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Internet Law and Practice in California

The only resource on Internet law and practice designed especially for California lawyers, this guide will help you advise your clients doing business online.

The only resource on Internet law and practice designed especially for California lawyers, this guide will help you advise your clients doing business online.

  • Intellectual property rights in cyberspace
  • Launching and operating a website
  • Electronic contracting; privacy issues
  • Licenses and development agreements
  • Advertising on the Internet
  • Cybersecurity
  • Tort and criminal liability, First Amendment issues
  • Jurisdiction; litigation issues; e-discovery
  • Sample attorney-drafted forms to save you time
Print BU33580

Package includes single user online access, 2 looseleaf print volumes (approx. 1000 pages), and Forms CD, updated 7/20

 

$ 525.00

The only resource on Internet law and practice designed especially for California lawyers, this guide will help you advise your clients doing business online.

  • Intellectual property rights in cyberspace
  • Launching and operating a website
  • Electronic contracting; privacy issues
  • Licenses and development agreements
  • Advertising on the Internet
  • Cybersecurity
  • Tort and criminal liability, First Amendment issues
  • Jurisdiction; litigation issues; e-discovery
  • Sample attorney-drafted forms to save you time

1

Copyright and the DMCA

  • I.  COPYRIGHTS
    • A.  Introduction  1.1
    • B.  Subject Matter of Copyright Law
      • 1.  Generally  1.2
      • 2.  Special Subject Matter: Compilations  1.2A
      • 3.  Special Subject Matter: Music  1.3
      • 4.  Special Subject Matter: Characters  1.4
      • 5.  Special Subject Matter: Websites  1.4A
      • 6.  Special Subject Matter: Databases  1.4B
      • 7.  Special Subject Matter: Output of Computer Programs  1.4C
      • 8.  Special Subject Matter: Governmental Works  1.4D
    • C.  Creation and Term of Copyright  1.5
    • D.  Ownership of Copyrighted Work, Joint Works, and Works Made for Hire
      • 1.  Joint Works  1.6
      • 2.  Works Made for Hire  1.7
    • E.  Rights of Copyright Holder  1.8
      • 1.  Reproduction Rights  1.9
      • 2.  Distribution Rights  1.10
      • 3.  Performance Rights  1.11
        • a.  Who “Performs” the Work?  1.11A
        • b.  Pre-1972 Sound Recordings  1.11B
      • 4.  Display Rights  1.12
    • F.  Copyright Notice  1.13
    • G.  FBI Anti-Piracy Warning Seal  1.14
    • H.  Copyright Registration
      • 1.  Advantages of Registration  1.15
      • 2.  Registration Procedures; Standing to Sue  1.16
      • 3.  When to Register  1.17
    • I.  Preregistration  1.18
    • J.  Transfer of Copyrights
      • 1.  Generally  1.19
      • 2.  Form: Copyright Assignment  1.20
      • 3.  Form: U.S. Copyright Office Form DCS (Document Cover Sheet)  1.21
    • K.  Infringement
      • 1.  Generally  1.22
      • 2.  Direct, Contributory, and Vicarious Liability
        • a.  Generally  1.23
        • b.  Direct Infringement; Volitional Act Requirement  1.24
        • c.  Contributory Infringement  1.25
          • (1)  Inducement  1.26
          • (2)  Material Contribution  1.27
            • (a)  Online Service Providers  1.27A
            • (b)  Payment Processors  1.27B
          • (3)  Site and Facilities Test  1.28
        • d.  Vicarious Infringement  1.29
      • 3.  Selected Defenses
        • a.  Statute of Limitations  1.30
        • b.  Laches  1.31
        • c.  Express License  1.31A
        • d.  Implied License  1.32
        • e.  Estoppel  1.33
        • f.  De Minimis Use  1.33A
        • g.  Fraud on the Copyright Office  1.33B
        • h.  Abandonment  1.33C
      • 4.  Safe Harbor for Certain Copies of Computer Programs  1.34
      • 5.  Remedies  1.35
      • 6.  Sovereign Immunity  1.36
      • 7.  Compulsory Licenses
        • a.  Broadcast Television  1.37
        • b.  Sound Recordings; Digital Music Rights  1.38
    • L.  Fair Use
      • 1.  Introduction  1.39
      • 2.  Purpose and Character of Use  1.40
        • a.  Transformative Use  1.41
          • (1)  Human-Made Uses
            • (a)  Parody/Satire   1.42
            • (b)  Appropriation Art  1.43
            • (c)  Digital Music Sampling  1.44
            • (d)  News Reporting  1.45
            • (e)  Reaction Videos  1.45A
            • (f)  Thumbnails to Sell Legal Copies  1.45B
            • (g)  Memes  1.45C
          • (2)  Technological Fair Use
            • (a)  Time- and Space-Shifting  1.46
            • (b)  Search Engines  1.47
            • (c)  Conversion of Text for Data Mining  1.48
            • (d)  Reverse Engineering  1.49
        • b.  Commercial Use  1.50
      • 3.  Nature of Copyrighted Work  1.51
        • a.  Informational or Creative Inquiry  1.52
        • b.   Published or Unpublished  1.53
      • 4.  Amount and Substantiality of Portion of Work Used  1.54
      • 5.  Effect of Use on Market  1.55
      • 6.  Fair Use as a Bar to Foreign Judgments  1.55A
    • M.  First Sale  1.56
    • N.  Family Entertainment and Copyright Act  1.56A
  • II.  DIGITAL MILLENNIUM COPYRIGHT ACT
    • A.  Introduction  1.57
    • B.  Status of Pre-1972 Sound Recordings  1.58
    • C.  Anti-Circumvention of Technological Protection Measures
      • 1.  Anti-Circumvention Prohibitions (17 USC §1201)  1.59
      • 2.  Copyright Management Information (17 USC §1202)  1.60
      • 3.  Exceptions to Anti-Circumvention Prohibitions  1.61
      • 4.  Remedies  1.62
    • D.  Limitations of Liability for Online Service Providers—Infringement Safe Harbors  1.63
      • 1.  General Conditions for Safe Harbors
        • a.  Service Provider  1.64
        • b.  Repeat Infringer Policy  1.65
          • (1)  Adoption of Policy  1.66
          • (2)  Informing Users of Policy  1.67
          • (3)  Reasonably Implement the Policy  1.68
        • c.  Interference With Standard Technical Measures  1.69
        • d.  Designating Agent to Receive Notifications  1.70
        • e.  No Duty to Police or Monitor  1.71
      • 2.  Transitory Digital Network Communications Safe Harbor (17 USC §512(a))  1.72
      • 3.  System Caching Safe Harbor (17 USC §512(b))  1.73
      • 4.  Safe Harbor for Information Residing on Systems or Networks at Direction of Users (17 USC §512(c))
        • a.  Generally  1.74
        • b.  Storage at Direction of User  1.75
        • c.  Lack of Knowledge (17 USC §512(c)(1)(A))  1.76
          • (1)  Actual Knowledge  1.77
          • (2)  “Red Flag” Knowledge  1.78
          • (3)  Willful Blindness  1.79
        • d.  Right and Ability to Control (17 USC §512(c)(1)(B))
          • (1)  Right and Ability to Control  1.80
          • (2)  Direct Financial Benefit  1.81
        • e.  Expeditious Removal or Disabling Access to Infringing Material (17 USC §512(c)(1)(C))  1.82
        • f.  Notification of Claimed Infringement (17 USC §512(c)(3))
          • (1)  Requirements for Notifications; “Good Faith Belief”  1.83
          • (2)  Safeguards Against Fraudulent Infringement Claims  1.83A
        • g.  Counter-Notification by Subscriber; Restoration of Material  1.84
        • h.  Checklist: Notice and Take-Down Checklist  1.85
      • 5.  Information Location Tools Safe Harbor (17 USC §512(d))  1.86
    • E.  Subpoena Power (17 USC §512(h))  1.87
    • F.  Impact on Internet Service Providers  1.88
    • G.  Checklist: Company DMCA Compliance Policy  1.89

2

Patents and Trade Secrets

  • I.  PATENTS
    • A.  Introduction  2.1
    • B.  What Is a Patent?  2.2
    • C.  What Is Patentable; Types of Patents  2.3
    • D.  Term of Patents  2.4
    • E.  Additional Requirements for Patentability
      • 1.  Overview  2.5
      • 2.  Origination  2.6
      • 3.  Utility  2.7
      • 4.  Novelty  2.8
      • 5.  Nonobviousness  2.9
    • F.  Patent Applications
      • 1.  Overview of Patent Application Procedures  2.10
      • 2.  Specification; Enablement; Best Mode  2.11
      • 3.  Claims  2.12
      • 4.  Statutory Time Bars  2.13
    • G.  “First-to-File” Versus “First-to-Invent”; Other International Issues  2.14
    • H.  Transferring Patents
      • 1.  Introduction  2.15
      • 2.  Form: Patent Assignment  2.16
    • I.  Litigation Issues  2.16A
    • J.  Alternatives to Litigation  2.17
    • K.  Special Topics for Internet Businesses
      • 1.  Business Method Patents
        • a.  Business Methods  2.18
        • b.  Business Method Patents in the Courts   2.18A
        • c.  USPTO Examiner Instructions re Business Method Patent Applications  2.18B
        • d.  Practical Guidance  2.18C
      • 2.  Software Patents  2.19
      • 3.  The Internet of Things   2.19A
  • II.  TRADE SECRETS
    • A.  Introduction  2.20
    • B.  Definition of Trade Secret
      • 1.  Statutory Definition  2.21
      • 2.  Examples of Trade Secrets  2.22
      • 3.  Computer Source and Object Code  2.22A
      • 4.  Recipes, Manufacturing Processes  2.22B
      • 5.  Customer Lists  2.23
    • C.  Loss of Trade Secret Protection  2.24
    • D.  Protection of Trade Secrets  2.25
      • 1.  Departing Employees  2.26
      • 2.  Practical Safeguards
        • a.  Firewalls and Encryption  2.27
        • b.  Physical Security  2.28
        • c.  Managing Documents and Files  2.29
    • E.  Sample Company Policy on Trade Secret Protection
      • 1.  Introduction  2.30
      • 2.  Form: Company Policy on Trade Secret Protection  2.31
    • F.  Confidentiality Agreement
      • 1.  Introduction  2.32
      • 2.  Form: Confidentiality Agreement  2.33
    • G.  Misappropriation of Trade Secrets
      • 1.  Asserting Claim of Misappropriation Under UTSA  2.34
      • 2.  Defenses  2.35
      • 3.  Damages  2.36
      • 4.  Privilege and Disclosures Due to Litigation  2.37
      • 5.  Economic Espionage Act of 1996  2.38
      • 6.  Defend Trade Secrets Act of 2016  2.39

