 12-Month Period  2.23
          • (2)  No Credit Against CFRA Entitlements  2.24
          • (3)  Recovery of Premiums From Employee  2.25
        • d.  Maintenance of Other Benefits, Seniority, and Employee Status  2.26
      • 9.  Notices
        • a.  Employer’s Responsibilities
          • (1)  “Reasonable Advance Notice” of Rights Under the PDLL  2.27
            • (a)  Required Postings  2.28
            • (b)  When Employee Informs Employer of Pregnancy or Need for Leave  2.29
            • (c)  Employer Handbook or Annual Distribution of Notice  2.30
            • (d)  Non-English-Speaking Workforce  2.31
          • (2)  Consequences of Failure to Give Notice  2.32
        • b.  Employee’s Responsibilities
          • (1)  “Timely” Notice of Need for Leave  2.33
          • (2)  Consequences for Failure to Provide Notice  2.34
        • c.  Employer’s Response to Notice of Need for Leave  2.35
      • 10.  Medical Certification
        • a.  May Be Required as Condition of Granting Leave  2.36
        • b.  Impact of HIPAA and CMIA  2.37
        • c.  Deadline for Requesting Certification  2.38
        • d.  Required Contents  2.39
        • e.  Deadlines for Providing Certification  2.40
        • f.  Inadequate or Incomplete Certification  2.41
        • g.  Consequences for Failing to Provide Certification  2.42
        • h.  Less Stringent Sick or Medical Leave Certification Requirements  2.43
      • 11.  Right to Reinstatement  2.44
        • a.  Agreed-on Return Date  2.45
        • b.  New or Uncertain Return Date  2.46
        • c.  When Employee Is Laid Off During Leave  2.47
        • d.  When Leave Is Extended Under the CFRA  2.48
        • e.  When Employee Remains on Disability Leave  2.49
        • f.  Permissible Defenses
          • (1)  To Same Position  2.50
          • (2)  To Comparable Position  2.51
    • B.  Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA)  2.52
      • 1.  Covered Employers  2.53
      • 2.  Covered Employees  2.54
      • 3.  Leave Entitlement
        • a.  Equivalent to Leave Available to Other Temporarily Disabled Employees  2.55
        • b.  Exception for Occupationally Disabled Employees Abrogated  2.56
        • c.  Employer May Offer More Generous Leave to Employees Disabled by Pregnancy  2.57
        • d.  Procedures to Determine Ability to Work  2.58
        • e.  Mandatory Use of Accrued Vacation  2.59
        • f.  Conditions Not Covered by PDA  2.60
      • 4.  Reinstatement Rights  2.61
      • 5.  Enforcement and Remedies  2.62
  • III.  DISABILITY-RELATED LEAVES
    • A.  Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)/Fair Employment and Housing Act (FEHA)  2.63
      • 1.  Covered Employers  2.64
      • 2.  Covered Employees  2.65
      • 3.  Leave as Reasonable Accommodation  2.66
        • a.  Determining Whether Leave Is Reasonable Accommodation  2.67
        • b.  Determining Length of Leave  2.68
    • B.  Rehabilitation Act of 1973  2.69
    • C.  Work-Related Disabilities  2.70
      • 1.  Failure to Reinstate as Violation of Lab C §132a  2.71
      • 2.  Reasonable Business Necessity Defense  2.72
      • 3.  No Intermittent Leave When Injury Becomes “Permanent and Stationary”  2.73
    • D.  Disability Leave Under Employer Policy  2.74
  • IV.  OTHER LEAVE LAWS
    • A.  School Leaves
      • 1.  For School Suspension (Lab C §230.7)  2.75
      • 2.  For Participation in School Activities (Lab C §230.8)
        • a.  Leave Entitlement  2.76
        • b.  Parents Who Work for Same Employer  2.77
        • c.  Mandatory Use of Vacation, Personal Leave, or PTO  2.78
        • d.  Documentation  2.79
        • e.  Remedies  2.80
    • B.  Victims of Crime or Abuse (Lab C §§230(c), 230.1)
      • 1.  Leave Entitlement  2.81
      • 2.  Definitions  2.82
      • 3.  Interaction With the FMLA  2.83
      • 4.  Use of Vacation, Personal Leave, or Other Time Off  2.84
      • 5.  Notice Requirements
        • a.  For Employers  2.84A
        • b.  For Employees  2.85
      • 6.  Reasonable Accommodation  2.86
        • a.  Types of Accommodations  2.87
        • b.  Certification of Need for Accommodation  2.88
        • c.  New Accommodation  2.89
        • d.  When Accommodation Is No Longer Needed  2.90
      • 7.  Prohibitions and Enforcement  2.91
    • C.  Crime Victims
      • 1.  Labor Code §230.2
        • a.  Leave Entitlement  2.92
        • b.  Use of Vacation, Sick Leave, or Other Time Off  2.93
        • c.  Notice  2.94
        • d.  Prohibitions and Enforcement  2.95
      • 2.  Labor Code §230.5
        • a.  Leave Entitlement  2.96
        • b.  Use of Vacation, Personal Leave, or Other Time Off  2.97
        • c.  Notice  2.98
        • d.  Prohibitions, Remedies, and Enforcement  2.99
    • D.  Organ and Bone Marrow Donation (Lab C §§1508–1513)
      • 1.  Leave Entitlement  2.100
      • 2.  Use of Sick Leave, Vacation, or PTO  2.101
      • 3.  Interaction With FMLA/CFRA  2.102
      • 4.  No Break in Service; Maintenance of Health Plan Coverage  2.103
      • 5.  Written Verification  2.104
      • 6.  Reinstatement  2.105
      • 7.  Prohibitions and Remedies  2.106
    • E.  Voting (Elec C §§14000–14002)  2.107
    • F.  Service as Election Official (Elec C §12312)  2.108
    • G.  Jury Duty
      • 1.  Jury System Improvements Act of 1978 (28 USC §1875)  2.109
        • a.  Notice of Need for Leave  2.110
        • b.  Pay During Jury Duty Leave  2.110A
        • c.  Enforcement; Appointment of Counsel  2.111
        • d.  Remedies  2.112
        • e.  Attorney Fees  2.113
      • 2.  State Law (Lab C §230(a))  2.114
    • H.  Service as Witness (Lab C §230(b))  2.115
    • I.  Volunteer Emergency Personnel (Lab C §§230.3–230.4)
      • 1.  Prohibition Against Discharge or Discrimination  2.116
        • a.  Exception When Public Safety at Risk  2.117
        • b.  Notification Requirements for Health Care Providers  2.118
      • 2.  Leave for Training  2.119
      • 3.  Definitions  2.120
    • J.  Military Service
      • 1.  Federal Law: USERRA  2.121
        • a.  Covered Employers  2.122
          • (1)  Successors-in-Interest  2.123
          • (2)  Multiple Employers  2.124
        • b.  Eligible Employees
          • (1)  Most Employees Regardless of Length of Service  2.125
          • (2)  “Service in a Uniformed Service”  2.126
        • c.  Leave Entitlement  2.127
        • d.  Interaction With Other Leave Laws and Employer Policies  2.128
        • e.  Employee Obligations
          • (1)  Notice of Leave  2.129
          • (2)  Notice of Intention to Return to Work  2.130
          • (3)  Documentation  2.131
        • f.  Employer Obligations
          • (1)  Pay Issues  2.132
          • (2)  Benefits  2.133
          • (3)  Reinstatement
            • (a)  Eligibility  2.134
            • (b)  Prompt Reemployment Required  2.135
            • (c)  General Rule: Reemployment in Escalator Position  2.136
              • (i)  Reasonable Certainty Test  2.137
              • (ii)  When Service Is for Period of 90 Days or Less  2.138
              • (iii)  When Service Is for Period of More Than 90 Days  2.139
              • (iv)  When Employee Has Disability  2.139A
              • (v)  When Employee Is Unqualified for Escalator or Prior Position  2.139B
          • (4)  Exemptions From Reinstatement Requirement  2.139C
        • g.  Protection Against Discrimination and Retaliation  2.140
        • h.  Remedies  2.141
      • 2.  State Law
        • a.  Leave Entitlements
          • (1)  Member of Federal Reserves, National Guard, or Naval Militia
            • (a)  Employees of Private Employers  2.142
            • (b)  Public Employees
              • (i)  Leave Entitlement  2.143
              • (ii)  Compensation During Leave  2.144
              • (iii)  Right to Reinstatement  2.145
          • (2)  Member of State Guard  2.146
        • b.  Prohibition Against Discharge or Discrimination; Remedies  2.147
    • K.  Accommodation of Religious Beliefs  2.148
    • L.  Accommodation for Drug or Alcohol Rehabilitation Programs  2.149
    • M.  Accommodation for Adult Literacy Education Programs  2.150
    • N.  Civil Air Patrol Leave
      • 1.  Leave Entitlement  2.151
      • 2.  Covered Employers; Eligible Employees  2.152
      • 3.  Notice and Certification  2.153
      • 4.  Prohibited Acts  2.154
      • 5.  Reinstatement; Maintenance of Benefits  2.155
      • 6.  Enforcement  2.156