3

Domain Names and Trademark Issues

  • I.  DOMAIN NAMES
    • A.  Introduction  3.1
    • B.  Selecting Domain Name and Suffix
      • 1.  Domain Name  3.2
      • 2.  Suffix (Top-Level Domain Name)  3.3
      • 3.  ICANN gTLD Trademark Clearinghouse  3.3A
    • C.  Due Diligence
      • 1.  Domain Name as Trademark  3.4
      • 2.  Where to Look? Registered and Unregistered Trademark Searches  3.5
    • D.  Registration of Domain Name
      • 1.  Registration Procedures  3.6
      • 2.  Purchasing Registered Domain Name
        • a.  How to Purchase Registered Domain Name  3.7
        • b.  Form: Domain Name Purchase Agreement  3.8
    • E.  Maintaining and Preventing Loss of Domain Name  3.9
    • F.  Transferring Ownership of Domain Names  3.10
    • G.  Infringing Domain Names
      • 1.  Bringing Claim of Infringement  3.11
      • 2.  Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP)  3.12
        • a.  Elements of UDRP Claim  3.13
        • b.  Selection of Arbitrators  3.14
        • c.  Procedure Under UDRP  3.15
        • d.  Damages and Fees  3.16
        • e.  Model Form of UDRP Complaint
          • (1)  Introduction  3.17
          • (2)  Form: UDRP Complaint  3.18
        • f.  Model Form of UDRP Response
          • (1)  Introduction  3.19
          • (2)  Form: UDRP Response  3.20
        • g.  Appeals  3.21
      • 3.  Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act  3.22
        • a.  Elements of Cause of Action  3.23
        • b.  ACPA Remedies  3.24
      • 4.  Whether to Proceed Under UDRP or ACPA?  3.25
  • II.  TRADEMARKS, SERVICE MARKS, AND TRADE NAMES
    • A.  Introduction  3.26
    • B.  Definitions of Trademarks, Service Marks, Collective Marks, Certification Marks, Trade Dress, and Trade Names  3.27
    • C.  Characterization of Marks  3.28
    • D.  Priority and Limitations to Priority  3.29
    • E.  Registration Procedure
      • 1.  Why Federal Registration?  3.30
      • 2.  Common Law and State Trademark Rights  3.31
      • 3.  Unregistrable Trademarks  3.32
      • 4.  Trademark Searches  3.33
      • 5.  Principal and Supplemental Registers  3.34
      • 6.  Intent-to-Use Applications  3.35
      • 7.  Form of Application  3.36
      • 8.  Application Procedure  3.37
      • 9.  Contents of Application  3.38
        • a.  Applicant Information  3.39
        • b.  Verification  3.40
        • c.  Identification and Classification of Goods and Services; Filing Fees  3.41
        • d.  Bases for Filing  3.42
        • e.  Drawing Requirement  3.43
        • f.  Description of Mark  3.44
      • 10.  Registration of Domain Names as Trademarks
        • a.  Requirements  3.45
        • b.  Reasons for Refusal of Registration of Domain Names  3.46
        • c.  Hashtags  3.46A
      • 11.  Trade Names  3.47
    • F.  Madrid Protocol  3.48
    • G.  Grant or Denial of Registration
      • 1.  Opposition, Cancellation, or Registration  3.49
      • 2.  Appeals From Denials of Registration  3.50
    • H.  Use of Trademark Symbol  3.51
    • I.  Duration and Renewal  3.52
    • J.  Preservation of Trademark Rights  3.53
    • K.  Trademark Licensing  3.54
      • 1.  Form: Trademark Guidelines  3.55
      • 2.  Form: Trademark License Agreement  3.56
    • L.  Assignments of Trademarks
      • 1.  Generally  3.57
      • 2.  Form: Trademark Assignment  3.58
      • 3.  Form: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office Cover Sheet (Trademarks Only)  3.59
    • M.  Violations of Trademark Rights
      • 1.  Trademark Infringement  3.60
      • 2.  Contributory Trademark Infringement  3.60A
      • 3.  False Designation or Description  3.61
      • 4.  ACPA  3.62
      • 5.  Remedies for Trademark Infringement  3.63
      • 6.  Defenses to Trademark Infringement  3.64
      • 7.  Dilution of Famous Mark  3.65
        • a.  Factors Bearing on Whether Mark Is Famous  3.66
        • b.  Cybersquatting and Dilution  3.67
      • 8.  Remedies and Defenses to Anti-Dilution Claims  3.68
      • 9.  Sample Cease and Desist Letter
        • a.  Introduction  3.69
        • b.  Form: Sample Cease and Desist Letter  3.70
  • III.  METATAGS AND SEARCH TERMS
    • A.  Introduction  3.71
    • B.  Nominative Fair Use  3.72
    • C.  Initial Interest Confusion Test  3.73
    • D.  Protection of Fanciful Marks  3.74
    • E.  Misspellings of Trademarks and Direct Competitors  3.75
    • F.  “English Words”  3.76
  • IV.  TRADE DRESS
    • A.  Introduction  3.77
    • B.  Website User Interfaces  3.78
    • C.  Trade Dress Infringement  3.79
      • 1.  Nonfunctionality
        • a.  Overview of the Doctrine  3.80
        • b.  Functionality and Nonfunctionality in the Courts
          • (1)  Outside the Ninth Circuit  3.80A
          • (2)  Ninth Circuit  3.81
        • c.  Doctrine of Aesthetic Functionality  3.82
        • d.  Functionality and Website User Interfaces  3.83
      • 2.  Inherent Distinctiveness or Secondary Meaning
        • a.  Inherent Distinctiveness Test  3.84
        • b.  Product Designs and Product Packaging  3.85
        • c.  Website User Interfaces: Product Design or Product Packaging?  3.86
      • 3.  Likelihood of Confusion in Trade Dress  3.87

4

Human Resources

  • I.  EMPLOYEES AND EMPLOYMENT ISSUES
    • A.  Introduction  4.1
    • B.  Ethical Considerations  4.2
    • C.  “At Will” Employment  4.3
    • D.  Offer Letter to Prospective Employee
      • 1.  Introduction  4.4
      • 2.  Form: Offer Letter to Prospective Employee  4.5
    • E.  Confidentiality and Invention Assignment Agreements
      • 1.  Employee Confidentiality Agreements  4.6
      • 2.  Employee Inventions  4.7
        • a.  Federal “Work for Hire” Doctrine  4.8
        • b.  Employer Ownership of Employee Inventions Under State Law  4.9
      • 3.  Invention Assignment Agreements  4.10
      • 4.  Form: Confidentiality and Invention Assignment Agreement  4.11
    • F.  Employee Overtime—Special Rules for Computer Programmers  4.12
  • II.  INDEPENDENT CONTRACTORS
    • A.  Overview of Independent Contractor Issues  4.13
    • B.  Classification of Independent Contractors
      • 1.  Exempt Versus Nonexempt Employees  4.14
      • 2.  Dynamex and AB 5: The ABC Test  4.14A
      • 3.  Borello Right-to-Control Test  4.15
      • 4.  Dynamex ABC Test  4.16
      • 5.  Independent Contractor Classification Analysis; Penalties for Violation  4.17
    • C.  Intellectual Property Issues in Independent Contractor Relationships  4.18
    • D.  Form: Independent Contractor Consulting Agreement  4.19
    • E.  Independent Contractor Nondisclosure Agreement
      • 1.  Introduction  4.20
      • 2.  Form: Nondisclosure Agreement  4.21
  • III.  ADVISORY BOARDS
    • A.  Introduction  4.22
    • B.  Form: Advisory Board Letter Agreement  4.23

5

Website and App Development; Disability Accommodation Issues

  • I.  ACQUISITION OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
    • A.  Introduction  5.1
    • B.  Assignment of Intellectual Property by Company Founder  5.2
    • C.  Form: Agreement for Transfer and Assignment of Intellectual Property  5.3
  • II.  WEBSITE AND MOBILE APP DEVELOPMENT AGREEMENTS
    • A.  Introduction  5.4
    • B.  Ethical Considerations  5.5
    • C.  Preparing for Negotiations  5.6
    • D.  Types of Website and App Developers  5.7
      • 1.  Freelancers  5.8
      • 2.  Website and Mobile App Development Specialists  5.9
      • 3.  General Technology Companies  5.10
    • E.  Understanding Issues of Ownership
      • 1.  Conflicting Ownership Interests  5.11
      • 2.  Why a Website or App Probably Is Not a “Work Made for Hire”  5.12
      • 3.  Domain Name Registration and Ownership  5.13
    • F.  Drafting Website and Mobile App Development Agreement  5.14
      • 1.  Responsibilities of Parties  5.15
      • 2.  Deliverables and Timelines for Delivery  5.16
      • 3.  Ownership and License Grants  5.17
        • a.  Ownership  5.18
        • b.  License Rights  5.19
        • c.  Confidentiality  5.20
      • 4.  Representations and Warranties of Developer  5.21
      • 5.  Ongoing Obligations of Developer  5.22
    • G.  Website and Mobile App Development Agreements
      • 1.  Independent Contractor Agreements  5.23
      • 2.  Form of Website Development Agreement
        • a.  Introduction  5.24
        • b.  Form: Website Development Agreement  5.25
  • III.  WEBSITE AND MOBILE APP UPGRADES  5.26
  • IV.  DISABILITY ACCOMMODATION ISSUES
    • A.  Federal and California Statutes  5.27
    • B.  Website Accessibility Case Law  5.28
    • C.  DOJ Rulemaking and Enforcement Efforts  5.29
    • D.  Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG)  5.30

6

Hosting and Related Services; Cloud Computing

  • I.  HOSTING AGREEMENTS
    • A.  Introduction  6.1
    • B.  Negotiating Hosting Agreement  6.2
    • C.  Key Hosting Agreement Terms
      • 1.  Responsibilities of Host  6.3
        • a.  Website Hosting  6.4
        • b.  Monitoring  6.5
        • c.  Access to Software  6.6
        • d.  Content Uploading and Maintenance  6.7
        • e.  Data Collection and Reporting  6.8
      • 2.  Responsibilities of Customer  6.9
    • D.  Warranties  6.10
    • E.  Form of Hosting Services Agreement
      • 1.  Introduction  6.11
      • 2.  Form: Hosting Services Agreement  6.12
  • II.  CO-LOCATION AGREEMENTS
    • A.  Introduction  6.13
    • B.  Decision to Co-Locate  6.14
    • C.  Co-Location Services and Customer Responsibilities
      • 1.  Overview  6.15
      • 2.  Customer Responsibilities  6.16
      • 3.  Provider Warranties  6.17
    • D.  Form of Co-Location Agreement
      • 1.  Introduction  6.18
      • 2.  Form: Co-Location Agreement  6.19
    • E.  Equipment Considerations  6.20
  • III.  SERVICE LEVEL AGREEMENTS
    • A.  Introduction  6.21
    • B.  Use of Service Level Agreements Generally
      • 1.  Content  6.22
      • 2.  When to Request Service Level Agreement  6.23
      • 3.  Monitoring and Enforcement of Service Level Agreement Terms  6.24
    • C.  Standard Service Level Agreement Terms
      • 1.  Availability; Uptime  6.25
      • 2.  Service Levels  6.26
        • a.  Low-Priority Requests  6.27
        • b.  Medium-Priority Requests  6.28
        • c.  High-Priority Requests  6.29
      • 3.  Response Times and Response Actions  6.30
      • 4.  Service Credits and Chronic Problems  6.31
      • 5.  Additional Terms  6.32
        • a.  Customer Support  6.33
        • b.  Performance Measurement  6.34
        • c.  Reporting  6.35
    • D.  Service Level Agreement Forms
      • 1.  Sample Short Form Service Level Agreement
        • a.  Introduction  6.36
        • b.  Form: Short Form Service Level Agreement  6.37
      • 2.  Sample Website Hosting Service Level Agreement
        • a.  Introduction  6.38
        • b.  Form: Website Hosting Service Level Agreement  6.39
  • IV.  TECHNICAL SUPPORT
    • A.  Introduction  6.40
    • B.  Obtaining Technical Support from Vendors  6.41
    • C.  Key Issues in Obtaining Support From Vendors
      • 1.  Upgrades and New Versions  6.42
      • 2.  Support Services  6.43
      • 3.  Training and Help Desk Support  6.44
    • D.  Technical Support and Maintenance Agreement
      • 1.  Introduction  6.45
      • 2.  Form: Technical Support and Maintenance Agreement  6.46
    • E.  Providing Technical Support to Customers  6.47
    • F.  Basic Technical Support Exhibit
      • 1.  Introduction  6.48
      • 2.  Form: Basic Technical Support Exhibit  6.49
  • V.  Cloud Computing
    • A.  Introduction  6.50
    • B.  Statutory Limitations  6.51
    • C.  Data Security, Privacy, and Confidentiality
      • 1.  Overview  6.52
      • 2.  Access to Data  6.53
      • 3.  Voluntary or Compelled Disclosure
        • a.  General Considerations  6.54
        • b.  National Security Letters  6.55
      • 4.  Data Security  6.56
      • 5.  Duty of Confidentiality  6.57
    • D.  Service Levels  6.58
    • E.  Indemnification, Warranty, and Liability  6.59
    • F.  Data Portability and Deletion  6.60
    • G.  Guidance for Specific Industries  6.61
    • H.  Variations on Cloud Computing  6.62
    • I.  Sample Cloud Services Agreement  6.63
    • J.  Security Addendum  6.64
    • K.  Form: Security Addendum  6.65

7

Electronic Contracting

  • I.  INTRODUCTION  7.1
  • II.  ENFORCEABILITY OF SHRINK-WRAP, CLICK-WRAP, AND BROWSE-WRAP AGREEMENTS
    • A.  Shrink-Wrap Software Licenses  7.2
    • B.  Click-Wrap Agreements  7.3
    • C.  Browse-Wrap Agreements  7.4
    • D.  Embedded Links  7.4A
  • III.  E-SIGN
    • A.  Introduction  7.5
    • B.  Electronic Signatures  7.6
    • C.  Consumer Protection Features  7.7
    • D.  Electronic Record Retention  7.8
  • IV.  UNIFORM ELECTRONIC TRANSACTIONS ACT (UETA)
    • A.  Overview; Federal Preemption Issue  7.9
    • B.  Consent to Conduct Transactions Electronically Required  7.10
    • C.  Authentication of Electronic Signatures  7.10A
  • V.  UNIFORM COMPUTER INFORMATION TRANSACTIONS ACT (UCITA)  7.11
  • VI.  ALI SOFTWARE CONTRACT PRINCIPLES  7.12
  • VII.  EUROPEAN UNION DIRECTIVES  7.13
  • VIII.  CREATING ENFORCEABLE ELECTRONIC AGREEMENTS
    • A.  Six Basic Principles  7.14
    • B.  Additional Practical Considerations  7.15
    • C.  Amendments  7.16

8

Terms of Use; Online Agreements; Linking; Downloading; Social Networking

  • I.  INTRODUCTION  8.1
  • II.  TERMS OF USE
    • A.  Drafting Considerations  8.2
    • B.  Form: Website Terms of Use  8.3
  • III.  ONLINE SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENTS
    • A.  Introduction  8.4
    • B.  Form: Online End-User Software License Agreement  8.5
    • C.  Online Beta User Evaluation Agreement
      • 1.  Introduction  8.6
      • 2.  Form: Online Beta User Evaluation Agreement  8.7
    • D.  Open Source Licensing
      • 1.  Introduction  8.8
      • 2.  Form: Open Source Software License Agreement  8.9
    • E.  Software Evaluation License Agreement
      • 1.  Introduction  8.10
      • 2.  Form: Evaluation License Agreement  8.11
    • F.  Online Software Developer Toolkit License Agreement
      • 1.  Introduction  8.12
      • 2.  Form: Online Software Developer Toolkit License Agreement  8.13
  • IV.  LINKING ARRANGEMENTS
    • A.  Introduction  8.14
    • B.  Linking and Framing
      • 1.  Generally  8.15
      • 2.  Copyright Infringement Issues  8.16
      • 3.  Potential Liability for Trespass to Chattels  8.17
    • C.  Form: Linking Agreement  8.18
  • V.  DOWNLOADING AND UPLOADING CONTENT
    • A.  Generally  8.19
    • B.  Copyright Infringement Issues  8.20
    • C.  Music on the Internet
      • 1.  Introduction  8.21
      • 2.  Technologies  8.22
      • 3.  Federal Statutes  8.23
        • a.  Audio Home Recording Act of 1992 (AHRA)  8.24
        • b.  Digital Performance Right in Sound Recordings Act of 1995 (DPRA)  8.25
        • c.  No Electronic Theft Law  8.26
        • d.  Internet Piracy (Pen C §653aa)  8.26A
        • e.  The Family Entertainment and Copyright Act  8.26B
      • 4.  Case Law  8.27
      • 5.  RIAA Litigation Strategy  8.28
  • VI.  SOCIAL NETWORKING
    • A.  Overview  8.29
    • B.  Social Networking and the Law  8.30
    • C.  Copyright Issues
      • 1.  Infringement; Fair Use  8.31
      • 2.  Practice Guidelines  8.31A
    • D.  Privacy Issues
      • 1.  Generally  8.32
      • 2.  FTC Actions Concerning Privacy of User Information on Social Networks  8.32A
      • 3.  California Privacy Laws Protecting Social Media Users’ Privacy  8.32B
    • E.  Need for Valid End-User License Agreements (EULAs)  8.33
    • F.  Social Media in the Workplace  8.34
    • G.  Violation of Nonsolicitation Agreements  8.35

9

Privacy Law and Privacy Policies

  • I.  INTRODUCTION  9.1
  • II.  PRIVACY LAWS AFFECTING ONLINE BUSINESS  9.2
    • A.  How Businesses Obtain Customer Information Online
      • 1.  Willing Disclosure  9.3
      • 2.  Cookies  9.4
      • 3.  Web Bugs  9.5
      • 4.  Tracking Software  9.6
      • 5.  Adware  9.6A
      • 6.  Spyware  9.6B
      • 7.  Phishing  9.6C
    • B.  Federal Privacy Laws
      • 1.  United States Constitution  9.7
      • 2.  Federal Legislation  9.8
        • a.  Federal Trade Commission Initiatives  9.8A
          • (1)  FTC Actions Concerning Privacy Policies  9.9
          • (2)  FTC Actions Concerning Data Security  9.9A
          • (3)  The FTC’s “Red Flags Rule”  9.9B
          • (4)  FTC Actions Concerning Unwanted Adware  9.9C
          • (5)  The Internet of Things  9.9D
          • (6)   FTC Guidelines  9.9E
        • b.  Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
          • (1)  Privacy Aspects of HIPAA and Supporting Regulations  9.10
          • (2)  Protected Health Information, Contract Requirements  9.11
        • c.  Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act  9.12
        • d.  Right to Financial Privacy Act  9.13
        • e.  Computer Fraud and Abuse Act  9.14
        • f.  Electronic Communications Privacy Act  9.15
        • g.  Video Privacy Protection Act  9.15A
        • h.  Fair Credit Reporting Act  9.15B
        • i.  Consumer Privacy Bill of Rights   9.15C
    • C.  California Privacy Laws
      • 1.  California Constitution
        • a.  Constitutional Right of Privacy  9.16
        • b.  Standing Issue in Privacy Litigation  9.16A
      • 2.  Common Law Right of Privacy  9.17
      • 3.  California Legislation  9.18
        • a.  California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) (CC §§1798.100–1798.199)  9.18A
        • b.  Online Privacy Protection Act (OPPA) (Bus & P C §§22575–22579)
          • (1)  Privacy Policy Posting Requirement  9.19
          • (2)  Required Contents of Privacy Policy  9.20
          • (3)  Failure to Comply With Act  9.21
        • c.  California Attorney General’s Recommended Best Practices for Mobile App Developers  9.21A
        • d.  “Anti-Paparazzi” Statute  9.21B
        • e.  California Financial Information Privacy Act  9.22
        • f.  California Right to Financial Privacy Act (Govt C §§7460–7493)  9.23
        • g.  Song-Beverly Credit Card Act  9.23A
        • h.  Required Notice of Security Breaches
          • (1)  Civil Code Provisions  9.24
          • (2)  Potential Safe Harbor  9.25
          • (3)  Obligation to Maintain Security  9.25A
        • i.  Civil Code §1798.83  9.26
        • j.  Consumer Protection Against Computer Spyware Act (Bus & P C §§22947–22947.6)  9.26A
        • k.  California Electronic Communications Privacy Act  9.26B
        • l.  Student Online Personal Information Protection Act  9.26C
        • m.  Unfair Competition Law  9.27
        • n.  “Revenge Porn”  9.27A
    • D.  Other States’ Data Protection Programs  9.27B
    • E.  Special Legal Protections for Children  9.28
      • 1.  Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA)  9.29
        • a.  Application of COPPA  9.30
        • b.  Requirements for Online Collection of Information From Children  9.31
        • c.  Parental Consent  9.32
        • d.  FTC Enforcement Actions Under COPPA  9.33
        • e.  State Enforcement Actions Under COPPA  9.33A
        • f.  Safe Harbor Under COPPA  9.34
      • 2.   Final FTC Children’s Online Protection Act Rule  9.34A
      • 3.  Dot-Kids Act [Deleted]  9.35
      • 4.  FTC’s Children’s Privacy Website  9.36
      • 5.  California Legislation  9.36A
        • a.  Prohibition on Certain Advertising to Minors (Bus & P C §22580)  9.36B
        • b.  “Eraser Button” Law  9.36C
    • F.  European Union Rules and Regulation
      • 1.  EU Data Protection Directive [Deleted]  9.37
      • 2.  EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)  9.37A
      • 3.  EU-U.S. Privacy Shield  9.38
  • III.  WEBSITE PRIVACY POLICIES
    • A.  Need for Privacy Policies  9.39
    • B.  Content of Privacy Policies  9.40
    • C.  Enforceability of Privacy Policies  9.41
    • D.  Additional Resources  9.42
    • E.  Basic Website Policy
      • 1.  Introduction  9.43
      • 2.  Form: Basic Website Privacy Policy  9.44
    • F.  Commercial Website Policy
      • 1.  Introduction  9.45
      • 2.  Form: Commercial Website Privacy Policy  9.46
  • IV.  PRIVACY AND WEBSITE DESIGN  9.47

10

E-Commerce Transactions; Tax and Insurance Issues

  • I.  E-COMMERCE TRANSACTIONS
    • A.  Introduction  10.1
    • B.  Electronic Contracting  10.2
    • C.  Electronic Payment Services
      • 1.  Credit Cards  10.3
      • 2.  Debit Cards  10.4
      • 3.  Internet Checks  10.5
      • 4.  Virtual Currency  10.5A
      • 5.  Blockchain Technology  10.5B
      • 6.  Initial Coin Offerings and the SEC  10.5C
      • 7.  Other Electronic Payment Services  10.6
    • D.  Additional Payment and Security Issues  10.7
      • 1.  Secure Transaction Processing Software  10.8
      • 2.  Fraud Prevention Tools  10.9
      • 3.  Phone and Fax Orders  10.10
      • 4.  Security Certificates  10.11
      • 5.   Purchases by Children  10.11A
    • E.  Shopping Cart Services
      • 1.  Overview  10.12
      • 2.  Evaluating Shopping Cart Services  10.13
    • F.  Sample Website or App End User Payment Terms
      • 1.  Introduction  10.14
      • 2.  Form: Sample Clauses re Payment of Subscription Fees  10.15
    • G.  FTC’s Mail, Internet, or Telephone Order Merchandise Rule  10.16
    • H.  Restore Online Shoppers’ Confidence Act  10.16A
    • I.  Subscription Offers: Business and Professions Code §17602  10.16B
  • II.  TAX ISSUES
    • A.  Formulation of E-Commerce Tax Policy  10.17
      • 1.  International Tax Policy  10.18
      • 2.  United States Federal Tax Policy
        • a.  Role of Treasury Department  10.19
        • b.  The Internet Tax Freedom Act  10.20
        • c.  The Streamlined Sales and Use Tax Agreement  10.20A
      • 3.  California Sales and Use Tax Policy  10.21
    • B.  Sales and Use Taxes
      • 1.  General Principles  10.22
      • 2.  Constitutional Restrictions; South Dakota v Wayfair, Inc.  10.23
      • 3.  Sales by California E-Businesses to Out-of-State Residents  10.23A
      • 4.  California Sales and Use Taxes: General Rules  10.24
      • 5.  The “Amazon Tax”: Out-of-State Retailers With In-State Agents  10.24A
      • 6.  Post-Wayfair Sales and Use Tax Obligations of Out-of-State Retailers  10.25
      • 7.  California Sales and Use Tax Treatment of Software Sales and Related Services  10.26
  • III.  INSURANCE ISSUES FOR ONLINE BUSINESSES
    • A.  Introduction  10.27
    • B.  Commercial Form General Liability Insurance  10.28
      • 1.  Loss of Tangible Property: Is Computer Data “Tangible Property?”  10.29
      • 2.  Loss of Tangible Property: Has There Been a “Loss”?  10.30
      • 3.  “Physical Loss or Damage”  10.31
      • 4.  Intellectual Property Infringement  10.32
    • C.  Business Interruption Coverage  10.33
    • D.  Industry Response  10.34
    • E.  Cyberinsurance  10.35
    • F.  Practical Advice  10.36

11

Strategic Alliances

  • I.  INTRODUCTION  11.1
  • II.  TYPES OF ALLIANCES  11.2
  • III.  FORM: SAMPLE LETTER OF INTENT RE STRATEGIC ALLIANCE  11.3
  • IV.  SAMPLE STRATEGIC ALLIANCE AGREEMENT
    • A.  Introduction  11.4
    • B.  Form: Strategic Alliance Agreement  11.5
  • V.  SAMPLE CO-BRANDING AGREEMENT
    • A.  Introduction  11.6
    • B.  Form: Co-Branding Agreement  11.7

12

Software License Agreements

  • I.  INTRODUCTION  12.1
  • II.  KEY ISSUES IN SOFTWARE LICENSING
    • A.  Exclusive Licenses  12.2
    • B.  Nonexclusive Licenses  12.3
    • C.  Scope of License
      • 1.  Scope of Rights Granted  12.4
      • 2.  Number of End Users  12.4A
    • D.  Payment Structures  12.5
  • III.  SAMPLE SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT
    • A.  Introduction  12.6
    • B.  Form: Software License Agreement  12.7
  • IV.  DRAFTING EXCLUSIVE LICENSES
    • A.  General Considerations
      • 1.  Restrictions on Scope or Field of Use  12.8
      • 2.  Performance Milestones; Minimum Royalties  12.9
    • B.  Form: Exclusivity Clause  12.10
  • V.  BANKRUPTCY CONSIDERATIONS
    • A.  Introduction  12.11
    • B.  Executory Contracts and Bankruptcy Code §365(n)  12.12
    • C.  Drafting Considerations  12.13

13

Software Development Agreements

  • I.  INTRODUCTION  13.1
  • II.  OWNERSHIP ISSUES  13.2
  • III.  FORM: SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT AGREEMENT  13.3
  • IV.  SOFTWARE EVALUATION
    • A.  Introduction  13.4
    • B.  Form: Software Test and Evaluation Agreement  13.5

14

Content Clearances, Licensing, and Fair Use

  • I.  INTRODUCTION  14.1
  • II.  STEP 1: IDENTIFY THIRD PARTY ELEMENTS  14.2
  • III.  STEP 2: DETERMINE IF THIRD PARTY ELEMENTS ARE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT OR OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAWS  14.3
  • IV.  STEP 3: FOR PROTECTED ELEMENTS, DETERMINE WHICH OF OWNER’S EXCLUSIVE RIGHTS ARE IMPLICATED  14.4
  • V.  STEP 4: DETERMINE IF USE IS EXEMPT FROM INFRINGEMENT LIABILITY
    • A.  Public Domain  14.5
    • B.  Fair Use  14.6
  • VI.  STEP 5: IDENTIFY OWNERS OF WORK  14.7
  • VII.  STEP 6: OBTAIN RIGHTS NECESSARY TO USE WORK  14.8
    • A.  Individual Release (Videotape of Testimonial)
      • 1.  Introduction  14.9
      • 2.  Form: Endorsement Agreement  14.10
    • B.  Still Photograph License
      • 1.  Introduction  14.11
      • 2.  Form: Still Photograph License  14.12
    • C.  Reprint Rights License
      • 1.  Introduction  14.13
      • 2.  Form: Digital Reprint Rights License  14.14
    • D.  Streaming Video License
      • 1.  Introduction  14.15
      • 2.  Form: Streaming Video License  14.16
    • E.  Special Issues in Music Licensing  14.17
    • F.  Creative Commons and Other Innovative Licensing Solutions  14.18