3

Vacations, Sick Leave, Holidays, and Paid Time Off

Stephen M. Murphy

John F. Hyland

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  3.1
  • II.  VACATION LEAVE
    • A.  Private Employers
      • 1.  No Right to Paid Vacation Leave Absent Agreement or Policy  3.2
      • 2.  Vacation Leave Constitutes Deferred Wages  3.3
      • 3.  Waiting Period Permitted for New Employees  3.4
      • 4.  Accrual: Lump Sum or Pro Rata  3.5
      • 5.  Restrictions on Manner of Taking Vacation Permitted  3.6
      • 6.  No Forced Use of Vacation  3.7
      • 7.  “Use It or Lose It” Policies Not Permitted  3.8
        • a.  Exception: Collective Bargaining Agreement  3.9
        • b.  No Voluntary Waiver Permitted  3.10
      • 8.  Cap on Vacation Accrual Permitted  3.11
      • 9.  Non-Accrual Vacation Policies  3.12
      • 10.  Payment of Accrued Vacation Leave on Termination  3.13
        • a.  Timing of Payment  3.14
        • b.  No Offset for Vacation Leave Advances  3.15
        • c.  Consequences for Failure to Pay  3.16
          • (1)  Administrative Claim or Civil Action  3.17
          • (2)  Statute of Limitations  3.18
          • (3)  When Cause of Action Accrues  3.19
      • 11.  ERISA May Preempt California Law for Funded Vacation Plans  3.20
    • B.  Public Employers
      • 1.  Right to Paid Vacation Must Be Based on Statute, Ordinance, or MOU   3.21
      • 2.  Educational Employees  3.22
      • 3.  Court Employees  3.23
  • III.  SICK LEAVE
    • A.  California’s Paid Sick Leave Law  3.24
      • 1.  Chart: Summary of Provisions  3.24A
      • 2.  Covered Employees  3.25
      • 3.  Covered Employers  3.26
      • 4.  Sick Leave Accrual
        • a.  When Accrual Begins  3.27
        • b.  Rate of Accrual—Three Methods  3.28
        • c.  PTO as Alternative to Paid Sick Leave  3.29
        • d.  Permissible Cap on Accrual  3.29A
      • 5.  Use of Accrued Sick Leave
        • a.  When Employee May Use Sick Leave  3.30
        • b.  Required Notice  3.31
        • c.  Permissible Reasons to Use Sick Leave
          • (1)  For Health Condition of Employee or Family Member  3.32
          • (2)  For Reasons Resulting From Status as Victim of Crime or Abuse  3.33
        • d.  Leave Cannot Be Conditioned on Finding Replacement Worker  3.34
        • e.  Employee Determines Amount of Sick Leave Needed; Employer Limit  3.35
      • 6.  Carryover of Unused Sick Leave  3.36
      • 7.  No Compensation for Unused Sick Leave on Separation From Employment  3.37
      • 8.  Reinstatement of Sick Leave on Rehiring  3.38
      • 9.  Calculating Rate of Pay  3.38A
      • 10.  Employer Notice and Posting Requirements  3.39
      • 11.  Recordkeeping  3.40
      • 12.  Prohibited Employer Actions
        • a.  Denial of Use of Sick Leave  3.41
        • b.  Discrimination or Retaliation for Use of Sick Leave  3.42
        • c.  Rebuttable Presumption of Retaliation  3.43
      • 13.  Enforcement and Penalties
        • a.  Administrative Enforcement by Labor Commissioner  3.44
          • (1)  Available Remedies  3.45
          • (2)  Available Administrative Penalties  3.46
        • b.  Civil Action by Labor Commissioner or Attorney General  3.47
        • c.  Employer Defenses  3.48
      • 14.  No Preemption of Policies or Statutes Providing Greater Benefit  3.49
      • 15.  Employers Operating in Multiple Jurisdictions  3.50
      • 16.  Interaction With FMLA/CFRA Leave  3.51
    • B.  Kin Care Law (Lab C §§233–234)  3.52
      • 1.  Applies to “Sick Leave” as Defined in Law  3.53
      • 2.  Amount Available to Use  3.54
      • 3.  Permissible Uses of Sick Leave  3.55
      • 4.  Prohibited Employer Conduct  3.56
      • 5.  Policies Against Abuse of Sick Leave Permissible  3.57
      • 6.  Remedies and Enforcement  3.58
      • 7.  Interaction With Paid Sick Leave Law  3.59
      • 8.  Interaction With FMLA/CFRA  3.60
    • C.  Paid Sick Leave for Federal Contractors  3.60A
      • 1.  Covered Contracts
        • a.  Must Be “New Contract”  3.60B
        • b.  Must Be Specific Type of Contract  3.60C
        • c.  Performance Must Be Within United States  3.60D
        • d.  Excluded Contracts  3.60E
      • 2.  Covered Employees  3.60F
      • 3.  Accrual Rate  3.60G
      • 4.  Accrual Cap  3.60H
      • 5.  Permissible Uses  3.60I
      • 6.  Enforcement of Rights
        • a.  Complaint With Wage and Hour Division  3.60J
        • b.  Investigation and Conciliation  3.60K
        • c.  Remedies and Sanctions  3.60L
    • D.  Local Paid Sick Leave Ordinances
      • 1.  Berkeley Minimum Wage Ordinance  3.60M
      • 2.  Emeryville Minimum Wage and Paid Sick Leave Ordinance  3.60N
      • 3.  Los Angeles Minimum Wage Ordinance  3.60O
      • 4.  Oakland Minimum Wage Ordinance  3.60P
      • 5.  San Diego Earned Sick Leave and Minimum Wage Ordinance  3.60Q
      • 6.  San Francisco Paid Sick Leave Ordinance  3.60R
      • 7.  Santa Monica Minimum Wage Ordinance  3.60S
    • E.  Federal Emergency Paid Sick Leave Act  3.60T
    • F.  California’s COVID-19 Supplemental Paid Sick Leave Law  3.60U
  • IV.  PAID TIME OFF (PTO)  3.61
    • A.  Treated as Vacation Leave  3.62
    • B.  Interaction With Paid Sick Leave Law  3.63
  • V.  HOLIDAYS
    • A.  Private Employers Not Required to Provide Holidays  3.64
    • B.  Public Employers  3.65
      • 1.  Table: State and Federal Holidays  3.66
      • 2.  When Holiday Falls on Saturday or Sunday  3.67
      • 3.  State Employees
        • a.  Paid Holidays Provided by Statute  3.68
        • b.  MOU Controls if Conflict  3.69
      • 4.  Counties and Cities  3.70
    • C.  Special or Limited Holidays  3.71
    • D.  Floating Holidays  3.72
    • E.  Day of Rest  3.73
    • F.  Religious Holidays  3.74
  • VI.  BEREAVEMENT LEAVE
    • A.  Private Employers  3.75
    • B.  Public Employers  3.76
  • VII.  SABBATICALS  3.77
    • A.  Must Be Offered in Nondiscriminatory Manner  3.78
    • B.  Factors Distinguishing Sabbatical From Vacation  3.79
    • C.  No Payment Required on Termination  3.80
    • D.  Judicial Sabbatical Program  3.81