15

Source Code Escrows

  • I.  INTRODUCTION  15.1
  • II.  FORM: SOURCE CODE ESCROW AGREEMENT  15.2

16

Financing an Online Business

  • I.  EARLY-STAGE EQUITY FINANCING
    • A.  Introduction  16.1
    • B.  Equity Versus Debt
      • 1.  Equity  16.2
      • 2.  Debt  16.3
    • C.  Sources of Equity Funding  16.4
      • 1.  Founders, Friends, and Family  16.5
      • 2.  “Angel” Investors  16.6
      • 3.  Venture Capital and Other Institutional Investors  16.7
    • D.  Structure of Venture Capital Financings  16.8
    • E.  Venture Capital Financing Term Sheet
      • 1.  Introduction  16.9
      • 2.  Form: Term Sheet for Preferred Stock Financing  16.10
  • II.  DEBT FINANCING
    • A.  Introduction  16.11
    • B.  Types of Debt Financing  16.12
      • 1.  Working Capital Loans  16.13
      • 2.  Term Loans  16.14
      • 3.  SBA Loans  16.15
      • 4.  Lease Financings  16.16
      • 5.  Corporate Credit Cards  16.17
      • 6.  Convertible Debt  16.18
      • 7.  Customer Advances  16.19
    • C.  Qualifying for Loan  16.20
    • D.  Elements of Simple Loan Transaction
      • 1.  Overview  16.21
      • 2.  Usury Issues for Non-Bank Lenders  16.22
    • E.  Loan Agreement and Promissory Note  16.23
      • 1.  Form: Loan Agreement  16.24
      • 2.  Form: Promissory Note  16.25
    • F.  Security Interests in Intellectual Property Collateral
      • 1.  Generally  16.26
      • 2.  Security Interests in Copyrights  16.27
      • 3.  Security Interests in Patents  16.28
      • 4.  Security Interests in Trademarks  16.29
      • 5.  Security Interests in Domain Names  16.30
      • 6.  Security Interests in Trade Secrets  16.31
      • 7.  Form of Security Agreement (Intellectual Property)
        • a.  Introduction  16.32
        • b.  Form: Security Agreement (Intellectual Property)  16.33
    • G.  Convertible Promissory Notes
      • 1.  Generally  16.34
      • 2.  Form: Convertible Promissory Note  16.35

17

Advertising on the Internet

  • I.  INTERNET ADVERTISING REGULATION
    • A.  Introduction  17.1
    • B.  Overview of Applicable Laws  17.2
      • 1.  Lanham Act  17.3
      • 2.  Federal Trade Commission Act  17.4
        • a.  FTC’s Dot Com Disclosure Guidelines  17.5
        • b.  Liability for Deceptive Advertising; FTC Enforcement Actions  17.6
        • c.  Examples of FTC Enforcement Actions  17.7
        • d.  Endorsements and Testimonials  17.7A
        • e.  Native Advertising  17.7B
      • 3.  Restore Online Shoppers’ Confidence Act  17.7C
      • 4.  State Laws  17.8
        • a.  Laws Prohibiting False or Misleading Advertising Generally  17.9
        • b.  Laws Regulating Telephone, Internet, and Catalog Sales  17.10
        • c.  Laws Regulating Online Advertising to Minors  17.10A
        • d.  Laws Regulating Use of Bots  17.10B
    • C.  Attorney Internet Advertising
      • 1.  Overview  17.10C
      • 2.  California Rules of Professional Conduct  17.10D
      • 3.  ABA Model Rules of Professional Conduct  17.10E
      • 4.  ABA Best Practice Guidelines for Legal Information Providers  17.10F
    • D.  Unsolicited E-Mail (“Spam”)  17.11
      • 1.  Federal Legislation: CAN-SPAM Act
        • a.  Generally  17.12
        • b.  E-Mail Subject to CAN-SPAM Act  17.13
        • c.  CAN-SPAM Act: Basic Requirements for Commercial E-Mail Messages  17.14
          • (1)  Identification as Advertisement  17.15
          • (2)  Notice and Opt-Out Mechanism  17.16
          • (3)  Postal Address  17.17
          • (4)  Affirmative Consent  17.18
          • (5)  Forwarding Commercial E-Mails  17.18A
        • d.  Deceptive E-Mail Practices  17.19
        • e.  Sexually Oriented Materials  17.20
        • f.  Attribution Rules  17.21
        • g.  Enforcement of CAN-SPAM  17.22
        • h.  National “Do Not E-Mail” Registry  17.23
        • i.  Commercial E-Mails Sent to Wireless Devices  17.23A
        • j.  Criminal Liability Under CAN-SPAM  17.23B
      • 2.  State Anti-Spam Laws
        • a.  Generally  17.24
        • b.  California Anti-Spam Laws  17.25
        • c.  Scope of Preemption of California Law by CAN-SPAM Act  17.26
        • d.  Penal Code §502(c)  17.27
      • 3.  Anti-Spam Litigation  17.28
      • 4.  Practical Methods of Blocking Spam E-Mail  17.29
    • E.  Unsolicited Texts and Phone Calls  17.29A
    • F.  Search Engine Optimization
      • 1.  Overview  17.29B
      • 2.  Optimization Tools and Techniques  17.29C
    • G.  Behavioral Advertising  17.29D
  • II.  INTERNET ADVERTISING AGREEMENTS
    • A.  Overview  17.30
    • B.  Banner Advertising  17.31
    • C.  Form: Banner Advertising Agreement  17.32
    • D.  Internet Service Directories or Referral Sites  17.33
    • E.  Form: Internet Advertising Agreement  17.34
    • F.  Portal Agreements  17.35
    • G.  Form: Interactive Marketing Agreement  17.36
    • H.  Social Media Influencer Marketing  17.37
    • I.  Form: Social Media Influencer Independent Contractor Agreement  17.38

18

Cybersecurity

  • I.  RISK OF CYBERATTACKS
    • A.  Overview, Scope of Chapter  18.1
    • B.  Major Types of Threats  18.2
  • II.  CYBERATTACK RISK MANAGEMENT
    • A.  Online Resources  18.3
    • B.  California Risk Management Requirements
      • 1.  Obligation to Maintain Security (CC §1798.81.5)  18.4
      • 2.  Obligation to Report Data Breaches  18.5
      • 3.  Internet of Things (CC §§1798.91.04–1798.91.06)  18.6
    • C.  General Cybersecurity Guidance for Companies
      • 1.  NIST Cybersecurity Framework  18.7
      • 2.  NIST Internet of Things  18.8
      • 3.  NYSE Guidance for Directors and Officers  18.9
      • 4.  Checklist for Cybersecurity Preparedness  18.10
  • III.  RESPONSES TO CYBERATTACKS
    • A.  California Requirements  18.11
      • 1.  California “Shine the Light” Law (CC §§1798.80–1798.84)  18.12
      • 2.  California Consumer Privacy Act (CC §§1798.100–1798.199)  18.13
    • B.  Other Responses to a Cyberattack
      • 1.  General Considerations  18.14
      • 2.  Checklist for Response to Cyberattack  18.15
  • IV.  AVAILABLE LEGAL REMEDIES  18.16
    • A.  Federal Legislation
      • 1.  Computer Fraud and Abuse Act
        • a.  Overview  18.17
        • b.  As Applied to Conduct Exceeding Terms of Use  18.18
          • (1)  Violations of Terms of Use  18.19
          • (2)  Sharing Passwords  18.20
          • (3)  Access After Cease and Desist Letter  18.21
        • c.  As Applied to Tracking Software  18.22
        • d.  As Applied to Improper Use of E-Mail  18.23
        • e.  As Applied to Spam  18.24
        • f.  As Applied to Wireless Networks  18.25
      • 2.  Electronic Communications Privacy Act
        • a.  Overview of Title I and Title II  18.26
        • b.  Title I, Wiretap Act  18.27
          • (1)  As Applied to Cookies  18.28
          • (2)  As Applied to Tracking Software  18.29
          • (3)  As Applied to Unauthorized Wireless Access  18.30
        • c.  Title II, Stored Communications Act  18.31
          • (1)  Authorized Versus Unauthorized Access  18.32
          • (2)  E-Mails and “Electronic Storage”  18.33
      • 3.  USA Patriot Act  18.34
      • 4.  Digital Millennium Copyright Act  18.35
      • 5.  Other Federal Statutes  18.36
    • B.  State Legislation
      • 1.  Penal Code §502: Computer Crimes  18.37
      • 2.  Ransomware  18.38
      • 3.  Wireless Devices  18.39
    • C.  Trespass to Chattels
      • 1.  Elements of Claim  18.40
      • 2.  Case Law Developments
        • a.  Interference With Computer System Operations: eBay, Inc. v Bidder’s Edge, Inc.  18.41
        • b.  No Interference With Computer System Operations
          • (1)  Intel Corp. v Hamidi  18.42
          • (2)  Ticketmaster Corp. v Tickets.com, Inc.  18.43
        • c.  Computer Hacking  18.44

19

Jurisdiction; Conflicts of Law

  • I.  INTERNET JURISDICTION
    • A.  Introduction  19.1
    • B.  Personal Jurisdiction  19.2
      • 1.  State Long-Arm Statutes  19.3
      • 2.  Federal Rules of Civil Procedure  19.4
      • 3.  Constitutional Limits on Personal Jurisdiction
        • a.  Due Process Clause  19.5
        • b.  Minimum Contacts Test  19.6
        • c.  Reasonableness  19.7
      • 4.  General and Specific Personal Jurisdiction
        • a.  General Personal Jurisdiction  19.8
        • b.  Specific Personal Jurisdiction  19.9
        • c.  Specific Jurisdiction in Cyberspace  19.10
    • C.  In Rem Jurisdiction; Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act  19.11
    • D.  Choice-of-Forum Clauses
      • 1.  Enforceability  19.12
      • 2.  Form: Choice-of-Forum Clause  19.13
  • II.  CONFLICTS OF LAW; CHOICE-OF-LAW CLAUSES
    • A.  Conflicts of Law
      • 1.  Generally  19.14
      • 2.  Constitutional Analysis  19.15
      • 3.  Is There a Choice-of-Law Clause?  19.16
      • 4.  Governmental Interest Analysis  19.17
      • 5.  Conflicts of Law on Internet  19.18
    • B.  Choice-of-Law Clauses
      • 1.  Enforceability
        • a.  California Statutes  19.19
        • b.  Nedlloyd Lines, B.V. v Superior Court and Later Cases  19.20
      • 2.  Drafting Considerations  19.21
      • 3.  Form: Choice-of-Law Clause  19.22