4

Leave Law Interactions and Calculating Leave Entitlements

John F. Hyland

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  4.1
  • II.  CHART: SUMMARY OF MAJOR LEAVE ENTITLEMENTS  4.2
  • III.  LEAVE LAW INTERACTIONS
    • A.  General Considerations  4.3
    • B.  Greater Benefit Applies  4.4
    • C.  Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) and California Family Rights Act (CFRA)  4.5
      • 1.  Leaves Generally Run Concurrently  4.6
      • 2.  When Leaves Do Not Run Concurrently
        • a.  Improper Designation  4.7
        • b.  Pregnancy-Related Leaves
          • (1)  Pregnant Employees Covered by FMLA But Not CFRA  4.8
          • (2)  Leave to Care for Pregnant Family Member  4.9
        • c.  Leave to Care for Registered Domestic Partner  4.10
        • d.  Leave to Care for Same-Sex Spouse  4.11
        • e.  Leaves Related to Military Service
          • (1)  Leave for “Qualifying Exigencies”  4.12
          • (2)  Military Caregiver Leave  4.13
        • f.  Bonding Time When Both Parents Work for Same Employer  4.14
        • g.  Leave to Care for Family Members Covered Only by CFRA  4.14A
      • 3.  Other Differences Between FMLA and CFRA
        • a.  Employee Notice Requirements  4.15
        • b.  Intermittent Leave for Bonding Time  4.16
        • c.  Public Employees  4.17
        • d.  When Employee Requests Vacation, Sick Leave, or Paid Time Off (PTO)  4.18
        • e.  Medical Certifications
          • (1)  Permissible Contents  4.19
          • (2)  Authentication and Clarification Inquiries  4.20
          • (3)  Second and Third Opinions  4.21
          • (4)  Recertification  4.22
    • D.  New Parent Leave Act  4.22A
    • E.  Pregnancy Disability Leave Law (PDLL)  4.23
      • 1.  Interaction With FMLA
        • a.  May Run Concurrently With FMLA  4.24
        • b.  Not Limited to One Allotment in 12-Month Period  4.25
        • c.  Use of Accrued Leave During PDLL Leave
          • (1)  Employer May Not Require Use of Vacation or PTO  4.26
          • (2)  Table: Use of Accrued Leave During Otherwise Unpaid Leave Periods  4.26A
        • d.  Reinstatement Rights  4.27
        • e.  Leave for Nonpregnant Spouse or Domestic Partner  4.28
      • 2.  Interaction With CFRA
        • a.  Generally Begins When PDLL Leave Ends  4.29
        • b.  Reinstatement Rights  4.30
      • 3.  Interaction With ADA and FEHA  4.31
        • a.  Additional Leave as Reasonable Accommodation  4.32
        • b.  Covered Employers  4.33
        • c.  No Set Time Limit  4.34
    • F.  Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Fair Employment and Housing Act (FEHA)
      • 1.  Leave as Reasonable Accommodation  4.35
      • 2.  Covered Employers
        • a.  Requisite Number of Employees  4.36
        • b.  Religious Organizations  4.37
      • 3.  Differing Definitions of “Disability”  4.38
      • 4.  Interaction With FMLA and CFRA  4.39
        • a.  FMLA Regulations  4.40
        • b.  Leaves May Run Concurrently  4.41
        • c.  “Disability” Versus “Serious Health Condition”  4.42
        • d.  Covered Employers  4.43
        • e.  Eligible Employees  4.44
        • f.  FMLA/CFRA Leave or Position With Reasonable Accommodation  4.45
    • G.  Workers’ Compensation Leave  4.46
      • 1.  May Run Concurrently With FMLA/CFRA Leave  4.47
      • 2.  May Qualify as Accommodation for Disability Under ADA or FEHA  4.48
    • H.  Employer’s Leave Policies and Collective Bargaining Agreements  4.49
    • I.  Vacation, PTO, and Sick Leave
      • 1.  Interaction With FMLA/CFRA  4.49A
      • 2.  Interaction With PDLL  4.49B
      • 3.  Interaction With Disability Leave Under ADA/FEHA  4.49C
    • J.  Other Leave Laws  4.50
  • IV.  CALCULATING AND TRACKING LEAVE ENTITLEMENTS  4.51
    • A.  FMLA and CFRA
      • 1.  In General: 12 Workweeks During 12-Month Period  4.52
        • a.  Method One: Calendar Year  4.53
        • b.  Method Two: Fixed Leave Year  4.54
        • c.  Method Three: Year Measured From Date Leave Begins  4.55
        • d.  Method Four: Rolling 12-Month Period  4.56
      • 2.  Military Caregiver Leave
        • a.  Twenty-Six Weeks During Single 12-Month Period  4.57
        • b.  Measured From Date Leave Begins  4.58
          • (1)  Entitlement Applied on Per-Covered-Servicemember, Per-Injury Basis  4.59
          • (2)  When Combined With Other Types of FMLA Leave  4.60
      • 3.  Airline Flight Crews  4.61
      • 4.  Intermittent Leave  4.62
        • a.  Full-Time Employees  4.63
        • b.  Part-Time Employees  4.64
        • c.  Employees With Variable Workweeks  4.65
        • d.  Exempt Employees  4.66
        • e.  Physical Impossibility  4.67
        • f.  New Schedule  4.68
        • g.  School Employees  4.69
        • h.  Airline Flight Crews
          • (1)  In General: Up to 72 Days of Leave  4.70
          • (2)  Military Caregiver Leave  4.71
      • 5.  Holidays
        • a.  Leave Taken in Full-Week Increments  4.72
        • b.  Leave Taken in Less Than Full-Week Increments  4.73
      • 6.  Temporary Employer Shutdowns During Leave  4.74
      • 7.  Overtime  4.75
    • B.  PDLL
      • 1.  Four-Month Limit  4.76
      • 2.  Intermittent Leave  4.77
      • 3.  Holidays and Temporary Closures  4.78
      • 4.  When Pregnancy Disability Leave Becomes Bonding-Time Leave  4.79
    • C.  ADA and FEHA  4.80