20

Liability Related to Speech and the First Amendment

  • I.  INTRODUCTION
    • A.  Scope of Chapter  20.1
    • B.  Speech-Related Liability Covered in Other Chapters  20.2
    • C.  Internet Jurisdiction  20.3
  • II.  FREEDOM OF SPEECH
    • A.  Introduction  20.4
    • B.  First Amendment
      • 1.  Scope of First Amendment  20.5
      • 2.  Prior Restraint  20.6
      • 3.  Commercial Speech  20.7
      • 4.  “Fighting Words” Doctrine  20.8
      • 5.  True Threats of Force; Speech Integral to Criminal Conduct  20.9
      • 6.  Obscenity  20.10
        • a.  Miller Test for Obscenity  20.11
        • b.  Reliance on Community Standards Problematic in Cyberspace  20.12
        • c.  Transportation via “Interactive Computer Service”  20.13
        • d.  Federal Criminal Laws Regulating Obscenity  20.14
        • e.  Child Pornography  20.15
        • f.  Children’s Internet Protection Act  20.16
      • 7.  Filtering Software and First Amendment  20.17
      • 8.  Free Speech Rights in Anonymous Communications  20.18
      • 9.  Spam  20.19
  • III.  TORT LIABILITY  20.20
    • A.  Defamation
      • 1.  Overview  20.21
      • 2.  Libel and Slander Distinguished  20.22
      • 3.  Elements of Defamation  20.23
        • a.  Trade Libel Distinguished  20.24
        • b.  Pleading Requirement: Identifying Alleged Defamatory Statement  20.25
        • c.   “Publication” Requirement  20.26
        • d.  “Of And Concerning” Requirement; “Group Libel”  20.27
        • e.  “Falsity” Requirement  20.28
          • (1)  Fact Versus Opinion  20.29
          • (2)  Burden of Proof  20.30
      • 4.  Public Officials, Public Figures, Limited-Purpose Public Figures, Private Figures, and Matters of Public Concern  20.31
      • 5.  Substantial Truth Defense  20.32
      • 6.  Defamatory Meaning Requirement  20.33
      • 7.  “Mental State” Requirement  20.34
        • a.  Private Figures: Negligence  20.35
        • b.  Public Officials, Public Figures, Limited-Purpose Public Figures, Matters of Public Concern: Actual Malice  20.36
      • 8.  Damages  20.37
      • 9.  Privilege  20.38
    • B.  Invasion of Privacy Torts  20.39
      • 1.  False Light  20.40
      • 2.  Public Disclosure of Private Facts  20.41
      • 3.  Right of Publicity; Misappropriation of Name and Likeness
        • a.  Overview  20.42
        • b.  Right of Publicity Survives Death  20.43
        • c.  Misappropriation Elements  20.44
        • d.  Right of Publicity; Elements  20.45
        • e.  Defenses
          • (1)  Use in Certain News Accounts or Political Campaigns  20.46
          • (2)  Transformative Use  20.47
          • (3)  First Amendment and Public Interest  20.48
          • (4)  Federal Copyright Law Preemption  20.49
          • (5)  Use of Deceased Individual in Copyrighted Work  20.50
        • f.  Statutory Remedies  20.51
      • 4.  Intrusion Upon Seclusion  20.52
        • a.   Intrusion Element  20.53
        • b.   Offensiveness Element  20.54
        • c.  Case Law Examples   20.54A
    • C.  Fraud  20.55
      • 1.  Affirmative Misrepresentation  20.56
        • a.  Misrepresentation Element  20.57
        • b.   “Intent” Requirement  20.58
        • c.   “Reliance” Requirement  20.59
      • 2.  Fraudulent Concealment  20.60
      • 3.  Negligent Misrepresentation  20.61
    • D.  Conversion  20.62
    • E.  Products Liability  20.62A
  • IV.  PRIVILEGES  20.63
    • A.  Official Governmental Duty Privilege  20.64
    • B.  Litigation Privilege  20.65
    • C.  Common Interest Privilege  20.66
    • D.  Fair and True Report Privilege  20.67
  • V.  STATUTES OF LIMITATIONS
    • A.  Generally  20.68
    • B.  Delayed Discovery Rule  20.69
    • C.  Single Publication Rule  20.70
    • D.  Specific Statutes of Limitation
      • 1.  Defamation  20.71
      • 2.  Invasion of Privacy (False Light, Public Disclosure of Private Facts, Misappropriation, Right of Publicity, and Intrusion Upon Seclusion)  20.72
      • 3.  Intentional Fraud (Affirmative Misrepresentation and Fraudulent Concealment)  20.73
      • 4.  Negligent Misrepresentation  20.74
  • VI.  CALIFORNIA’S ANTI-SLAPP STATUTE
    • A.  Overview  20.75
    • B.  Legislative Intent  20.76
    • C.  Procedural Considerations  20.77
    • D.  Two-Pronged Procedure  20.78
      • 1.  Prong One: Defendant’s Burden To Show Cause of Action Arises From Protected Activity
        • a.  Four Categories of Protected Activity  20.79
        • b.  Protected Activity Defined by Statute Only  20.80
        • c.  No Additional Requirements  20.81
        • d.  Causes of Action Subject to Anti-SLAPP Statute  20.82
        • e.  Merits Not Analyzed in Prong One  20.83
        • f.  Exception for Criminal Conduct  20.84
        • g.  “Arises From” Requirement  20.85
        • h.  Written or Oral Statements Made in Governmental Proceedings (CCP §425.16(e)(1))  20.86
        • i.  Written or Oral Statements Made in Connection With Governmental Proceedings (CCP §425.16(e)(2))  20.87
        • j.  Written or Oral Statements Made in Public Forums in Connection With Matters of Public Interest (CCP §425.16(e)(3)  20.88
        • k.  Any Conduct in Furtherance of Right to Petition or Free Speech in Connection With Matter of Public Concern or Public Interest (CCP §425.16(e)(4))  20.89
      • 2.  Prong Two: Plaintiff’s Burden to Show Probability of Prevailing  20.90
        • a.  Legal Standard in State Court  20.91
        • b.  Legal Standards in Federal Court  20.92
        • c.  Examples of Defendants Using Anti-SLAPP Motions in Libel Actions  20.93
    • E.  Exemptions to Anti-SLAPP Statute  20.94
      • 1.  Commercial Speech Exemption  20.95
      • 2.  Public Interest Exemption  20.96
    • F.  Exceptions to Exemptions  20.97
      • 1.  Media Defendants, Book Publishers, and Authors  20.98
      • 2.  Purveyors of Copyrighted Works  20.99
      • 3.  Nonprofit Organizations  20.100
    • G.  Attorney Fees
      • 1.  Prevailing Defendant’s Right to Attorney Fees  20.101
      • 2.  Plaintiff Entitled to Fees Only if Motion Was Frivolous  20.102
      • 3.  Amount of Fees  20.103
  • VII.  COMMUNICATIONS DECENCY ACT §230 IMMUNITY
    • A.  Immunity for Internet Intermediaries  20.104
    • B.  Interactive Computer Service (ICS)  20.105
    • C.  Information Content Provider (ICP)  20.106
    • D.  Preemption; Relation to State Laws  20.107
    • E.  Nature of Immunity  20.108
    • F.  Exceptions to Liability  20.109
      • 1.  Criminal Activity and Obscene Material  20.110
      • 2.  Intellectual Property  20.111
      • 3.  Sex Trafficking  20.112
    • G.  No Publisher or Speaker Liability  20.113
      • 1.  Common Law Publisher–Distributor Distinction for Defamation Irrelevant  20.114
      • 2.  Traditional and Nontraditional Publisher Functions  20.115
      • 3.  Applies to “Providers” and “Users” of ICSs  20.116
      • 4.  Name of Claim Not Dispositive  20.117
      • 5.  Limits Injunctive Relief  20.118
      • 6.  Defendant “Directly Involved” in Soliciting Unlawful Speech Ineligible for Immunity  20.119
      • 7.  Nature and Structure of Website May Be Sufficient to Show Direct Involvement in Unlawful Speech  20.120
      • 8.  Merely Providing Tools to Create Web Content Insufficient to Strip Immunity  20.121
      • 9.  Use of Nonemployee Moderators  20.122
      • 10.  Advertising Content  20.123
      • 11.  “Fake News” Websites  20.124
      • 12.  Cases Upholding CDA Immunity  20.125
      • 13.  Cases Holding No CDA Immunity  20.126
    • H.  The “Good Samaritan” Exemption
      • 1.  Two-Part Exemption  20.127
      • 2.  Allegedly Improper Blocking  20.128
      • 3.  Alleged Interference With Third Party Downloadable Programs  20.129
      • 4.  Good Faith Finding Not Required When Classified as Editorial Function  20.130
  • VIII.  INTERNET COMPLAINT SITES
    • A.  Overview  20.131
    • B.  Potential Causes of Action  20.132
      • 1.  Defamation  20.133
      • 2.  Trademark Infringement and Dilution  20.134
      • 3.  Cybersquatting: Federal and State Law
        • a.  UDRP  20.135
        • b.  Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act  20.136
        • c.  California’s Anticybersquatting Statute  20.137
    • C.  Practical Solutions  20.138
  • IX.  CRIMINAL LIABILITY
    • A.  Generally  20.139
    • B.  Child Pornography
      • 1.  Child Pornography Prevention Act  20.140
      • 2.  Child Online Protection Act  20.141
    • C.  California Penal Code  20.142
  • X.  CALIFORNIA EDUCATION CODE PENALTIES FOR BULLYING  20.143

20A

Discovery of Electronically Stored Information

Alexander H. Lubarsky, LL.M., Esq.

  • I.  INTRODUCTION  20A.1
  • II.  MANAGING ELECTRONICALLY STORED INFORMATION BEFORE LITIGATION
    • A.  Retention of ESI
      • 1.  Regulatory Obligations  20A.2
      • 2.  In Absence of Statute or Regulation  20A.3
    • B.  Document Retention Policies  20A.4
    • C.  Special Problems Concerning E-Mail  20A.5
    • D.  The CLOUD Act: Electronic Information Stored on Foreign Servers  20A.5A
  • III.  FEDERAL RULES ON ELECTRONIC DISCOVERY  20A.6
    • A.  Rule 16: Scheduling Orders; Case Management  20A.7
    • B.  Rule 26: General Discovery Provisions; Duty of Disclosure
      • 1.  Initial Voluntary Disclosure  20A.8
      • 2.  “Clawback” of Privileged Material  20A.9
      • 3.  Meet-and-Confer Requirements  20A.10
      • 4.  Safe Harbor if ESI Not Reasonably Accessible  20A.11
    • C.  Rule 33: Interrogatory Responses  20A.12
    • D.  Rule 34: Production of Documents and Things
      • 1.  Rule 34(a): Inspection, Copying, Testing, and Sampling  20A.13
      • 2.  Rule 34(b): Specifying Format for Production  20A.14
    • E.  Rule 37: Duty to Comply With Court Order; Safe Harbor for Routine Deletion  20A.15
    • F.  Rule 45: Response to Subpoenas  20A.16
    • G.  Federal NIT Warrants  20A.16A
  • IV.  CALIFORNIA LAW
    • A.  Rules of Court  20A.17
    • B.  Electronic Discovery Act  20A.18
      • 1.  ESI From Sources Not Reasonably Accessible  20A.18A
      • 2.  Safe Harbor for Lost Information  20A.18B
      • 3.  Disclosure of Privileged Information  20A.18C
      • 4.  Form of Production  20A.18D
      • 5.  Court-Imposed Limits on Production  20A.18E
  • V.  ADVANCE PREPARATION FOR DISCOVERY OF ESI
    • A.  ESI Survey and Retention Policy  20A.19
    • B.  Identifying Key Personnel  20A.20
  • VI.  RETENTION OF ESI WHEN LITIGATION IS PENDING
    • A.  Notice of Litigation  20A.21
    • B.  Duty to Preserve Evidence  20A.22
    • C.  Legal Hold Letter to Client
      • 1.  Legal Holds  20A.23
      • 2.  Form: Legal Hold Letter to Client  20A.24
    • D.  Litigation Hold Letter to Opponent
      • 1.  Litigation Holds  20A.25
      • 2.  Form: Litigation Hold Letter to Opponent  20A.26
    • E.  Manner of Preservation  20A.27
    • F.  Sanctions for Failure to Preserve  20A.28
  • VII.  DISCOVERY OF ESI
    • A.  Identifying Data for Discovery
      • 1.  Need to Understand ESI Infrastructure  20A.29
      • 2.  Drafting a Request for Production  20A.30
    • B.  Collecting Data
      • 1.  Defensible Collection Strategies  20A.31
      • 2.  Paper-Based Versus Electronic Production  20A.32
      • 3.  Forensic Data Professionals  20A.33
      • 4.  Electronic Data Collection Software  20A.34
      • 5.  Risks in ESI Collection  20A.35
      • 6.  Metadata  20A.36
      • 7.  ESI Seized by Law Enforcement Through Search Warrants   20A.36A
      • 8.  Forensic or Mirror Images  20A.37
      • 9.  Right to On-Site Inspection  20A.38
    • C.  Form of Production  20A.39
      • 1.  Production in Native Format  20A.40
      • 2.  Production of Image Files  20A.41
        • a.  Copying Electronic Files  20A.42
        • b.  Handling Metadata  20A.43
    • D.  Privileged Information  20A.44
    • E.  Federal Rule of Evidence 502  20A.44A
    • F.  Data Processing, Storage, and Review
      • 1.  De-Duplication and Near De-Duplication  20A.45
      • 2.  Litigation Support Platforms  20A.46
      • 3.  Hosting  20A.47
      • 4.  Data Security  20A.48
    • G.  Costs of E-Discovery  20A.49

21

International Issues

  • I.  INTERNATIONAL E-BUSINESS ISSUES
    • A.  Introduction  21.1
    • B.  Hague Conference on Private International Law  21.2
    • C.  Applicable Law in International Disputes  21.3
    • D.  Jurisdiction of Foreign Courts  21.4
    • E.  Comity: Enforcing Foreign Judgments Against U.S. Companies  21.5
    • F.  Content Filtering by Foreign Governments  21.6
    • G.  How to Target or Avoid Certain Countries  21.7
    • H.  International Electronic Contracting  21.8
    • I.  International Intellectual Property Protection  21.9
    • J.  European Union Directives
      • 1.  Introduction  21.10
      • 2.  EU Data Protection Directive and Related Developments
        • a.  EU Data Protection Directive  21.11
        • b.  General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)  21.11A
        • c.  Right to Be Forgotten  21.11B
        • d.  EU-U.S. Privacy Shield  21.11C
        • e.  Compliance With EU General Data Protection Regulation
          • (1)  Self-Certifying Under the Privacy Shield Framework  21.12
          • (2)  Consequences of Noncompliance  21.12A
          • (3)  Case-by-Case Compliance; Model Contract Clauses  21.13
      • 3.  Other EU Directives
        • a.  Distance Selling  21.14
        • b.  E-Commerce Directives  21.15
        • c.  VAT Directive  21.16
        • d.  Specific Industry Directives  21.17
        • e.  EU Data Retention Directive  21.18
        • f.  EU Cybersecurity Directive  21.18A
        • g.  EU Database Directive  21.18B
    • K.  Self-Regulation
      • 1.  Trustmarks  21.19
      • 2.  International ADR  21.20
  • II.  CYBERSECURITY LAW OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA AND OTHER COUNTRIES  21.20A
  • III.  EXPORT AND IMPORT CONTROLS
    • A.  U.S. Export Controls  21.21
      • 1.  Export Administrative Regulations (EAR)  21.22
      • 2.  Scope of EAR; Commerce Control List (CCL)  21.23
      • 3.  Definition of “Export”  21.24
    • B.  Compliance Challenges  21.25
    • C.  Export Control Compliance Programs  21.26
    • D.  Violations   21.27
    • E.  Export Controls of Other Nations  21.28
    • F.  Import Controls  21.29
    • G.  Form: Export Control Compliance Clause  21.30

22

Acquisitions and Sales of Internet-Based Businesses

  • I.  INTRODUCTION  22.1
  • II.  PRELIMINARY ISSUES  22.2
  • III.  INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY DUE DILIGENCE
    • A.  Introduction  22.3
    • B.  Due Diligence Procedures
      • 1.  Confidentiality Agreement  22.4
      • 2.  Due Diligence Checklist  22.5
      • 3.  Seller’s Internal Response Team  22.6
      • 4.  Responding to Request  22.7
      • 5.  Advance Preparation by Seller  22.8
      • 6.  Buyer’s Due Diligence Report  22.9
      • 7.  Analyzing Information  22.10
      • 8.  Disposition of Information  22.11
    • C.  Sample Due Diligence Checklist
      • 1.  Introduction  22.12
      • 2.  Checklist: Due Diligence Information Request  22.13
    • D.  “Open Source” Software
      • 1.  Introduction  22.13A
      • 2.  Checklist: Acquiring Open Source Software  22.13B
    • E.  Sample Due Diligence Report
      • 1.  Introduction  22.14
      • 2.  Form: Due Diligence Report re Intellectual Property Matters  22.15
  • IV.  REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES RE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS
    • A.  Introduction  22.16
    • B.  Form: Representations and Warranties re Intellectual Property  22.17
  • V.  CHANGING OWNERSHIP OF DOMAIN NAMES
    • A.  Introduction  22.18
    • B.  Form: Internet Domain Name Assignment Agreement  22.19