5

Bringing an Action to Enforce Leave Law Rights

Lorrie T. Peeters

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  5.1
  • II.  CASE INTAKE AND INITIAL CONSIDERATIONS
    • A.  Information Gathering
      • 1.  From the Client
        • a.  Before Initial Interview  5.2
        • b.  At Initial Interview  5.3
          • (1)  Employment History  5.4
          • (2)  Information About Alleged Leave Law Violation  5.5
          • (3)  Exit Agreements and Internal Grievances  5.6
          • (4)  Contact With Governmental Agencies  5.7
          • (5)  Employee’s Damages  5.8
          • (6)  Information About Employer  5.9
      • 2.  From Other Sources  5.10
    • B.  Assessing the Case  5.11
      • 1.  Determining Which Leave Laws Apply  5.12
        • a.  Basic Requirements
          • (1)  FMLA/CFRA  5.13
          • (2)  PDLL  5.14
          • (3)  ADA/FEHA  5.15
        • b.  Common Violations  5.16
      • 2.  Merits of Legal Claims  5.17
        • a.  FMLA/CFRA
          • (1)  Two Theories of Recovery  5.18
            • (a)  Divergent Conceptions of Interference Claims  5.19
            • (b)  Differing Standards of Proof  5.20
            • (c)  Case May Involve Both Theories  5.21
          • (2)  Other Considerations  5.22
        • b.  PDLL  5.23
        • c.  ADA/FEHA  5.24
      • 3.  Plaintiff’s Credibility  5.25
      • 4.  Assessing Defendant Employer  5.26
    • C.  Statutes of Limitations
      • 1.  FMLA  5.27
      • 2.  FEHA (Including CFRA and PDLL)  5.28
      • 3.  ADA  5.29
      • 4.  Miscellaneous Leave Statutes  5.30
      • 5.  Wrongful Termination in Violation of Public Policy  5.31
    • D.  Representation Agreement  5.32
  • III.  BEFORE FILING THE COMPLAINT
    • A.  Consider Prelitigation Settlement  5.33
    • B.  Conduct Informal Discovery  5.34
      • 1.  Prior Judicial or Administrative Proceeding  5.35
      • 2.  Medical Records  5.36
      • 3.  Witnesses  5.37
    • C.  Exhaust Administrative Remedies  5.38
      • 1.  Include All Incidents of Interference or Retaliation  5.39
      • 2.  Include All Defendants  5.40
      • 3.  Amend Charge if Necessary  5.41
    • D.  Consider Whether Claim Must Be Submitted to Arbitration  5.42
  • IV.  SELECTING THE PROPER COURT
    • A.  State or Federal Court?  5.43
    • B.  Avoiding Removal  5.44
    • C.  If Case Is Brought in Federal Court  5.45
  • V.  DRAFTING THE COMPLAINT  5.46
    • A.  Naming Defendants  5.47
    • B.  Pleading Specific Causes of Action  5.48
      • 1.  Statutory Claims
        • a.  FMLA/CFRA  5.49
          • (1)  Pleading Interference/Entitlement Claim  5.50
          • (2)  Pleading Retaliation/Discrimination Claim  5.51
        • b.  PDLL  5.52
        • c.  PDA  5.52A
        • d.  ADA/FEHA (Failure to Accommodate)  5.53
        • e.  Labor Code §230  5.53A
        • f.  USERRA  5.53B
      • 2.  Wrongful Termination in Violation of Public Policy  5.54
      • 3.  Infliction of Emotional Distress  5.55
    • C.  Pleading Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies  5.55A
    • D.  Pleading Remedies  5.56
      • 1.  Compensatory Damages
        • a.  FMLA  5.57
        • b.  FEHA (Including CFRA and PDLL)  5.58
      • 2.  Liquidated Damages Under the FMLA  5.59
      • 3.  Punitive Damages  5.60
      • 4.  Declaratory and Injunctive Relief (Including Reinstatement)  5.61
      • 5.  Attorney Fees and Costs  5.62
  • VI.  SAMPLE FORMS, CHECKLIST, AND QUESTIONNAIRE
    • A.  Checklist: Intake Screening  5.63
    • B.  Questionnaire: Confidential Client Intake  5.64
    • C.  Form: Prelitigation Settlement Proposal  5.65
    • D.  Form: Sample Complaint  5.66

6

Responding to Leave Law Claims

Marina C. Gruber

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  6.1
  • II.  PRELITIGATION MATTERS
    • A.  Receiving Notice of Claim  6.2
      • 1.  Demand Letter  6.3
      • 2.  Internal Grievance Procedures  6.4
    • B.  Instituting a Litigation Hold  6.5
    • C.  Undertaking a Factual Investigation
      • 1.  Gather Information From Employer-Client
        • a.  Gather Information About Employee and Alleged Leave Law Violation  6.6
        • b.  Collect Relevant Documents  6.7
        • c.  Interview Knowledgeable Employees  6.8
      • 2.  Request Information From Other Sources  6.9
    • D.  Evaluating Employee’s Claims  6.10
    • E.  Assessing Litigation Costs  6.11
    • F.  Responding to Administrative Charge  6.12
    • G.  Responding to Employee’s Demand Letter  6.13
      • 1.  Reinstatement Offer
        • a.  Benefits  6.14
        • b.  Risks  6.15
        • c.  Preparing the Reinstatement Offer  6.16
      • 2.  Settlement Offer  6.17
    • H.  Considering Corrective Action  6.18
    • I.  Avoiding Post-Termination Causes of Action
      • 1.  Limit Discussion Among Employees  6.19
      • 2.  Limit Discussion With Future Employers  6.20
  • III.  INSURANCE COVERAGE ISSUES
    • A.  Policy May Cover Leave Law Claims  6.21
    • B.  Policy May Exclude Certain Employment-Related Claims  6.22
  • IV.  RESPONDING TO THE COMPLAINT
    • A.  Commonly Asserted Claims in Leave Law Cases  6.23
      • 1.  FMLA/CFRA  6.24
      • 2.  PDLL  6.25
      • 3.  ADA/FEHA  6.26
      • 4.  Wrongful Termination in Violation of Public Policy  6.27
    • B.  Other Claims  6.28
    • C.  Consider Whether Case May Be Removed to Federal Court
      • 1.  Grounds for Removal
        • a.  Diversity Jurisdiction  6.29
        • b.  Federal Question Jurisdiction  6.30
      • 2.  Deciding Whether to Remove  6.31
    • D.  Consider Filing a Demurrer or Motion to Dismiss  6.32
      • 1.  Reasons to File a Demurrer or Motion to Dismiss  6.33
      • 2.  Reasons Not to File a Demurrer or Motion to Dismiss  6.34
      • 3.  Common Grounds in Leave Law Cases  6.35
    • E.  Consider Filing a Motion to Strike  6.36
    • F.  Consider Filing a Motion for Judgment on the Pleadings  6.37
    • G.  Answering the Complaint
      • 1.  Required Contents  6.38
      • 2.  Admissions and Denials  6.39
      • 3.  Affirmative Defenses
        • a.  Generally Waived if Not Included in Answer  6.40
        • b.  Common Affirmative Defenses in Leave Law Cases
          • (1)  Statute of Limitations  6.41
          • (2)  Collateral Estoppel  6.42
          • (3)  Failure to Exhaust Internal Grievance Procedure  6.43
          • (4)  Failure to Exhaust Administrative Remedy  6.44
          • (5)  Limited Individual Liability  6.45
  • V.  RESOLVING COMPLAINTS
    • A.  Demand for Arbitration  6.46
    • B.  Offer of Judicial Reference (CCP §638)  6.47
    • C.  Offer to Compromise (CCP §998)  6.48
  • VI.  SAMPLE FORMS
    • A.  Form: Freedom of Information Act Request  6.49
    • B.  Form: Employer’s Response to DFEH Administrative Charge  6.50
    • C.  Form: Employer’s Response to Demand Letter  6.51
    • D.  Form: Answer  6.52

7

Litigating Leave Law Claims: Discovery, Summary Judgment, Trial, and Attorney Fees