INTERNET LAW AND PRACTICE IN CALIFORNIA

(1st Edition)

July 2020

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

File Name

Book Section

Title

CH01

Chapter 1

Copyright and the DMCA

01-020

§1.20

Copyright Assignment

01-085

§1.85

Checklist: Notice and Take-Down Checklist

01-089

§1.89

Checklist: Company DMCA Compliance Policy

CH02

Chapter 2

Patents and Trade Secrets

02-016

§2.16

Patent Assignment

02-031

§2.31

Company Policy on Trade Secret Protection

02-033

§2.33

Confidentiality Agreement

CH03

Chapter 3

Domain Names and Trademark Issues

03-008

§3.8

Domain Name Purchase Agreement

03-018

§3.18

UDRP Complaint

03-020

§3.20

UDRP Response

03-055

§3.55

Trademark Guidelines

03-056

§3.56

Trademark License Agreement

03-058

§3.58

Trademark Assignment

03-070

§3.70

Sample Cease and Desist Letter

CH04

Chapter 4

Human Resources

04-005

§4.5

Offer Letter to Prospective Employee

04-011

§4.11

Confidentiality and Invention Assignment Agreement

04-019

§4.19

Independent Contractor Consulting Agreement

04-021

§4.21

Nondisclosure Agreement

04-023

§4.23

Advisory Board Letter Agreement

CH05

Chapter 5

Website and App Development; Disability Accommodation Issues

05-003

§5.3

Agreement for Transfer and Assignment of Intellectual Property

05-025

§5.25

Website Development Agreement

CH06

Chapter 6

Hosting and Related Services; Cloud Computing

06-012

§6.12

Hosting Services Agreement

06-019

§6.19

Co-Location Agreement

06-037

§6.37

Short Form Service Level Agreement

06-039

§6.39

Website Hosting Service Level Agreement

06-046

§6.46

Technical Support and Maintenance Agreement

06-049

§6.49

Basic Technical Support Exhibit

06-063

§6.63

Sample Cloud Services Agreement

06-065

§6.65

Security Addendum

CH08

Chapter 8

Terms of Use; Online Agreements; Linking; Downloading; Social Networking

08-003

§8.3

Website Terms of Use

08-005

§8.5

Online End-User Software License Agreement

08-007

§8.7

Online Beta User Evaluation Agreement

08-009

§8.9

Open Source Software License Agreement

08-011

§8.11

Evaluation License Agreement

08-013

§8.13

Online Software Developer Toolkit License Agreement

08-018

§8.18

Linking Agreement

CH09

Chapter 9

Privacy Law and Privacy Policies

09-044

§9.44

Basic Website Privacy Policy

09-046

§9.46

Commercial Website Privacy Policy

CH10

Chapter 10

E-Commerce Transactions; Tax and Insurance Issues

10-015

§10.15

Sample Clauses re Payment of Subscription Fees

CH11

Chapter 11

Strategic Alliances

11-003

§11.3

Form: Sample Letter of Intent re Strategic Alliance

11-005

§11.5

Strategic Alliance Agreement

11-007

§11.7

Co-Branding Agreement

CH12

Chapter 12

Software License Agreements

12-007

§12.7

Software License Agreement

12-010

§12.10

Exclusivity Clause

CH13

Chapter 13

Software Development Agreements

13-003

§13.3

Form: Software Development Agreement

13-005

§13.5

Software Test and Evaluation Agreement

CH14

Chapter 14

Content Clearances, Licensing, and Fair Use

14-010

§14.10

Endorsement Agreement

14-012

§14.12

Still Photograph License

14-014

§14.14

Digital Reprint Rights License

14-016

§14.16

Streaming Video License

CH15

Chapter 15

Source Code Escrows

15-002

§15.2

Form: Source Code Escrow Agreement

CH16

Chapter 16

Financing an Online Business

16-010

§16.10

Term Sheet for Preferred Stock Financing

16-024

§16.24

Loan Agreement

16-025

§16.25

Promissory Note

16-033

§16.33

Security Agreement (Intellectual Property)

16-035

§16.35

Convertible Promissory Note

CH17

Chapter 17

Advertising on the Internet

17-032

§17.32

Banner Advertising Agreement

17-034

§17.34

Internet Advertising Agreement

17-036

§17.36

Interactive Marketing Agreement

17-038

§17.38

Social Media Influencer Independent Contractor Agreement

CH18

Chapter 18

Cybersecurity

18-015

§18.15

Checklist for Response to Cyberattack

CH19

Chapter 19

Jurisdiction; Conflicts of Law

19-013

§19.13

Choice-of-Forum Clause

19-022

§19.22

Choice-of-Law Clause

CH20A

Chapter 20A

Discovery of Electronically Stored Information

20A-024

§20A.24

Legal Hold Letter to Client

20A-026

§20A.26

Litigation Hold Letter to Opponent

CH21

Chapter 21

International Issues

21-030

§21.30

Export Control Compliance Clause

CH22

Chapter 22

Acquisitions and Sales of Internet-Based Businesses

22-013

§22.13

Checklist: Due Diligence Information Request

22-013B

§22.13B

Checklist: Acquiring Open Source Software

22-015

§22.15

Due Diligence Report re Intellectual Property Matters

22-017

§22.17

Representations and Warranties re Intellectual Property

22-019

§22.19

Internet Domain Name Assignment Agreement

 

Selected Developments

July 2020 Update

Copyright

A federal district court within the Ninth Circuit has limited Perfect 10, Inc. v Amazon.com, Inc. (9th Cir 2007) 508 F3d 1146 to apply only to search engines. See Free Speech Sys., LLC v Menzel (CD Cal 2019) 390 F Supp 3d 1162, 1172. In Free Speech Sys., LLC, the court adopted the approach taken by several other federal district courts throughout the nation that anytime an image is displayed on a web page outside of a search engine context—irrespective of where the image is located—this constitutes a public display. See §§1.12, 1.23.

Knowledge can also include willful blindness. Specifically, actual knowledge requires showing either “actual knowledge of specific acts of infringement” or “willful blindness of specific facts” demonstrating infringement.” Erickson Prods., Inc. v Keck (9th Cir 2019) 921 F3d 822, 832. The Ninth Circuit defined willful blindness as taking “deliberate actions to avoid confirming a high probability of wrongdoing and who can almost be said to have actually have known the critical facts.” 921 F3d at 833. See §§1.27A, 1.29, 1.35.

In Keck v Alibaba.com Hong Kong Ltd. (ND Cal 2019) 369 F Supp 3d 932, the court held that a direct financial benefit may be found when a website receives a commission from the sale of infringing works or has a reputation for selling “knock-off” goods. In Keck, Alibaba.com’s ability to police merchants on its website demonstrated right and ability to control. See §1.29.

There do appear to be limits concerning how far a court will go to infer implied consent. One federal district court has held that an implied license must still meet the elements of an express license (i.e., offer, acceptance, and consideration). Furie v Infowars, LLC (CD Cal 2019) 401 F Supp 3d 952, 968. This means the copyright holder must give permission to the licensee, and that permission will not be inferred from industry practice. See §1.32.

In Bell v Wilmottt Storage Servs. (CD Cal, July 1, 2019, No. 18-7329-CBM-MRV), the federal district court held the storage of an unlawful copy of a photograph that was not incorporated into a webpage (i.e., that could only be accessed by knowing the URL or by crawling the website or reverse image search) was a “de minimis” use. See §1.33A.

To demonstrate fraud on the copyright office, the defendant must show that the plaintiff “knowingly” included inaccurate information in the copyright application and that such information would have caused the Copyright Office to refuse registration. 17 USC §411(b)(1). In any case in which inaccurate information is alleged, the court is required to consult with the Copyright Office to determine whether the Copyright Office would have refused the registration. 17 USC §411(b)(2). Simple misstatements or clerical errors are insufficient. Abandonment occurs when a copyright holder intentionally relinquishes its copyright with knowledge of its rights and with the intent to relinquish the copyright in the copyrighted work. Furie v Infowars, LLC (CD Cal 2019) 401 F Supp 3d 952, 963. See §§1.33B, 1.33C.

In re DMCA Subpoena to Reddit (ND Cal 2019) 383 F Supp 3d 900 involved a post on a Reddit forum for former members of the Jehovah’s Witnesses. The Reddit user posted a Jehovah’s Witness advertisement with a title to the post that read as follows: “WHAT GIFT CAN WE GIVE JEHOVAH? … guess what? … WT Magazine November 2018, ‘Full Backpage Advert.’” 383 F Supp 3d at 914. The Reddit user—who was a current member of the Jehovah’s Witnesses—claimed that the post was meant to stimulate debate about the Jehovah’s Witnesses’ fundraising methods. The court found that the Reddit user’s post did not transform the advertisement but, since the use was noncommercial and the stated purpose was to evoke conversation, the first fair use factor favored the Reddit user. See §§1.45C, 1.87.

The fair use defense may serve as a bar to the enforcement of foreign judgments under California’s Recognition Act (CCP §§1713–1725). See De Fontbrune v Wofsy (ND Cal 2019) 409 F Supp 3d 823. California’s Recognition Act allows the enforcement of foreign judgments when the plaintiff proves that the judgment (1) grants a sum of money; (2) is final, conclusive, and enforceable under the laws of that country; and (3) is not a judgment for taxes, a fine, or other penalty, or one arising from domestic relations. Once the plaintiff satisfies that burden, it is up to the defendant to challenge the judgment. One way to challenge the judgment is to demonstrate that the judgment is directly repugnant to the laws of California or the United States. Since the fair use doctrine embodies First Amendment principles, demonstrating that the use was fair under U.S. law is one way to avoid enforcement of a foreign judgment. In De Fontbrune, the defendant was able to avoid enforcement of a French judgment for copyright infringement because the French court did not consider principles of fair use, which does not exist under French law. See §1.55A.

If the licensee or end user is unaware that the copyrighted work is subject to a license, the first sale doctrine may apply. Cisco Sys., Inc. v Beccelas Etc. LLC (ND Cal 2019) 403 F Supp 3d 813, 829. In Cisco, the district court held that the first sale doctrine would apply if purchasers of hardware containing software that was subject to a license were not made aware of the license prior to purchase. See §1.56.

Patents

In SRI Int’l, Inc. v Cisco Sys., Inc. (Fed Cir 2019) 930 F3d 1295, the Federal Circuit found that claims directed toward “using a plurality of network monitors that each analyze specific types of data on the network and integrating reports from the monitors—to solve a technological problem arising in computer networks: identifying hackers or potential intruders into the network” were sufficient to pass the first step of the Alice/Mayo test. 930 F3d at 1303. Like the court in Enfish, LLC v Microsoft Corp. (Fed Cir 2016) 822 F3d 1327, the court found that the claims were directed toward improvements of a computer’s capabilities. See §2.18A.

In ChargePoint, Inc. v SemaConnect, Inc. (Fed Cir 2019) 920 F3d 759, 766, the court ruled that claims directed toward an apparatus to turn electricity on and off remotely for an electric vehicle constituted an abstract idea. In coming to this conclusion, the court was focused on what the invention was “directed to.” 920 F3d at 767. Turning to the specification, the court determined that the invention was “nothing more than the abstract idea of communication over a network for interacting with a device, applied to the context of electric vehicle charging stations.” 920 F3d at 768. The court also noted that “the specification never suggests that the charging station itself is improved from a technical perspective, or that it would operate differently than it otherwise could.” 920 F3d at 768. See §2.18A.

Domain Names and Trademarks

A bad faith intent to profit can sometimes be established by conduct following registration of the domain name. For example, in VisualDynamics, LLC v Chaos Software Ltd. (WD Ark 2018) 309 F Supp 3d 609, the registrant had secured domain names consisting of the counterclaim plaintiff’s flagship mark and a generic top-level domain in good faith in anticipation of reselling the counterclaim plaintiff’s software. But the resale agreement was later terminated. In these circumstances, the federal district court found on summary judgment that even though the registrant may have registered the domain names in good faith initially, the registrant’s continued use of those domain names was in bad faith. After the resale agreement had been terminated, the registrant had no reasonable grounds to believe that its use of the domain names was a fair use or otherwise lawful. 309 F Supp 3d at 623. See §3.23.

Although 15 USC §1052 prohibits the registration of “immoral” or “scandalous” marks, the U.S. Supreme Court recently struck down the ban on immoral and scandalous marks in Iancu v Brunetti (2019) ___ US ___, 139 S Ct 2294, as unconstitutional under the First Amendment. See §3.32.