Anthony J. Oncidi

Jose (Joe) Perez

Keith A. Goodwin

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  7.1
  • II.  DISCOVERY
    • A.  Plaintiff’s Goals  7.2
    • B.  Defendant’s Goals  7.3
    • C.  State Versus Federal Discovery Procedures
      • 1.  Trial Court Delay Reduction Act (TCDRA)  7.4
      • 2.  Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 26  7.5
    • D.  Discovery Tools
      • 1.  Interrogatories
        • a.  General Rules
          • (1)  Under Federal Rules of Civil Procedure  7.6
          • (2)  Under California Code of Civil Procedure  7.7
        • b.  Use in Leave Law Cases
          • (1)  Plaintiff’s Interrogatories  7.8
          • (2)  Defendant’s Interrogatories  7.9
      • 2.  Document Requests  7.10
        • a.  Checklist: Plaintiff’s Documents  7.11
        • b.  Checklist: Defendant’s Documents  7.12
      • 3.  Depositions
        • a.  Plaintiff’s Considerations  7.13
          • (1)  If Employer Is a Corporation  7.14
          • (2)  If Decision Was Made Above Supervisor  7.15
        • b.  Defendant’s Considerations  7.16
      • 4.  Requests for Admission
        • a.  General Rules  7.17
        • b.  Use in Leave Law Cases  7.18
      • 5.  Physical or Mental Examinations
        • a.  When Permitted
          • (1)  Under Federal Law  7.19
          • (2)  Under State Law  7.20
        • b.  Use in Leave Law Cases  7.21
        • c.  Tactical Considerations  7.22
    • E.  Expert Witnesses
      • 1.  When Expert Testimony Is Admissible  7.23
      • 2.  Deciding Whether to Use Expert  7.24
      • 3.  Use of Experts in Leave Law Cases  7.25
        • a.  Existence of “Incapacity”  7.26
        • b.  Calculation of Leave Entitlement  7.27
        • c.  Plaintiff’s Damages  7.28
      • 4.  Benefits of Deposing Opposing Expert  7.29
    • F.  Privacy Rights
      • 1.  General Principles  7.30
      • 2.  Privacy Issues in Leave Law Cases
        • a.  Medical Information  7.31
        • b.  Financial Information  7.32
        • c.  Social Media  7.33
      • 3.  Protective Orders
        • a.  In Federal Court  7.34
        • b.  In State Court  7.35
  • III.  SUMMARY JUDGMENT
    • A.  Tactical Considerations
      • 1.  Evaluating the Risks and Benefits  7.36
      • 2.  Narrowing the Issues Before Moving for Summary Judgment  7.37
    • B.  Allocation of Burdens on Summary Judgment
      • 1.  General Rules  7.38
      • 2.  Under Particular Leave Laws
        • a.  FMLA  7.39
          • (1)  Interference Claims  7.40
          • (2)  Retaliation Claims  7.41
        • b.  CFRA  7.42
        • c.  FEHA (Including PDLL)  7.43
        • d.  ADA  7.44
    • C.  Common Grounds for Summary Judgment in Leave Law Cases
      • 1.  FMLA/CFRA  7.45
      • 2.  PDLL  7.46
      • 3.  ADA/FEHA  7.47
  • IV.  TRIAL
    • A.  Development of Case Theme  7.48
    • B.  Presentation of Evidence  7.49
    • C.  Jury Instructions  7.50
  • V.  ATTORNEY FEES, COSTS, AND INTEREST
    • A.  Entitlement Under Federal Leave Statutes
      • 1.  FMLA  7.51
      • 2.  ADA  7.52
      • 3.  Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA)  7.53
      • 4.  Other Federal Leave Statutes  7.54
    • B.  Entitlement Under State Leave Statutes
      • 1.  FEHA  7.55
      • 2.  Other State Leave Statutes  7.56

8

Settlement and Alternative Dispute Resolution

Hillary Benham-Baker

Hon. Julia Campins

  • I.  SCOPE OF CHAPTER  8.1
  • II.  SETTLING LEAVE LAW CASES
    • A.  Deciding Whether to Settle  8.2
      • 1.  Plaintiff’s Considerations  8.3
      • 2.  Defendant’s Considerations  8.4
    • B.  Evaluating the Case  8.5
      • 1.  Assess Client’s Willingness to Settle  8.6
      • 2.  Analyze Legal Issues  8.7
      • 3.  Project Litigation Costs  8.8
      • 4.  Consider Impact of Insurance Coverage  8.9
      • 5.  Evaluate Damages  8.10
      • 6.  Consider Nonmonetary Remedies  8.11
    • C.  Settlement Procedures  8.12
      • 1.  Determining When to Settle  8.13
      • 2.  Obtaining Settlement Authority  8.14
      • 3.  Offers to Compromise (CCP §998)  8.15
    • D.  Court-Supervised Settlement Conferences  8.16
    • E.  Drafting the Settlement Agreement
      • 1.  Typical Provisions
        • a.  Mutual and General Releases  8.17
          • (1)  Excluding Other Matters  8.18
          • (2)  Parties Bound  8.19
          • (3)  Effect on Certain Statutory Claims  8.20
        • b.  Denial of Liability  8.21
        • c.  Employee Status  8.22
          • (1)  Rehire Versus Reinstatement  8.23
          • (2)  Waiver of Rehire Rights Is Generally Unenforceable  8.24
        • d.  Employment References  8.25
        • e.  Purging Employee Files  8.26
        • f.  Confidentiality  8.27
        • g.  Waiver of Unknown Claims (CC §1542)  8.28
        • h.  Nondisparagement  8.29
        • i.  Liquidated Damages  8.30
        • j.  Attorney Fees and Costs  8.31
        • k.  Payments  8.32
        • l.  Controlling Law and Enforcement  8.33
      • 2.  Execution  8.34
      • 3.  Tax Considerations  8.35
  • III.  ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION  8.36
    • A.  Mediation  8.37
      • 1.  Factors to Consider in Deciding Whether to Mediate  8.38
      • 2.  When Mediation May Be Inappropriate  8.39
      • 3.  Determining When to Mediate  8.40
        • a.  Prefiling Mediation  8.41
        • b.  Mandatory Postfiling Mediation  8.42
      • 4.  Determining Who Should Attend the Mediation  8.43
      • 5.  Checklist: Premediation Steps  8.44
      • 6.  Preparing the Mediation Brief  8.45
      • 7.  Mediated Settlement Agreement  8.46
    • B.  Contractual Arbitration  8.47
      • 1.  Validity of Arbitration Agreement  8.48
        • a.  Issues Outside Scope of Arbitration Agreement  8.49
        • b.  Grounds for Revocation  8.50
          • (1)  Unconscionability  8.51
          • (2)  Denial of Certain Statutory Rights or Public Policy Claims  8.52
        • c.  Waiver  8.53
      • 2.  Arbitration Procedures  8.54
        • a.  Discovery  8.55
        • b.  Evidentiary Hearing  8.56
        • c.  Costs  8.57
  • IV.  FORM: SAMPLE TOLLING AGREEMENT  8.58
  • V.  FORM: MEDIATION DISCLOSURE ACKNOWLEDGMENT  8.59

EMPLOYEE LEAVE LAWS: COMPLIANCE & LITIGATION

(1st Edition)

July 2022

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

File Name

Book Section

Title

CH05

Chapter 5

Bringing an Action to Enforce Leave Law Rights

05-063

§5.63

Checklist: Intake Screening

05-064

§5.64

Questionnaire: Confidential Client Intake

05-065

§5.65

Prelitigation Settlement Proposal

05-066

§5.66

Sample Complaint

CH06

Chapter 6

Responding to Leave Law Claims

06-049

§6.49

Freedom of Information Act Request

06-050

§6.50

Employer’s Response to DFEH Administrative Charge

06-051

§6.51

Employer’s Response to Demand Letter

06-052

§6.52

Answer

CH07

Chapter 7

Litigating Leave Law Claims: Discovery, Summary Judgment, Trial, and Attorney Fees

07-011

§7.11

Checklist: Plaintiff’s Documents

07-012

§7.12

Checklist: Defendant’s Documents

CH08

Chapter 8

Settlement and Alternative Dispute Resolution

08-044

§8.44

Checklist: Premediation Steps

08-058

§8.58

Form: Sample Tolling Agreement

08-059

§8.59

Form: Mediation Disclosure Acknowledgment

 

Selected Developments

July 2022 Update

Leave Under the FMLA and the CFRA

  • The district court in Covelli v Avamere Home Health Care LLC (D Or, Mar. 25, 2021, No. 3:19-cv-486-JR) 2021 US Dist Lexis 57037, *11, 2021 WL 1147114, applied the integrated employers test to find that the parent entities were integrated, but not sibling entities, based predominately on interrelated operations, centralized control, and common ownership and financial control. See §1.22.

  • A state can waive its sovereign immunity by receiving federal financial assistance under “the provisions of any ... Federal statute prohibiting discrimination.” 42 USC §2000d–7(a)(1). However, that clause has been interpreted to reach only statutes that deal solely with discrimination by recipients of federal financial assistance, which does not include the FMLA. See Sullivan v Texas A&M Univ. Sys. (5th Cir 2021) 986 F3d 593, 598, in §1.24.

  • The district court in Smith v Gadsen County (ND Fla, July 6, 2021, No 4:20-cv-577-AW-MAF) 2021 US Dist Lexis 212927, *3, rejected the employer’s argument that the employee was ineligible for FMLA leave when she made her leave request less than year into employment for leave that was to begin after employee’s 1-year anniversary. See §1.38A.

  • Effective January 1, 2022, the CFRA allows an eligible employee to take leave to care for a parent-in-law with a serious health condition. See Govt C §12945.2(b)(4)(B), (b)(10) in §§1.43A, 1.47, 1.56.

  • An employee may take CFRA leave to care for a seriously ill adult dependent, including a person to whom they stand in loco parentis. See Vincent v Department of Cal. Highway Patrol (Aug. 31, 2021, B302026; not certified for publication) 2021 Cal App Unpub Lexis 5618, *9 (evidence overwhelmingly supported jury’s finding that employee stood in loco parentis to his adult sister, who had paranoid schizophrenia, when he provided for her on day-to-day basis for decades, despite not living in same country), in §1.46.

  • After an employee gives notice of the need for leave, or the employer acquires knowledge that the employee’s requested leave may be for an FMLA-qualifying reason, the employer must notify the employee, within 5 business days (absent extenuating circumstances), whether the employee is eligible to take FMLA leave. See Ramji v Hospital Housekeeping Sys., LLC (11th Cir 2021) 992 F3d 1233, 1243 (filing of workers’ compensation claim that included information about nature of employee’s knee injury, need for emergency medical and follow-up treatment, and release excusing employee from 3 days of work activated defendant’s duty to provide FMLA notice). See §1.101A.

  • The court in Whittington v Tyson Foods, Inc. (8th Cir 2021) 21 F4th 997, 1001, held that the plaintiff’s 16-day absence constituted a significant change in circumstances, justifying the employer’s request for recertification, when the certification stated that the plaintiff’s absences would come in 4- to 5-day increments. See §1.121.

  • An employee has no greater right to reinstatement, other benefits, or conditions of employment than if the employee had been continuously employed during the period of leave. See Todd v Fayette County Sch. Dist. (11th Cir 2021) 998 F3d 1203, 1220 (employer presented evidence that terminated plaintiff’s employment for reasons wholly unrelated to her FMLA leave; i.e., her threats against herself, her son, and other employees, and her consumption of excessive amounts of Xanax while at school), in §1.138.

Pregnancy, Disability, and Other Leaves

  • When leave is the accommodation, the determination of whether an employee is “otherwise qualified” to perform the essential job functions is made when the employee returns to work. See Blanchet v Charter Communications, LLC (6th Cir, Mar. 8, 2022, No. 21-5073) 2022 US App Lexis 5990, *12, in §2.67.

  • The court in Herrmann v Salt Lake City Corp. (10th Cir 2021) 21 F4th 666, 676, held that “a request for indefinite leave is not reasonable as a matter of law.” See §2.68.

  • Courts broadly construe USERRA in favor of military beneficiaries. See Kitlinski v United States Dep’t of Justice (4th Cir 2021) 994 F3d 224, 229, in §2.121.

  • Under USERRA, if the employee is entitled to any right or benefit that is based on seniority, then the employee’s military service time must be counted toward the accrual of the benefit, as if the employee were not away on military leave. See Moss v United Airlines, Inc. (7th Cir 2021) 20 F4th 375, 384 (employer’s sick-time accrual is not seniority-based benefit), in §2.133.

  • The district court has discretion under USERRA to award to a prevailing party attorney fees, expert witness fees, and costs. See Quiles v Union Pac. R.R. Co. (8th Cir 2021) 4 F4th 598, 606 (“To qualify as a prevailing party [under §4323(h)(2)], a party must secure either a judgment on the merits or a court-ordered consent decree”), in §2.141.

Vacations, Sick Leave, Holidays, and Paid Time Off

  • Discussion of California’s renewed COVID-19 supplement paid sick leave law, enacted by SB 114, can be found in §3.60U.

  • Juneteenth National Independence Day (June 19) is now a federal holiday. See §3.66.

Bringing an Action to Enforce Leave Law Rights

  • Labor Code §432.6 prohibits employers from requiring applicants and employees to sign mandatory arbitration agreements that would compel arbitration of claims under FEHA and the Labor Code. See Chamber of Commerce v Bonta (9th Cir 2021) 13 F4th 766, 776 (§432.6 is not preempted by FAA because statute’s “effects are aimed entirely at conduct that takes place prior to the existence of any [arbitration] agreement”), in §5.42.

  • The court in Lindsey v Bio-Med. Applications (5th Cir 2021) 9 F4th 317, 323, held that coercing an employee to work while on leave by making work a condition of continued employment constitutes impermissible interference under the FMLA. See §5.50.

  • Two recent decisions discussed temporal proximity as a basis of showing a causal connection between the exercise of FMLA/CFRA leave rights and the adverse employment action. Compare Hester v Bell-Textron, Inc. (5th Cir 2021) 11 F4th 301, 305 (temporal proximity existed when defendant terminated plaintiff in middle of his FMLA leave), with Lissick v Andersen Corp. (8th Cir 2021) 996 F3d 876, 886 (request for FMLA leave that came 9 months before termination was “too far removed” to create inference of causation). See §5.51.

  • The court in Adams v Department of Homeland Sec. (Fed Cir 2021) 3 F4th 1375, 1377, discussed the elements of a claim under USERRA. See §5.53B.

Litigating Leave Law Claims: Discovery, Summary Judgment, Trial, and Attorney Fees

  • Although the Ninth Circuit has not stated whether the McDonnell Douglas burden-shifting framework is applicable to FMLA retaliation cases, other circuits have applied that framework in such cases. See Houston v Texas Dep’t of Agric. (5th Cir 2021) 17 F4th 576, 582, in §7.41.

  • Two recent examples of cases involving the issue of whether the plaintiff met the eligibility requirements to take FMLA/CFRA leave are Matamoros v Broward Sheriff’s Office (11th Cir 2021) 2 F4th 1329, 1338 (plaintiff’s interference claims failed because she worked only 1,100 hours in prior year), and Scalia v Alaska (9th Cir 2021) 985 F3d 742, 748 (“workweek” does not revolve around individual employee’s own work schedule and it is instead simply week-long period designated in advance by employer, during which employer is in operation such that employer may insist that rotational employees, working regular schedule of 7 days on followed by 7 days off of work, who take 12 workweeks of continuous leave return to work 12 weeks later). See §7.45.

  • Two recent examples of cases involving the issue of whether the plaintiff was terminated for a legitimate, nonretaliatory reason are Thompson v Gold Medal Bakery, Inc. (1st Cir 2021) 989 F3d 135, 145 (plaintiff failed to show that defendant’s proffered reason for his termination—failure to provide fitness-for-duty certificate—was pretextual), and Evans v Cooperative Response Ctr., Inc. (8th Cir 2021) 996 F3d 539, 552 (plaintiff failed to show that employer’s legitimate nondiscriminatory reason for firing her—accumulating ten points of unexcused absences—was pretextual; “An employer’s decision to terminate an employee based on the mistaken belief that an absence was not FMLA-eligible, standing alone, does not establish a prima facie case of discrimination”). See §7.45.

  • A recent example of a case involving the issue of whether the plaintiff failed to show harm from the defendant’s alleged interference with FMLA rights is Hickey v Protective Life Corp. (7th Cir 2021) 988 F3d 380, 388 (when plaintiff returned from FMLA leave he received same salary and benefits as he had before his leave and then was terminated 3 weeks later for reasons unrelated to leave). See §7.45.

Settlement and Alternative Dispute Resolution

  • Effective January 1, 2022, cases involving claims about workplace or housing harassment or discrimination, sexual harassment or assault, or retaliation for reporting or opposing harassment or discrimination cannot be subject to a confidentiality clause preventing or restricting disclosure of the underlying factual allegations or “information about unlawful acts in the workplace.” See CCP §1001(a)(1)–(4) and Govt C §12964.5 in §§8.27, 8.29.