Classification of Independent Contractors

In Dynamex Operations W., Inc. v Superior Court (2018) 4 C5th 903, for purposes of claims asserted under California’s wage orders, the court essentially scrapped the nearly 30-year-old common law right-to-control test, articulated by the court in S.G. Borello & Sons, Inc. v Department of Indus. Relations (1989) 48 C3d 341, for determining whether a worker is an employee or an independent contractor. The Borello test applied multiple factors to determine whether a worker qualifies as an independent contractor (see §4.15). In its place, the court adopted the “ABC” test. The ABC test in the Dynamex decision was codified by the California State Legislature in 2019 with the enactment of AB 5 (Stats 2019, ch 296). Assembly Bill 5 specifically codified the presumption of employee status in Dynamex and added Lab C §2750.3, among other things. Labor Code §2750.3(a)(1) sets forth the ABC test, but Lab C §2750.3(b) expressly excepts a number of specified professions and job categories. See §4.13.

In Vazquez v Jan-Pro Franchising Int’l, Inc. (9th Cir 2019) 939 F3d 1045, the Ninth Circuit certified the question whether Dynamex applies retroactively to the California Supreme Court, which has agreed to decide the issue. See Vazquez, Roman & Aguilar v Jan-Pro Franchising Int’l, Inc. (Feb. 26, 2020, No. S258191) ___ C5th ___, 2020 Cal Lexis 1421. Two California courts of appeal previously held that the Dynamex decision does apply retroactively. See Gonzales v San Gabriel Transit, Inc. (2019) 40 CA5th 1131; Garcia v Border Transp. Group, LLC (2018) 28 CA5th 558. See §4.14A.

As noted above, the ABC test in the Dynamex decision was codified by the California State Legislature in 2019 with the enactment of AB 5 (Stats 2019, ch 296). Assembly Bill 5 specifically codified the ABC test for employee status in Dynamex by adding Lab C §2750.3. Under the ABC test, a worker is considered an independent contractor only if the hiring entity shows that all of the following conditions are satisfied (Lab C §2750.3(a)(1)):

(A) The person is free from the control and direction of the hiring entity in connection with the performance of the work, both under the contract for the performance of the work and in fact.

(B) The person performs work that is outside the usual course of the hiring entity’s business.

(C) The person is customarily engaged in an independently established trade, occupation, or business of the same nature as that involved in the work performed.

See §4.14A.

In Olson v State of Cal. (CD Cal, Feb. 10, 2020, No. CV 19-10956-DMG (RAOx)) 2020 US Dist Lexis 34710, the federal district court denied a motion by Uber and Postmates for a preliminary injunction to halt enforcement of AB 5, finding that the state’s need to police misclassification of workers outweighs any harm to Uber and Postmates or their workers. Legal challenges to AB 5 are likely to continue, along with efforts in the state legislature to amend the law and add additional exceptions. Practitioners should monitor these developments closely. See §4.14A.

The IRS has launched a new Gig Economy Tax Center on IRS.gov. See https://www.irs.gov/businesses/gig-economy-tax-center. There, digital platforms and businesses can find information on classifying workers, reporting payments, and filing taxes for a digital marketplace or business. Workers within the gig economy will find helpful tips and essential forms to accurately manage their taxes. The EDD also has a web portal to help both employees and employers address worker classification issues. See https://www.labor.ca.gov/employmentstatus/ and https://www.edd.ca.gov/payroll_taxes/ab-5.htm. See §4.14A.

The California Department of Industrial Relations has published a helpful and more detailed guide to analysis of the employee/independent contractor distinction at https://www.dir.ca.gov/dlse/faq_independentcontractor.htm. See also https://www.labor.ca.gov/employmentstatus/. For IRS guidance, see https://www.irs.gov/businesses/small-businesses-self-employed/independent-contractor-self-employed-or-employee. See §4.17.

Social Media

In Shenwick v Twitter, Inc. (ND Cal, Feb. 7, 2018, No. 16-cv-05314-JST (SK)) 2018 US Dist Lexis 22676, *7, a securities class action suit, the court held that the defendant Twitter was not required to produce communications among its employees made using Twitter’s “direct message” function because employees were not required to use that functionality in their jobs. These “personal” communications were therefore separated from other “business” communications, which Twitter had an obligation to produce. In Facebook, Inc. v Superior Court (2018) 4 C5th 1245, the court confirmed that communications on social media are protected by the Stored Communications Act (SCA) (18 USC §§2701–2712), and held that account holders do not impliedly consent to disclosure by sharing communications on social media, even when shared with a large group of “friends.” Commmunications on social media configured as “public” posts by the user, visible to anyone, which remain public at the time the subpoena is issued, fall within the SCA’s lawful consent exception and can be produced. See §8.32.

Privacy

In 2019, Facebook, Inc. was required to pay a $5 billion penalty, and submit to new restrictions and a modified corporate structure that will hold the company accountable for the decisions it makes about its users’ privacy. These new requirement are in place to settle FTC charges that Facebook violated prior FTC orders by deceiving its users about their ability to control the privacy of their personal information and the information shared with third party developers and applications. According to the FTC, it is one of the largest penalties ever assessed by the U.S. government for any violation. See https://www.ftc.gov/news-events/press-releases/2019/07/ftc-imposes-5-billion-penalty-sweeping-new-privacy-restrictions. See §§8.32A, 9.9.

The California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (CCPA) (CC §§1798.100–1798.199) took effect January 1, 2020. In October 2019, the Attorney General issued proposed regulations implementing the CCPA, which set out numerous new federal obligations not found in the statute. The Attorney General has stated that businesses are expected to comply with the final regulations by July 1, 2020, the date enforcement may begin. On February 10, 2020, and again on March 11, 2020, the Attorney General released amendments to the proposed regulations, which revise substantially the initial version of the proposed regulations. Practitioners are advised to monitor this regulatory development closely and model their privacy lawcompliance programs to conform with the proposed regulations (and the final regulations when issued). See https://oag.ca.gov/privacy/ccpa. See §9.18A.

In October 2019, the CCPA was amended to include two narrow exemptions for personal information collected within the context of an employment relationship or a business-to-business relationship. Most of the obligations of the CCPA do not apply to such personal information, although some significant obligations, such as the data breach obligations, continue to apply. These exemptions are set to sunset January 1, 2021, unless otherwise extended by the legislature. See AB 1355 (Stats 2019, ch 757). See §9.18A.

In the largest civil enforcement penalty under Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act of 1998 (COPPA) (15 USC §§6501–6506) to date, Google agreed to pay a $170 million civil penalty and to make changes to its YouTube platform to settle allegations from the FTC and the New York Attorney General that the video platform knowingly gathered personal information from children without first obtaining parental consent. See §9.33.

In 2019, Chinese video social networking app TikTok settled FTC charges that it violated COPPA by collecting personal information from children without first obtaining parental consent. The FTC found that TikTok knew that many children were using its app, but took no action to seek parental consent in flagrant violation of the law. TikTok collected pictures, videos, and other personal information from users, and made user accounts public by default. The FTC’s complaint noted public reports of adults trying to contact children via the app and thousands of parental complaints to the company. In the settlement, TikTok agreed to pay $5.7 million in civil penalties and to remove all videos made by children under age 13. See https://www.ftc.gov/news-events/press-releases/2019/02/video-social-networking-app-musically-agrees-settle-ftc. See §9.33.

In January 2020, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) published the first version of the NIST Privacy Framework: A Tool for Improving Privacy through Enterprise Risk Management (Privacy Framework), available at https://www.nist.gov/privacy-framework/privacy-framework. Patterned after NIST’s Cybersecurity Framework, discussed at §18.7, the Privacy Framework is intended to enable better privacy engineering practices that support “Privacy by Design” concepts and help organizations protect individuals’ privacy. The Privacy Framework is intended to support organizations in their efforts to (1) build customers’ trust by supporting ethical decision making in product and service design or deployment that optimizes beneficial uses of data while minimizing adverse consequences for individuals’ privacy and society as a whole; (2) fulfill current compliance obligations, as well as future-proofing products and services to meet these obligations in a changing technological and policy environment; and (3) facilitate communication about privacy practices with individuals, business partners, assessors, and regulators. See §9.47.

Advertising on the Internet

In hiQ Labs, Inc. v LinkedIn Corp. (9th Cir 2019) 938 F3d 985, the Ninth Circuit was once again faced with a case involving alleged data scraping and claims under the Computer Fraud & Abuse Act (CFAA) (18 USC §1030) and California’s Pen C §502. The Ninth Circuit’s opinion focused on an analysis of the CFAA. With respect to the CFAA, the Ninth Circuit answered the so-called pivotal question “whether once hiQ received LinkedIn’s cease-and-desist letter, any further scraping and use of LinkedIn’s data was ‘without authorization’ within the meaning of the CFAA and thus a violation of the statute.” 938 F3d at 999. Ultimately, the court held that hiQ’s scraping was not “without authorization.” 938 F3d at 1003. See §17.27.

A brief discussion of social media influencer marketing and a form of Social Media Influencer Independent Contractor Agreement has been added. See §§17.37–17.38.

Jurisdiction

In Zehia v Superior Court (2020) 45 CA5th 543, the court of appeal held that the trial court had specific personal jurisdiction over a nonresident under CCP §410.10, given the nonresident’s alleged intentional conduct in sending targeted and allegedly defamatory private social media messages directly to California residents, with knowledge that they were California residents, intending to disrupt their personal relationship and to cause reputational injury in California through defamatory and harassing conversations. The defendant’s conduct was sufficient to establish a substantial connection to California under the minimum contacts test. See §19.10.

Speech-Related Litigation

The First Amendment only applies to the government; it does not apply to private entities. Prager Univ. v Google LLC (9th Cir, Feb. 26, 2020, No. 18-15712) 2020 US App Lexis 5903 (First Amendment claim against YouTube and its parent properly dismissed; YouTube was a private forum despite its ubiquity and role as public-facing platform; simply hosting speech by others was not a traditional, exclusive public function and did not transform private entity into governmental actor subject to First Amendment restrictions). See §20.5.

Case law regarding the tort of intrusion upon seclusion includes (1) McDonald v Kiloo ApS (ND Cal 2019) 385 F Supp 3d 1022 (parents of children sufficiently stated a claim of intrusion of seclusion when complaint alleged gaming applications engaged in unauthorized collection and dissemination of children’s personal data), and (2) Williams v Facebook, Inc. (ND Cal 2019) 384 F Supp 3d 1043 (allegations that Facebook collected, used, and disseminated its users’ call and text logs were sufficient to state a claim for intrusion upon seclusion). See §20.54A.

In Oberdorf v Amazon.com, Inc. (3rd Cir 2019) 930 F3d 136, a third party seller sold retractable dog leashes on Amazon. One purchaser lost an eye when her dog lunged and the leash snapped. The Third Circuit treated Amazon as a “seller” for purposes of products liability, despite the fact that a third party was the actual seller of the product on the Amazon website. The Third Circuit drew a distinction between the design defect claim and the inadequate warning claim. The court held that Amazon could be found liable under a strict product liability theory for the design defect. However, Amazon could not be held liable under the inadequate warning theory; it was immunized under the Communications Decency Act of 1996 (CDA) (47 USC §230) because the plaintiff was seeking to impose liability on account of Amazon’s status as a publisher of third party content. See §§20.62A, 20.125.

In FilmOn.com, Inc. v DoubleVerify, Inc. (2019) 7 C5th 133, the California Supreme Court reversed the Court of Appeal affirmance of the trial court granting the defendant’s anti-SLAPP motion because the defendant failed to meet the “connection” requirement. The defendant was a company that analyzed websites for potential advertisers and sent its clients confidential reports with tags regarding particular websites that the client was interested in posting advertisements. The plaintiff objected to defendant tagging its website with the tags of “adult content” and “copyright infringement.” The California Supreme Court held that, given the commercial nature of the reports and dispute, the tags only generally addressed the issue of public interest, and the confidential nature of the reports prohibited contribution to the public debate, the first prong was not satisfied. It is worth noting that the California Supreme Court did state that the commercial nature of the speech and its confidential nature were not dispostive factors. See §§20.80, 20.89.

In Wilson v Cable News Network, Inc. (2019) 7 C5th 871, 889, the California Supreme Court restated that no cause of action is exempt from the anti-SLAPP statute as long as the claim arises from protected activity. Wilson resolved a split within the California courts of appeal regarding whether employment discrimination and retaliation claims were exempt. See §20.82.

In HomeAway.com v City of Santa Monica (9th Cir 2019) 918 F3d 676, the Ninth Circuit held that the City of Santa Monica ordinance that prohibited websites from listing unregistered properties for short-term rentals did not impose a duty to monitor and therefore was not preempted by 47 USC §230. See §20.107.

In Dyroff v Ultimate Software Group, Inc. (9th Cir 2019) 934 F3d 1093, 1098, the Ninth Circuit held that a website that analyzed user posts and recommended posts and user groups performed traditional publisher functions under the CDA (47 USC §230). The role of a “publisher” is broader than merely providing a forum for the third party content to be posted. See §§20.115, 20.125.

The Ninth Circuit has clarified that §230 immunity does not apply when filtering involves allegations of anticompetitive conduct between direct competitors. See Enigma Software Group USA, LLC v Malwarebytes, Inc. (9th Cir 2019) 946 F3d 1040. In Enigma, both parties developed software to prevent malware. Defendant’s software prevented users from downloading plaintiff’s software. Defendant claimed immunity under 47 USC §230. The Ninth Circuit rejected this argument, given the complaint’s plausible allegations of anticompetitive animus as motivating the filtering software. See §20.129.

E-Discovery

The duty to exchange relevant electronically stored information (ESI) is an affirmative duty that does not require a production of document request. However, should a request be made by opposing counsel, the courts favor a prompt and good faith response to the request that yields the requested non-privileged electronic (and other) documents. Recently, a federal district court in Missouri found that the common practice of uniformly objecting to all discovery requests with a repeated blanket response of “party objects on the basis that the request is vague, overly broad, unduly burdensome … that is irrelevant and/or not reasonably calculated to lead to the discovery of admissible evidence” is likely not in good faith. The court has found that it constitutes a failure to comply with Fed R Civ P 26(a)(1), which requires objections to be “tailored with great particularity” and which requires parties to disclose specific custodians “likely to have discoverable information.” RightChoice Managed Care v Hospital Partners, Inc. (WD Mo, Feb. 1, 2019, No. 5:18-cv-06037-DGK) 2019 US Dist Lexis 16344, *10. A noticeable judicial trend as of 2018 involves courts refusing to allow blanket boilerplate objections to reasonable discovery requests. See §20A.8.

In 2019, a court held that a party who produces text messages that refer to other text messages may have the duty to have preserved the text messages that were referenced if the party reasonably knew of the possibility of litigation. The custodian of text messages who has reason to expect litigation engages in spoliation if text messages are destroyed on account of the auto-delete function on the custodian’s phones. A failure to turn off this auto-delete option amounts to spoliation, and logically any such custodian who knowingly destroys a phone holding text messages or “wipes” those messages similarly engages in spoliation. Paisley Park Enters., Inc. v Boxill (D Minn 2019) 330 FRD 226, 237 (interesting case involving unreleased recordings of late pop star, Prince). See §20A.21.

International

On September 14, 2019, the European Court of Justice ruled that the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) was not intended to be applied outside the territory of the European Union, and that Google and other search engines did not need to remove links from all versions of their search engines, only the European versions. Nevertheless, the court added that search engines should take steps to prevent users searching on non-EU search engines from seeing links to information that search engines have been ordered to remove. See https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=1584384431823&uri=CELEX:62017CA0507 and https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=1584391257239&uri=CELEX:62017CA0136. See §21.11B.s

About the Authors

CLARA RUYAN MARTIN received her B.A. degree from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1985 and her J.D. degree from the University of Michigan Law School in 1989. She was a founding partner of the Los Angeles law firm Cadence Law Group LLP. She specializes in structuring, drafting, negotiation, and implementation of complex corporate and technology transactions. Her corporate work includes mergers and acquisitions, joint ventures, corporate finance, and venture representation. Her technology practice is broad, ranging from software licensing and development to strategic alliances and e-commerce. Ms. Martin is an adjunct professor at the University of Southern California School of Law. She has served on the Cyberlaw Committee of the State Bar of California and is a frequent lecturer on topics such as software licensing agreements, Internet-related agreements, complex joint ventures, venture finance, and mergers and acquisitions.

DAVID B. OSHINSKY received his B.A. degree from Yale University in 1991 and his J.D. degree from Columbia Law School in 1996, where he was a member of the Columbia Law Review. He is a founding partner of the Los Angeles law firm Cadence Law Group LLP. Mr. Oshinsky works with many start-up and early-stage companies, for which he provides counsel regarding their early operational, financing, and intellectual property requirements. He regularly assists clients with venture capital financing; technology transactions; and mergers, acquisitions, and related corporate transactions. In particular, his practice involves the structuring, drafting, and negotiating of technology licenses, website policies and agreements, software development agreements, and strategic alliances. Mr. Oshinsky has written and lectured on a broad range of technology topics, including website development agreements, strategic alliances, intellectual property issues in mergers and acquisitions, and Internet law in California.

About the 2020 Update Authors

ROM BAR-NISSIM received his B.F.A. from Florida Atlantic University in 2002 and his J.D. from the University of Southern California Gould School of Law in 2013, where he received the Norma Zarky Memorial Award for excellence in entertainment law. Mr. Bar-Nissim’s practice focuses on the Internet, media, and entertainment industries, with an emphasis on copyright. He has coauthored several public comments and amicus briefs concerning copyright and digital issues. In 2014, he coauthored, with Professor Jack Lerner, a chapter on law enforcement practices for the American Bar Association publication Whistleblowers, Leaks and the Media: National Security and the First Amendment. Mr. Bar-Nissim is Co-Executive Editor of this update, a 2020 update coauthor of chapters 1 and 14, and the 2020 update author of chapter 20.

KIMBERLY CULP is a director at Carr McClellan P.C., Burlingame (in the Silicon Valley), where she works with digital media, video game, and consumer products companies to help them resolve their intellectual property and advertising issues. Ms. Culp has authored numerous articles on advertising issues, including New Media Affords New Ways to Deliver Advertising and Branded Content—and New Challenges, 31 CEB Cal Bus L Prac 92 (Summer 2016). She also regularly presents at industry conferences on these legal issues. Ms. Culp has been a “Super Lawyers Rising Star” every year since 2012. She received her undergraduate degree from the University of California, Davis, and her law degree from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law. Ms. Culp is the 2020 update author of chapter 17.

DANIEL M. GOLDBERG is counsel to Frankfurt Kurnit Klein & Selz P.C., Los Angeles, where he represents top brands, agencies, and technology providers in complex negotiations involving the collection, use, and monetization of data. He helps clients develop privacy and data security programs and policies, conduct due diligence for fundraising and acquisitions, and respond to data incidents and inquiries. He has spent the past 2 years helping clients address GDPR compliance, and is now actively working with clients to prepare for the CCPA, effective January 1, 2020. Mr. Goldberg is a writer and frequent public speaker on privacy, ad tech, and emerging technology, and has spoken at programs sponsored by ABA, NAD, CARU, and ESRB, among others. He co-chairs the Los Angeles chapter of IAPP, and is certified CIPP/US. Mr. Goldberg is a 2020 update coauthor of chapter 9.

LYRIC KAPLAN is an associate in the Privacy and Data Security Group at Frankfurt Kurnit Klein & Selz P.C., Los Angeles. She advises clients in all industries on an array of privacy and data security matters involving the collection, use, storage, and monetization of data. She has authored several articles and recently co-authored Artificial Intelligence: Risks to Privacy and Democracy published in the Yale Journal of Law and Technology. Ms. Kaplan received her undergraduate degree from the University of Southern California School of Cinematic Arts, her law degree from Southwestern Law School, her master in business administration from Pepperdine University, and her Masters of Law in Privacy and Cybersecurity from Loyola Law School. Ms. Kaplan is a 2020 update coauthor of chapter 9.

AMY LAWRENCE is an associate with Frankfurt Kurnit Klein & Selz P.C., Los Angeles, where she advises clients across industries in privacy and data security matters. She represents multinational and emerging companies on all facets of data protection, processing, and monetization. Ms. Lawrence works with clients to develop privacy and data security programs and policies, respond to regulatory inquiries, and conduct privacy due diligence. She is certified as an Information Privacy Professional (CIPP/US). Ms. Lawrence received her undergraduate degree from the University of Pittsburgh, and her law degree from Fordham University School of Law. She is admitted to practice in both California and New York. Ms. Lawrence is a 2020 update coauthor of chapter 9.

JACK LERNER is Clinical Professor of Law at the University of California, Irvine, School of Law, and Director of the UCI Intellectual Property, Arts, and Technology Clinic. Professor Lerner received his B.A., with distinction, in English from the University of Kansas and his J.D. from Harvard Law School. He clerked for Judge Fred I. Parker on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit and Judge G. Thomas Van Bebber in the U.S. District Court for the District of Kansas. He practiced intellectual property law with the Palo Alto law firm Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati, P.C., and has taught at the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law and the University of Southern California Gould School of Law. In 2016, Professor Lerner was awarded the California Lawyer Attorney of the Year award for his work obtaining exemptions to the copyright laws that affect documentary filmmakers and authors nationwide. Professor Lerner is Co-Executive Editor of this update and a 2020 update coauthor of chapters 1 and 14.

ALEXANDER H. LUBARSKY received his B.A. from Lewis and Clark College and his J.D. and LL.M. from Golden Gate University School of Law. Mr. Lubarsky is a practicing litigator, electronic discovery consultant, and author. He has litigated hundreds of cases involving electronic discovery and has received numerous awards in the industry, including the TechnoLawyer @ Award. Mr. Lubarsky has been elected to the Executive Committee of the Law Practice Management and Technology Section of the State Bar of California and is on the editorial boards of several technology publications. He has consulted for numerous companies that provide electronic discovery support services, including Summation Legal Technologies, Inc.; Fios, Inc.; Guidance Software, Inc.; Daticon, LLC; and Zantaz, Inc. Mr. Lubarsky regularly consults with large law firms and Fortune 500 corporations in the area of ESI retention, e-discovery best practices, and litigation holds. Mr. Lubarsky is the author and 2020 update author of chapter 20A.

JAMES MARIANI is an associate in the Privacy and Data Security Group at Frankfurt Kurnit Klein & Selz P.C., New York. He handles regulatory, operational, and transactional matters related to data privacy, security, and incident response. He advises on a wide variety of technology-based and digital media issues at the crossroads of business, law, and technology. Mr. Mariani received an LL.M. from Cornell Law School at Cornell Tech, a professional graduate certificate in cybersecurity from Harvard University, a J.D. from the University of Illinois College of Law, and Bachelors in both Science and Arts from the CUNY Macaulay Honors College. He is certified as an Information Privacy Professional in U.S. specific laws (CIPP/US) as well as that of the European Union (CIPP/E), and is admitted to practice in New York. Mr. Mariani is a 2020 update coauthor of chapter 9.

CLARA RUYAN MARTIN received her B.A. from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1985 and her J.D. from the University of Michigan Law School in 1989. She specializes in the structuring, drafting, negotiation, and implementation of complex corporate and technology transactions. Her corporate work includes mergers and acquisitions, joint ventures, corporate finance, and venture representation. Her technology practice is broad, ranging from software licensing and development to strategic alliances and e-commerce. Ms. Martin is an adjunct professor at the University of Southern California Gould School of Law. She has served on the Cyberlaw Committee of the State Bar of California and is a frequent lecturer on topics such as software licensing agreements, Internet-related agreements, complex joint ventures, venture finance, and mergers and acquisitions. Ms. Martin is the author and 2020 update author of chapters 6–8.

C. WOOK PAK is a partner with Cislo & Thomas LLP, Los Angeles, where he practices all aspects of intellectual property procurement and enforcement, including preparing and filing U.S. and international patent applications in a variety of technological fields, such as mechanical, pharmaceutical, energy, and business methods. He has publications in law and science, including a commentary published in the Berkeley Technology Law Journal, and has had a number of speaking engagements regarding patent law. Dr. Pak is a litigator and registered patent attorney. He received his B.S. in Biophysics and Biochemistry from Oregon State University, his Ph.D. in Neuroscience from the University of California, Riverside, and his law degree from Loyola Law School in Los Angeles. Dr. Pak is the 2020 update author of chapter 2.

JEFFREY G. SHELDON received his J.D., summa cum laude, from Loyola Law School, Los Angeles; his B.S. in chemical engineering from the Carnegie Institute of Technology; and his M.S. in biomedical engineering from the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland. His studies in Scotland followed his receipt of a Marshall Scholarship. Mr. Sheldon is a partner in Cislo & Thomas LLP, Los Angeles, and was the founding partner of Sheldon Mak & Anderson PC, Pasadena. He is past president of the intellectual property section of the State Bar of California, past president of the Los Angeles Intellectual Property Law Association, and past committee chairman for the AIPLA and IP section of the ABA. Mr. Sheldon served as a consultant in 2020 for chapter 2.

KENNETH L. WILTON is a partner in the Intellectual Property Practice Group of Seyfarth Shaw LLP, Los Angeles, and chair of the firm’s national trademark practice. Mr. Wilton’s practice focuses primarily on false advertising, trademark, copyright, and patent litigation in the U.S. federal courts and on counseling and prosecution in the areas of trademark and copyright law. He has extensive experience litigating trademark disputes before the Trademark Trial and Appeals Board of the United States Patent and Trademark Office. Mr. Wilton has taught trademark law in practice and Internet law at the University of Southern California Gould School of Law. He is consistently listed in the World Trademark Review’s Top 1000 trademark practitioners worldwide, the International Who’s Who of Trademark Lawyers, and Managing Intellectual Property’s “IP Stars.” In 2019, Mr. Wilton was selected as one of 30 trademark attorneys recognized nationally in Expert Guides’ 2019 edition of Best of the Best USA. Mr. Wilton received his B.A. in history from the University of California, Los Angeles, and his J.D. from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law, where he was editor-in-chief of the Hastings Journal of Communications and Entertainment Law. Mr. Wilton is the 2020 update author of chapter 18.

RAFFI V. ZEROUNIAN is a partner with Hanson Bridgett LLP, Los Angeles, where he has a 360-degree trademark and copyright practice, handling all facets of counseling, clearance, prosecution, enforcement, and litigation domestically and internationally. His practice also includes domain name disputes through the Uniform Domain Name Resolution Policy and lawsuits involving the Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act. In addition, Mr. Zerounian has broad experience with litigation involving counterfeit and gray market goods. He serves as a Senior Editor for the International Trademark Association’s Trademark Reporter® and is listed as a top trademark practitioner in the World Trademark Review’s WTR1000 rankings. Mr. Zerounian is the 2020 update author of chapter 3.

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Products specifications
PRACTICE AREA Law Practice Skills
PRODUCT GROUP Publication
PRACTICE AREA Business Law