  • Effective March 3, 2022, the FAA prohibits arbitration of disputes involving allegations of sexual harassment or sexual assault. See 9 USC §402 in §8.48.

About the Authors

CONOR AHERN received his B.A. in 2008 from the University of Virginia and his J.D. in 2015 from Harvard Law School. Mr. Ahern is a fellow at the ACLU’s Women’s Rights Project in New York City. During law school, he was a clinical intern at Greater Boston Legal Services and the Lawyers’ Committee for Civil Rights of Boston as well as a summer fellow at the Gender Equity & LGBT Rights Project at Legal Aid at Work (LAAW) in San Francisco.

HILLARY BENHAM-BAKER is a founding partner in the law firm of Campins Benham-Baker LLP, San Francisco, where she represents employees in discrimination, whistleblower retaliation, and wage and hour matters. A substantial part of Ms. Benham-Baker’s practice focuses on family responsibilities, discrimination, and leave retaliation/interference issues. She received her B.A. with honors from Pitzer College and her J.D. from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law, where she was awarded the Tony Patiño Fellowship. Ms. Benham-Baker serves on the Executive Committee of the Alameda County Bar Association’s Labor and Employment Law Section. She is also a member of the California Employment Lawyers Association and the American Bar Association’s Section of Equal Employment Opportunity. Ms. Benham-Baker was named as a Northern California “Rising Star” by Super Lawyers magazine for the years 2011–2014.

HON. JULIA CAMPINS is a judge of the Superior Court of California, County of Contra Costa. Before her appointment to the bench, Judge Campins was a partner in the law firm of Campins Benham-Baker LLP in San Francisco, where she specialized in representing employees and plaintiffs in employment discrimination, civil rights, and employee benefits actions. She received her B.A. from Columbia College and her J.D. from Columbia University School of Law. Judge Campins is an Executive Editor of Employment Discrimination Law (ABA-BNA 5th ed, 2013; and Supplements). She is also the author of the “Equitable Remedies” chapter in Employment Damages and Remedies (Cal CEB) as well as chapters in Class Action Fairness Act: Law and Strategy (ABA-BNA 2013). She previously served as co-editor of the American Bar Association’s Section of Litigation: Class Actions and Derivative Suits newsletter, for which she wrote several articles. She has also written articles in the ABA Labor and Employment Law Section’s Employee Benefits Committee newsletter and the National Employment Lawyers Association’s publication, The Employee Advocate. She is a frequent speaker on employment and civil rights issues. In 2013 and 2014, Judge Campins was named a Northern California “Super Lawyer.” In 2011 and 2012, Super Lawyers magazine named her a “Rising Star” among Northern California attorneys.

KEITH A. GOODWIN is an associate in the Labor and Employment Law Department of Proskauer Rose LLP, Los Angeles. He received his B.A. (summa cum laude) from California Polytechnic State University and his J.D. from Columbia University School of Law. Mr. Goodwin represents public, private, and nonprofit employers in trade secret misappropriation, discrimination, harassment, retaliation, wage and hour, and wrongful discharge cases.

MARINA C. GRUBER is an associate in the San Jose office of Littler Mendelson P.C., where she represents employers in matters concerning discrimination and sexual harassment, wage and hour claims, wrongful termination cases, the Family Medical Leave Act, and the California Family Rights Act. She also counsels employers regarding employment handbooks, policies, and procedures. Ms. Gruber regularly publishes materials and speaks on matters concerning California employers, including legislative changes and compliance with prevailing wage laws. Ms. Gruber received her B.A. from the University of California, Berkeley, and her J.D. from Cornell University Law School. In 2013, 2014, and 2015, she was named a “Rising Star” by Super Lawyers magazine.

RACHEL S. HULST, an experienced employment attorney and workplace investigator, is a partner in the law firm of Hulst & Handler LLP, a firm dedicated to helping solve workplace problems before they escalate to litigation. The firm services clients in the San Francisco Bay Area and beyond. For over 16 years, before founding Hulst & Handler LLP, Ms. Hulst represented companies in all types of employment litigation cases (single plaintiff and class actions) before California state and federal courts and administrative agencies and counseled employers on employment law issues. Ms. Hulst received her B.A. from the University of California, San Diego (Provost Honors), and her J.D. from Golden Gate University School of Law, where she graduated in the top 20 percent of her class.

JOHN F. HYLAND practices exclusively in the area of employment law. Before forming Rukin Hyland Doria & Tindall, he was Of Counsel with Paul, Hastings, Janofsky & Walker LLP in the firm’s San Francisco office, where he advised and represented companies in state and federal court actions covering all areas of employment law, including wrongful termination, discrimination, harassment, disability law, employee privacy, employee leaves, and wage and hour issues. Mr. Hyland regularly conducts training seminars and presents on a wide array of employment law issues. Law & Politics magazine selected him as one of its Northern California Super Lawyers each year from 2006 through 2012 and again in 2014. San Francisco’s Best Lawyers named him in its 2012 edition and The Best Lawyers in America selected him for inclusion in its 2012, 2013, and 2014 editions. Mr. Hyland received his B.S. from St. Joseph’s University in Philadelphia and his J.D. from Golden Gate University School of Law, where he graduated in 1995 with highest honors and first in his class. While at Golden Gate, he served as a contributing author and associate editor of the Golden Gate Law Review.

ELIZABETH KRISTEN is the Director of the Gender Equity & LGBT Rights Project and a Senior Staff Attorney at Legal Aid at Work (LAAW) in San Francisco, where she represents workers in cases involving violations of the family and medical leave laws as well as cases involving gender, pregnancy, disability, sexual orientation, national origin, and race discrimination. She received her B.A. from Miami University and her J.D. from the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law. Before beginning her work at LAAW in 2002 as a Skadden Fellow, Ms. Kristen clerked for the Honorable James R. Browning on the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco. She is a member of the American Association of University Women, the National Employment Lawyers Association, and the California Employment Lawyers Association and she is a past Board member of the Pride Law Fund. In 2012–2013, she served as a Harvard Law School Wasserstein Public Interest Fellow. She was a lecturer at the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law from 2008 to 2013 and is currently a member of CELA Voice. In 2015, she received a “California Lawyer of the Year” award from California Lawyer magazine.

STEPHEN M. MURPHY, who earned his undergraduate degree from College of the Holy Cross in 1977 and his J.D. from the University of San Francisco in 1981, maintains a solo practice in San Francisco, specializing in plaintiffs’ employment litigation. Mr. Murphy handles a wide range of employment issues, including wage and hour, wrongful termination, Family and Medical Leave Act, discrimination, and harassment claims. He has been honored as a Top 100 Northern California Super Lawyer, listed in Best Lawyers, and honored as the “Trial Lawyer of the Year” for 2008 by the San Francisco Trial Lawyers Association. He has lectured and contributed articles to numerous legal journals and is a contributing author of Wrongful Employment Termination Practice: Discrimination, Harassment, and Retaliation (2d ed Cal CEB), California Basic Practice Handbook (Cal CEB), and Handling a Wrongful Termination Action (Cal CEB Action Guide).

ANTHONY J. ONCIDI is a partner in the Los Angeles office of Proskauer Rose LLP, where he heads the firm’s Labor and Employment Department. Mr. Oncidi received his B.A. (cum laude) from Pomona College and his J.D. from the University of Chicago Law School. His practice focuses on representing employers and management in all aspects of employment law, including wage and hour class actions and cases involving wrongful termination, trade secret violations, restrictive covenants, and whistleblower, harassment, and discrimination claims. He also advises and counsels clients on employment-related matters. Mr. Oncidi is the author of Employment Discrimination Depositions (Juris Publ’g 2013), co-author of Proskauer on Privacy (PLI 2014), and is a regular columnist for the Los Angeles Daily Journal and the California Labor and Employment Law Review, the official publication of the Labor and Employment Law Section of the State Bar of California.

JULIA PARISH (she/her) is a senior staff attorney with Legal Aid at Work’s Work and Family Program and Project Survive. She provides free legal advice, know-your-rights workshops, and direct legal services and representation to workers dealing with family and medical crises. She also co-founded the Healthy Mothers Workplace Coalition, a collaboration of government agencies, community-based organizations, and employers that seeks to improve workplace conditions for pregnant and parenting workers though public education, public policy development, and an award program that recognizes employers with family-supportive workplace policies. Ms. Parish has been instrumental in drafting and advocating for the passage of landmark San Francisco laws including the Family Friendly Workplace Ordinance, Retail Workers Bill of Rights, Paid Parental Leave Ordinance, and Lactation Accommodations Ordinance.

LORRIE T. PEETERS is an employment law attorney practicing in both California and Illinois. Ms. Peeters represents primarily employees in workplace disputes, although she also provides management with compliance training and counseling. She concentrates her litigation and negotiation practice in the areas of family and medical leave and wage law and also represents clients with matters involving claims of discrimination and retaliation. She received her B.A. in 2002 from Northwestern University and her J.D. in 2006 from the Loyola University Chicago School of Law. After law school, she joined Caffarelli & Siegel Ltd. as an Associate Attorney and became a Partner in 2013. She currently works as Of Counsel for Caffarelli & Associates Ltd.

JOSE (JOE) PEREZ is an associate in the Labor and Employment Law Department of Proskauer Rose LLP, Los Angeles. He received his B.A. from the University of Puerto Rico, his Master’s in Management from the Judge Business School at the University of Cambridge, and his J.D. from the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law. Mr. Perez works on a wide variety of employment litigation matters, including leave of absence, wage and hour, discrimination, and privacy claims. He counsels clients on strategic corporate planning, reductions in force, and overtime exemptions, and he assists clients in drafting employment policies and practices under state and federal laws.

SHARON A. TERMAN is the Director of the Work and Family Program and a Senior Staff Attorney at Legal Aid at Work (LAAW) in San Francisco. Ms. Terman represents workers with family and medical leave claims as well as claims of pregnancy, gender, and disability discrimination. She also provides legal advice to low-income workers, engages in community education, and participates in legislative advocacy to expand workers’ rights. She received her B.A. with highest distinction from the University of California, Berkeley, and her J.D. with distinction from Stanford Law School. After law school, she clerked for the Honorable Richard A. Paez of the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals before joining LAAW as a Skadden Fellow. She is the 2011 recipient of the Stanford Law School Miles L. Rubin Public Interest Award, and she was named a 2015 Northern California “Rising Star” by Super Lawyers.

KATHERINE M. WUTCHIETT is a Staff Attorney for Legal Aid at Work (LAAW)’s Work & Family Program and Project Survive, where she advocates for the rights of workers to care for their health and their families’ health without having to sacrifice their jobs or income. She leads the implementation of LAAW’s medical-legal partnership with WIC and home visiting programs in Contra Costa County and provides legal advice, representation, technical support, and community education regarding the workplace rights of those struggling with family and medical crises across California. Ms. Wutchiett has trained hundreds of health care and service providers and has provided legal representation to dozens of low-wage, frequently immigrant, workers, through state investigations, mediations, and litigation, while also engaging in policy advocacy. Ms. Wutchiett obtained her J.D. (summa cum laude) from Washington University School of Law in St. Louis, Missouri, and clerked for the Hon. Bobby Shepherd of the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals, before starting as a Skadden Fellow at LAAW.

About the 2022 Update Authors

HILLARY BENHAM-BAKER is an update author of chapter 8. See her bio in the About the Authors section.

NORA CASSIDY (she/her) is an update author of chapter 1. Ms. Cassidy is an attorney at Legal Aid at Work (LAAW) in their Gender Equity & LGBTQ Rights Program. She provides training, education, and legal services to workers in the Central Valley with a focus on undocumented workers and those who have faced harassment based on their sex, sexual orientation, gender, or gender identity. Ms. Cassidy received her B.A. in history from Carleton College and her J.D. from the University of California, Irvine, School of Law. Before joining LAAW, Ms. Cassidy clerked for Judge Kim McLane Wardlaw on the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit and Magistrate Judge Bruce McGiverin on the United States District Court for the District of Puerto Rico.

ROSE-ELLEN FAIRGRIEVE is the update author of chapter 2. Ms. Fairgrieve is the founder of Fairgrieve Law Office in San Francisco, where she handles a full range of legal services for employers, including human resources advice and training, issue-specific counsel, litigation, administrative hearings, and appellate work. She has been a practicing attorney for over 20 years, with a primary focus on labor and employment law and municipal code enforcement. Before founding her own firm, Ms. Fairgrieve was Of Counsel in the Employment Practice Group with the San Francisco office of Gordon Rees and a Deputy San Francisco City Attorney, where she enforced the city’s labor laws as a member of the Labor and Employment team. Ms. Fairgrieve received her B.A. (with honors) from the University of California, Davis, and her J.D. (with honors) from the University of Southern California Gould School of Law.

JOHN F. HYLAND is the update author of chapters 3 and 4. See his bio in the About the Authors section.

ELIZABETH KRISTEN is an update author of chapter 1. See her bio in the About the Authors section.

MICHELLE L. LAPPEN is an update author of chapter 7. Ms. Lappen is an associate in Proskauer’s Labor & Employment Department and a member of the Employment Litigation & Arbitration Group in the firm’s Los Angeles office. She assists clients in a wide range of labor and employment matters in a variety of industries, including entertainment, financial services, and technology. Ms. Lappen received her B.A. from Barnard College, Columbia University, and earned her J.D. from Columbia Law School, where she was an articles and submissions editor for the Columbia Journal of Law & the Arts. During law school, she was also a teaching fellow for the Advanced Negotiation Workshop and advocated for state and federal legislation as a clinical student in the Columbia Law Health Justice Advocacy Clinic.

JARED H. ODESSKY is an update author of chapter 1. Mr. Odessky is an Attorney and Skadden Fellow in the Gender Equity and LGBTQ Rights Program at Legal Aid at Work (LAAW) in San Francisco, where he primarily represents workers facing discrimination and harassment based on their sex, sexual orientation, gender, and gender identity. He received his B.A. from Columbia University and his J.D. from Harvard Law School.

ANTHONY J. ONCIDI is an update author of chapter 7. See his bio in the About the Authors section.

JULIA PARISH is an update author of chapter 1. See her bio in the About the Authors section.

AMINAH SHAKOOR is an update author of chapter 1. She is a law clerk at Legal Aid at Work (LAAW) in San Francisco.

VALERIE SPRAGUE is an update author of chapter 1. Ms. Sprague is a paralegal/legal assistant for Legal Aid at Work (LAAW) in San Francisco, where she offers litigation and administrative support to attorneys working in the Gender Equity & LGBTQ Rights and Work & Family programs. She received her B.A. from the University of California, Santa Cruz, and she received a paralegal certificate from San Francisco State University, College of Extended Learning. Before joining the staff at LAAW, Ms. Sprague interned at the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, within the Enforcement Unit.

SELA M. STEIGER is an update author of chapter 1. Ms. Steiger is staff attorney at Legal Aid at Work (LAAW) in the Work and Family Program. She provides legal advice and representation to pregnant workers and new parents, workers struggling with family and medical crises, and survivors of domestic violence and sexual assault. Ms. Steiger also presents trainings on new parent and caregiving leave laws and engages in policy advocacy to advance the rights of working families. She received her J.D. from the University of California, Davis, School of Law (King Hall) in 2020. During law school, she represented clients in Title IX actions and domestic violence restraining order requests as a member of the UC Davis Family Protection and Legal Assistance Clinic. She also worked as a law clerk for the Children’s Law Center of California, the Family Violence Appellate Project, and Public Advocates.

SHARON A. TERMAN is an update author of chapter 1. See her bio in the About the Authors section.

KATHERINE M. WUTCHIETT is an update author of chapter 1. See her bio in the About the Authors section.

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